ऋग्वेदः सूक्तं १०.३

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इनो राजन्नरतिः समिद्धो रौद्रो दक्षाय सुषुमाँ अदर्शि ।
चिकिद्वि भाति भासा बृहतासिक्नीमेति रुशतीमपाजन् ॥१॥
कृष्णां यदेनीमभि वर्पसा भूज्जनयन्योषां बृहतः पितुर्जाम् ।
ऊर्ध्वं भानुं सूर्यस्य स्तभायन्दिवो वसुभिररतिर्वि भाति ॥२॥
भद्रो भद्रया सचमान आगात्स्वसारं जारो अभ्येति पश्चात् ।
सुप्रकेतैर्द्युभिरग्निर्वितिष्ठन्रुशद्भिर्वर्णैरभि राममस्थात् ॥३॥
अस्य यामासो बृहतो न वग्नूनिन्धाना अग्नेः सख्युः शिवस्य ।
ईड्यस्य वृष्णो बृहतः स्वासो भामासो यामन्नक्तवश्चिकित्रे ॥४॥
स्वना न यस्य भामासः पवन्ते रोचमानस्य बृहतः सुदिवः ।
ज्येष्ठेभिर्यस्तेजिष्ठैः क्रीळुमद्भिर्वर्षिष्ठेभिर्भानुभिर्नक्षति द्याम् ॥५॥
अस्य शुष्मासो ददृशानपवेर्जेहमानस्य स्वनयन्नियुद्भिः ।
प्रत्नेभिर्यो रुशद्भिर्देवतमो वि रेभद्भिररतिर्भाति विभ्वा ॥६॥
स आ वक्षि महि न आ च सत्सि दिवस्पृथिव्योररतिर्युवत्योः ।
अग्निः सुतुकः सुतुकेभिरश्वै रभस्वद्भी रभस्वाँ एह गम्याः ॥७॥

सायणभाष्यम्

‘इनो राजन्' इति सप्तर्चं तृतीयं सूक्तम् । ऋष्याद्याः पूर्ववत् । ‘इनः' इत्यनुक्रान्तम् । प्रातरनुवाकाश्विनशस्त्रयोरुक्तो विनियोगः ॥


इ॒नो रा॑जन्नर॒तिः समि॑द्धो॒ रौद्रो॒ दक्षा॑य सुषु॒माँ अ॑दर्शि ।

चि॒किद्वि भा॑ति भा॒सा बृ॑ह॒तासि॑क्नीमेति॒ रुश॑तीम॒पाज॑न् ॥

इनः । राजन् । अरतिः । सम्ऽइद्धः । रौद्रः । दक्षाय । सुसुऽमान् । अदर्शि ।

चिकित् । वि। भाति । भासा । बृहता । असिक्नीम् । एति । रुशतीम् । अपऽअजन् ॥१॥

हे “राजन् दीप्यमानाग्ने त्वम् “इनः ईश्वरः सर्वस्य भवसि । अथ परोक्षः । “अरतिः हविरादाय देवान प्रति गन्ता “समिद्धः संदीप्तः "रौद्रः शत्रूणां भयंकरः “सुषुमान् । ओषध्यात्मना स्थितोंऽशुः सुष्टु सूयते इति सुषुः सोमः । तेन तद्वान् शोभनप्रसवो व सोऽग्निः दक्षाय यजमानानां धनादिवृद्ध्यर्थम् "अदर्शि सर्वैर्दृश्यते । किंच “चिकित् सर्वं जानानोऽग्निः "वि “भाति विशेषेण दीप्यते । तथा "बृहता महता “भासा तेजसा ज्वालालक्षणेन “असिक्नीं रात्रिम् “एति । सायंहोमसिद्ध्यर्थमेव गच्छति । किं कुर्वन् । "रुशतीं श्वेतवर्णां दीप्तिम् "अपाजन् अपगमयन् रात्रिं गच्छति । सामर्थ्याद्रात्रिं परित्यजन्नुषसं प्रातर्होमसिद्ध्यर्थं गच्छतीत्यर्थो लभ्यते ॥


कृ॒ष्णां यदेनी॑म॒भि वर्प॑सा॒ भूज्ज॒नय॒न्योषां॑ बृह॒तः पि॒तुर्जाम् ।

ऊ॒र्ध्वं भा॒नुं सूर्य॑स्य स्तभा॒यन्दि॒वो वसु॑भिरर॒तिर्वि भा॑ति ॥

कृष्णाम् । यत् । एनीम् । अभि । वर्पसा । भूत् । जनयन् । योषाम् । बृहतः । पितुः । जाम्।

ऊर्ध्वम् । भानुम् । सूर्यस्य । स्तभायन्। दिवः । वसुऽभिः । अरतिः । वि । भाति ॥ २ ॥

सोऽग्निः "यत् यदा "कृष्णां कृष्णवर्णाम् "एनीं गच्छन्तीं रात्रिं “वर्पसा आत्मीयेन ज्वालालक्षणेन रूपेण “अभि “भूत् अभिभवति । किं कुर्वन् । "बृहतः महतः "पितुः सर्वस्य जगतः पालयितुः पितृभूताद्वादित्यात “जां जायमानां “योषाम् उषसं “जनयन् अभिव्यञ्जयन्। तदानीम् “अरतिः गमनशीलोsग्निः “दिवः द्युलोकस्य “वसुभिः वासयितृभिराच्छादकैः संधुक्षणसमर्थैरात्मीयैस्तेजोभिः "सूर्यस्य "भानुं दीप्तिम् "ऊर्ध्वम् उपरिष्टात् "स्तभायन् स्तम्भयन् वि “भाति विशेषेण दीप्यते ॥


भ॒द्रो भ॒द्रया॒ सच॑मान॒ आगा॒त्स्वसा॑रं जा॒रो अ॒भ्ये॑ति प॒श्चात् ।

सु॒प्र॒के॒तैर्द्युभि॑र॒ग्निर्वि॒तिष्ठ॒न्रुश॑द्भि॒र्वर्णै॑र॒भि रा॒मम॑स्थात् ॥

भद्रः । भद्रया । सचमानः । आ । अगात् । स्वसारम् । जारः । अभि । एति । पश्चात् ।

सुऽप्रकेतैः । द्युऽभिः । अग्निः । विऽतिष्ठन् । रुशत्ऽभिः । वर्णैः । अभि । रामम् । अस्थात्॥३॥

“भद्रः भजनीयः कल्याणः "भद्रया भजनीयया दीप्त्योषसा वा "सचमानः सेव्यमानः संगच्छमानो वाग्निः “आगात् आजगाम। गार्हपत्यादाहवनीयमागच्छति । ततः "पश्चात् जारः जरयिता शत्रूणां सः अग्निः “स्वसारं स्वयंसारिणीं भगिनीं वा आगतामुषसम् "अभ्येति अभिगच्छति । तथा “सुप्रकेतैः सुप्रज्ञानैः “द्युभिः दीप्तैस्तेजोभिः सह "वितिष्ठन् सर्वतो वर्तमानः सः “अग्निः “रुशद्भिः श्वेतैः “वर्णैः वारकैरात्मीयैस्तेजोभिः "रामं कृष्णं शार्वरं तमः "अभि “अस्थात् सायंहोमकालेऽभिभूय तिष्ठति ॥


अ॒स्य यामा॑सो बृह॒तो न व॒ग्नूनिन्धा॑ना अ॒ग्नेः सख्युः॑ शि॒वस्य॑ ।

ईड्य॑स्य॒ वृष्णो॑ बृह॒तः स्वासो॒ भामा॑सो॒ याम॑न्न॒क्तव॑श्चिकित्रे ॥

अस्य । यामासः । बृहतः । न । वग्नून् । इन्धानाः । अग्नेः । सख्युः । शिवस्य ।।

ईड्यस्य । वृष्णः । बृहतः । सुऽआसः । भामासः । यामन् । अक्तवः । चिकित्रे ॥ ४ ॥

“बृहतः महतः अस्य “अग्नेः संबन्धिनः “इन्धानाः दीप्यमानाः “यामासः । यान्ति गच्छन्तीति यामा रश्मयः। “वग्नून् स्तुतिकारिणो जनान् “न बाधन्ते। किंच "सख्युः स्तुत्यस्तोतृत्वयष्टृयष्टव्यत्वलक्षणेन सख्येन सखिभूतस्य “शिवस्य कल्याणस्य भक्तानां सुखकरस्य “ईड्यस्य स्तोतव्यस्य “वृष्णः कामानां वर्षितुः "बृहतः महतः स्वासः शोभनास्यस्य अस्याग्नेः स्वभूताः "अक्तवः। तमांस्यञ्जन्तोऽपगमयन्त आहुतिभिः संगता वा “भामासः । * भाम क्रोधे। तीक्ष्णा अप्रसह्या रश्मयः यामन् । याति देवान् प्रति तर्पणाय यान्ति वा देवा एते प्रत्यङ्गभावायेति यामा यज्ञः। तस्मिन् चिकित्रे सर्वतो जज्ञिरे । प्रथिता अभूवन् ॥


स्व॒ना न यस्य॒ भामा॑स॒ः पव॑न्ते॒ रोच॑मानस्य बृह॒तः सु॒दिवः॑ ।

ज्येष्ठे॑भि॒र्यस्तेजि॑ष्ठैः क्रीळु॒मद्भि॒र्वर्षि॑ष्ठेभिर्भा॒नुभि॒र्नक्ष॑ति॒ द्याम् ॥

स्वनाः । न । यस्य । भामासः । पवन्ते । रोचमानस्य । बृहतः । सुऽदिवः ।

ज्येष्ठेभिः । यः । तेजिष्ठैः । क्रीळुमत्ऽभिः । वर्षिष्ठेभिः । भानुऽभिः । नक्षति । द्याम् ।।५।।

"रोचमानस्य दीप्यमानस्य "बृहतः महतः “सुदिवः शोभनदीप्तेर्वा “यस्य अग्नेः स्वभूताः “भामासः । * भा दीप्तौ । दीप्ता रश्मयः "स्वना “न स्वनन्तो मरुत इव पवन्ते सर्वतः शब्दं कुर्वन्तो गच्छन्ति । किंच "यः अग्निः ज्येष्ठेभिः अत्यन्तं प्रशस्तैः "तेजिष्ठैः तेजस्वितमैः “क्रीळुमद्भिः क्रीडनवद्भिः वर्षिष्ठेभिः वृद्धतमैः “भानुभिः आत्मीयैस्तेजोभिः "द्यां द्युलोकं नक्षति व्याप्नोतीति । स त्वं देवानावहेत्युत्तरेण संबन्धः ॥


अ॒स्य शुष्मा॑सो ददृशा॒नप॑वे॒र्जेह॑मानस्य स्वनयन्नि॒युद्भिः॑ ।

प्र॒त्नेभि॒र्यो रुश॑द्भिर्दे॒वत॑मो॒ वि रेभ॑द्भिरर॒तिर्भाति॒ विभ्वा॑ ॥

अस्य । शुष्मासः । ददृशानऽपवेः । जेहमानस्य । स्वनयन् । नियुत्ऽभिः ।

प्रत्नेभिः । यः । रुशत्ऽभिः । देवऽतमः । वि । रेभत्ऽभिः । अरतिः । भाति । विऽभ्वा॥६॥

“ददृशानपवेः दर्शनीयज्वालाग्नेः । यद्वा । पविर्वज्र आयुधम्। दृश्यमानायुधस्य । "जेहमानस्य । जेहतिर्गतिकर्मा । हविरादाय देवान् प्रति गच्छतः "अस्य अग्नेः स्वभूताः शुष्मासः शोषकाः “नियुद्भिः । * नियुतो वायोः' इति वायोरश्वा नियुतः । तद्युक्तैः वायुभिः संयुक्ता रश्मयः "स्वनयन् शब्दायन्ते। किंच "देवतमः देवानां मुख्यः "अरतिः गन्ता “विभ्वा विभवनशीलो महान् “यः अग्निः “प्रत्नेभिः पुराणैः "रुशद्भिः श्वेतवर्णैः "रेभद्भिः शब्दायमानैस्तेजोभिः "वि “भाति विविधं दीप्यते ॥


स आ व॑क्षि॒ महि॑ न॒ आ च॑ सत्सि दि॒वस्पृ॑थि॒व्योर॑र॒तिर्यु॑व॒त्योः ।

अ॒ग्निः सु॒तुकः॑ सु॒तुके॑भि॒रश्वै॒ रभ॑स्वद्भी॒ रभ॑स्वाँ॒ एह ग॑म्याः ॥

सः । आ । वक्षि । महि । नः । आ । च । सत्सि । दिवःपृथिव्योः । अरतिः । युवत्योः ।

अग्निः । सुऽतुकः । सुऽतुकेभिः । अश्वैः । रभस्वत्ऽभिः । रभस्वान् । आ । इह । गम्याः ॥७॥

हे अग्ने सः तादृशस्त्वं “नः अस्मदीये यज्ञे “महि महान् देवान् "आ “वक्षि आवह प्रापय । किंच "युवत्योः परस्परं मिश्रितयोः तरुण्योर्वा “दिवस्पृथिव्योः द्यावापृथिव्योर्मध्ये "अरतिः अग्निः सूर्यात्मना गन्ता त्वम् “आ “सत्सि अस्माकं यज्ञमासीद । तथा “सुतुकः । तुकिर्गत्यर्थः । सुगमः स्तोतृभिः यष्टृभिश्च सुखेन प्राप्तव्यः "रभस्वान् वेगवान् “अग्निः अङ्गनादिगुणयुक्तस्त्वं “सुतुकेभिः सुगमैः "रभस्वद्भिः वेगवद्भिः अश्वैः रोहिदाख्यैः सह "इह अस्मदीये यज्ञे “आ “गम्याः आगच्छ॥ ॥ ३१ ॥




[सम्पाद्यताम्]

वैदिक त्रितस्य अवेस्तायाः त्रितेन सह तुलना

टिप्पणी

डा. कल्याणरमण॥

Trita Āptya is one of the first pressers of Soma -- perhaps the third. Trita is the third presser of Soma. The other two are: Vivasvat or Vivanghvant (Yima's, Manu's father) and Aptya आप्तव्य q.v. RV. v , 41 , 9 or Athwya (Trita's father). This is according to Avesta's Yasna 9.7 & 10, the context is 'healing'. Perhaps the son of Tvaṣṭr̥, Viśvarupa (three-headed snake person) is also a presser of Soma who was killed by Trita and beheaded by Indra. Thus, the three early pressers of Soma are: 1. Viśvarupa, 2. Trita and 3. Trita's father Athwya or Aptya (a synonym of Apām Napāt ). In the Rig Veda, Apām Napāt (Lord Varuna) is the angel of rain. Apām Napāt created all existential beings (Rig Veda 2.35.2)[2] . In Zoroastrianism, Apąm Napāt is a divinity of water (water vapour). [quote] No hymn survives in his honor, bur he is mentioned in hymns devoted to other divinities of water. Thus there is an obscure reference to him in Yašt 5 (v. 72), a hymn addressed to the river-goddess, Arədvī Sūrā; and in Yašt 8, which is devoted to the rain-bringer, Tištrya, it is said in one verse (v. 34): “Apąm Napāt distributes to the material world those waters assigned to dwelling places,” while in another (v. 4) worshippers offer veneration to Tištrya “from whom, the lofty one, is fame, from Apąm Napāt is (his) nature.”[unquote] http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/apam-napat The metallurgical process is elaborated in metaphors related to Ahi, the snake, to free the 'waters'. 'Waters' signify wealth, purification of Soma as a product of value. Trita wins over Ahi, the snake. In the early Vedic religion, Vṛtra (Sanskrit: वृत्र, vṛtra, lit. 'enveloper') is a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and adversary of Indra. In Hinduism, Vṛtra is identified as an Asura. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi (Sanskrit: अहि ahi, lit. 'snake'). He appears as a dragon blocking the course of the rivers and is heroically slain by Indra. In the Avesta, it is the hero warrior-priest Fereydun who battles the serpent Aži Dahāka (which, for the virtue of 'Azi' being cognate with Sanskrit 'Ahi', snake, is – by proponents of the theory - associated with Vedic Vritra).

In RV 10.99.6 Trita slew the seven-rayed, three-headed foe and freed the cattle of Tvastar's son (Viśwarupa): Lord of the dwelling, he subdued the demon who roared aloud, sixeyed- and tripleheaded-. Trita, made stronger by the might he lent him, struck down the boar with shaft whose point was iron.

Trita kills Visvarupa, Indra beheads him.


Source:

The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, Part 1

Front Cover Arthur Berriedale Keith Motilal Banarsidass Publishe, 1925, pp. 134-135.


Trita ("the Third") is a minor deity of the Rigveda, mentioned 41 times. He is associated with the Maruts, with Vayu and with Indra, like Indra, or as Indra's assistant, fighting Tvastar, Vrtra and Vala. He is called Āptya, the deity of the Apas (waters). In RV 1.105, Trita fallen into a well begs aid from the gods. Sayana on 1.105 comments that this relates to three rishis, Ekata, Dvita and Trita who found a well, and Trita, drawing water, was pushed down by the other two and imprisoned, where he composed a hymn to the gods, and managed miraculously to prepare the sacrificial Soma; this is alluded to in RV 9.34.4 and described in Mahabharata 9.2095. Griffith: RV 9.34

1. THE drop of Soma juice effused flows onward with this stream impelled. Rending strong places with its might. 2 Poured forth to Indra, Varuna, to Vayu and the Marut hosts, To Visnu, flows the Soma juice. 3 With stones they press the Soma forth, the Strong conducted by the strong: They milk the liquor out with skill. 4 It is he whom Trita must refine, it is he who shall make Indra glad: The Tawny One is decked with tints. 5 Him do the Sons of Prsni milk, the dwellingplace- of sacrifice, Oblation lovely and most dear. 6 To him in one unitcd stream thse-, songs flow on straight forward. he, Loud voiced, hath made the milchkine- low. rvs.1.163

2 This Steed which Yama gave hath Trita harnessed, and him, the first of all, hath Indra mounted. rvs.1.163

3 Yama art thou, O Horse; thou art Aditya; Trita art thou by secret operation. rvs.1.187

By whose invigorating power Trita rent Vrtra limb from limb. rvs.2.31

Trita, Rbhuksan, Savitar shall joy in us, and the Floods' swift Child in our worship and our rvs.2.34

Or when to shame the bard who lauded, Rudras' Sons, ye O infallible brought Trita to decay. rvs.2.34

Whom, for assistance, like the five terrestrial priests. Trita hath brought to aid us hither on rvs.5.54

Trita roars out at him who aims the lightningflash-. The waters sweeping round are thundering on rvs.8.7

24 They reinforced the power and strength of Trita as he fought, and helped rvs.8.41

Haste ye to honour Trita, as kine haste to gather in the fold, even as they muster steeds to yoke. rvs.8.47

The whole thereof remove from us to Trita Aptya far away. rvs.8.47

Remove, O Lady of the Light, to Trita Aptya far away. rvs.8.47

The whole bad dream, whatever it be, to Trita Aptya we consign. rvs.8.47

To Trita, and to Dvita, Dawn! bear thou the evil dream away. rvs.9.34

4 It is he whom Trita must refine, it is he who shall make Indra glad: rvs.9.38

2 The Dames of Trita with the stones onward impel this Tawny One rvs.9.95

Hymns follow and attend him as he bellows: Trita bears Varuna aloft in ocean. rvs.9.102

2 The place, near the two pressingstones- of Trita, hath he occupied, rvs.9.102

3 Urge to three courses, on the heights of Trita, riches in a stream. rvs.10.8

7 Through his wise insight Trita in the cavern, seeking as ever the Chief Sires' intention, rvs.10.8

Then Trita slew the foe sevenrayed-, threeheaded-, and freed the cattle of the Son of Tvastar. rvs.10.46

3 On the Cows' forehead, with laborious searching, Trita, the offspring of Vibhiavas, found him. rvs.10.46

6 Holding his station firmly in the houses, Trita sat down within his home surrounded rvs.10.48

2 I, Indra, am Atharvans' stay and firm support: I brought forth kine to Trita from the Dragons' rvs.10.64

To Sun and Moon, two Moons, to Yama in the heaven, to Trita, Vata, Dawn, Night, and the Atvins rvs.10.115

They have approached, as warriors eager for the fight, heroic Trita, guiding him to gain his wish.

त्रित n. triplet of young (three-twin) TS. Sch.; m. " third, N. of a Vedic deity (associated with the मरुत्s , वायु , and इन्द्र ; fighting like the latter with त्रित , वृत्र , and other demons ; called आप्त्य [q.v.] , " water-deity " , and supposed to reside in the remotest regions of the world , whence [ RV. viii , 47 , 13-15 AV. ] the idea of wishing to remove calamity to त्रित , and the view of the त्रितs being the keepers of nectar [ RV. vi , 44 , 23] , similarly L. [ RV. ii , 34 , 10 TS. i TBr. i] the notion of त्रित's bestowing long life ; also conceived as an inferior deity conquering the demons by order and with the help of इन्द्र [ RV. ii ; viii , 52 , 1 ; x] ; fallen into a well he begged aid from the gods [i , 105 , 17 ; x , 8 , 7] ; as to this last myth Sa1y. on i , 105 relates that 3 ऋषिs , एकत , द्वित , and त्रित , parched with thirst , looked about and found a well , and when त्रित began to draw water , the other two , desirous of his property , pushed him down and closed up the well with a wheel ; shut up there , त्रित composed a hymn to the gods , and managed miraculously to prepare the sacrificial सोम , that he might drink it himself , or offer it to the deities and so be extricated: this is alluded to in RV. ix , 34 , 4 [cf. 32 , 2 ; 38 , 2 ; 102 , 2] and described in MBh. ix , 2095 ; also Nir. iv , 6 makes him a ऋषि , and he is the supposed author of RV. i , 105 ; viii , 36 ; ix , 33 f. and 102 ; x , 1-7 ; in epic legends [ MBh. ix , xii f.] एकत , द्वित , and त्रित are described as 3 brothers , sons of गौतम or of प्रजा-पति or ब्रह्मा ; elsewhere त्रित is one of the 12 sons of मनु चाक्षुष by नड्वला BhP. iv , 13 , 16 ; cf. त्रैतन्/अ ; Zd. Thrita )

त्रै° तन m. N. of a deity (connected with त्रित ; Zd. Thraetaona , Pers. Feridun) RV. i , 158 , 5.

Sāyaṇa on RV 1.158.5: 1.158.05 Let not the maternal waters swallow me, since the slaves hurled down this decrepit (old man); in like manner as Traitana wounded his head, so has the slave wounded his own, and has struck his breast and shoulders. [vitaks.at imperative, taks.atu: tasmat sa dasah svayam svakiyam eva s'iras taks.atu, therefore may that slave of his own accord wound his own head. The silent repetition of the hymn is said to be a sure protection against a murderer, a wolf, or a tiger; particularly, a traveller is asked to repeat it for three times, until sunrise].

Griffith’s translation of RV 1.158.5: The most maternal streams, wherein the Dasas cast me securely bound, have not devoured me.When Traitana would cleave my head asunder, the Dasa wounded his own breast and shoulders.

Eduljee's notes on Trita Āptya with particular reference to Avestan texts and tradition Pahlavans & Sakastan 4. Thraetaona & Thrita. Keresaspa & Urvakhshaya. Varena, Rangha & Patashkhvargar In nine parts: , 1. Introduction , 2. Timur's Account , 3. Lineage & Nation , 4. Thraetaona & Thrita. Keresaspa & Urvakhshaya. Varena, Rangha & Patashkhvargar , 5. Trita, Visvarupa & Ahi in the Vedas , 6. Battles with Dragon-Snakes , 7. Garshasp, Saam & Zal in the Shahnameh , 8. End Times. The Renovation of the World , 9. Religion in Sakastan

Eduljee's notes on Trita Āptya with particular reference to Avestan texts and tradition Pahlavans & Sakastan 4. Thraetaona & Thrita. Keresaspa & Urvakhshaya. Varena, Rangha & Patashkhvargar In nine parts: » 1. Introduction » 2. Timur's Account » 3. Lineage & Nation » 4. Thraetaona & Thrita. Keresaspa & Urvakhshaya. Varena, Rangha & Patashkhvargar » 5. Trita, Visvarupa & Ahi in the Vedas » 6. Battles with Dragon-Snakes » 7. Garshasp, Saam & Zal in the Shahnameh » 8. End Times. The Renovation of the World » 9. Religion in Sakastan

The Avestan Thraetaona is commonly identified with the Feridoon of more modern texts including the Shahnameh. The is another personage mentioned in the Avesta called Thrita. Authors commonly equate Thraetaona and Thrita thereby making Thrita yet another Avestan name for Feridoon. However, are Thraetaona and Thrita the same or different individuals? In examining references to these two individuals we come across mention of Urvakhshaya and Keresaspa. The former is only vaguely known while the latter has a fair amount of literature developed around his identification and reputation. We will examine some of the information at hand.

Thraetaona is mentioned ten times in the Yashts, while the Yashts mention Thrita twice. Thrita is mentioned twice again in the Avesta. Once, in the Vendidad at chapter 20 and next in the Yasna at 9.10. In the Yasna, both Thraetaona & Thrita are mentioned in consecutive verses with no indication that they are the same person. The only link between the two seems to be a similarity in names. Yet other reference seem to indicate that they share characteristics.

Yasna 9.7: Thereupon Haoma answered: Athwya the holy one who drove death afar was the second (person) who prepared me for the corporeal world. The boon he received was the birth of his son, Thraetaona of the mighty clan.

Yasna 9.10: Thereupon Haoma answered: Thrita the holy one who drove death afar was the third (person) who prepared me for the corporeal world. The boon he received was the birth of two sons, Urvakhshaya and Keresaspa, the first a judge who established order, and the second, a youth of great ascendancy, curly haired, and a bludgeon bearing.

Here, the only way we can link Thraetaona & Thrita as being the same person is if Thrita is a nickname for Thraetaona. Both are immortalized for advancing the health benefits of Haoma. If they are different, then it is Thraetaona who preceded Thrita as a healer. Further, Vivanghant is mentioned before both of them as the first person to prepare Haoma for the corporeal world. Pourushaspa, Zarathushtra's father is the fourth and last person immortalized for this deed. Medieval author Hamza Isfahani makes Thraetaona the inventor of medicine (Ed Gottwaldt, p. 23; cf. Mirkhond, Early Kings of Persia, tr. by Shea, p. 152) further stating that the Tavids (formulas of exorcism) against sickness are inscribed with his name.

We see in Yasna 9.10, Urvakhshaya (Urvakhsh in the Bundahishn) is mentioned before Keresaspa, indicating the possibility that the former is the latter's elder brother. Urvakhshaya is described as a judge who established order and we might conclude that in addition to law and order, he is a promoter of justice as well. The name Urva-khshaya can be taken to mean king of the soul (such an analysis is not always helpful as it has the potential of being distracting or irrelevant). The Afrin Zarthusht states, "Be beneficent and open-hearted like Urvakhshaya" given us a couple of character traits.

The Vendidad's chapter 20 mentions Thrita as the first healer without mentioning the others: 1. Who was he who first of the healers*, of the wise, the happy, the wealthy, the glorious, the strong, the Paradhatas**, drove back sickness to sickness, drove back death to death; and first turned away the point of a knife***, the fire of fever from the bodies of mortals?' (*While the Yasna passages above place Thrita as the third healer, here we have him proclaimed as the first.) (**The first law-givers, the Paradhatas - in later language Pishdadian - dynasty.) (***likely meaning a surgeon.)

2. Thrita was the first of the healers, of the wise, the happy, the wealthy, the glorious, the strong, the Paradhatas, drove back sickness to sickness, drove back death to death, and first turned away the point of the knife and the fire of fever from the bodies of mortals.

3. He asked for a source of remedies; he obtained it from Khshathra-Vairya*, to withstand sickness and to withstand death; to withstand pain and to withstand fever; to withstand Sarana (headache) and to withstand Sarastya (cold-fever); to withstand Azana and to withstand Azahva; to withstand Kurugha and to withstand Azivaka; to withstand Duruka and to withstand Astairya; to withstand the evil eye, rot, and infection which inflict the bodies of mortals. (*Perhaps indicating the use of metal knives in surgery since metals are in the domain of Khshathra-Vairya.)

4. And Ahura Mazda brought down the healing plants that, by many hundreds, by many thousands, by many myriads, grow up all around the one Gaokerena.

The Farvardin Yasht at 13.131 states: We revere the Fravashi of the holy Thraetaona, of the Athwya house; whose cures combated itch, hot fever, humours, cold fever, and incontinence, and the poison of the serpent.

Albert Pike in Irano-Aryan Faith and Doctrine As Contained in the Zend-Avesta states that Sama in Sanskrit means 'cure' and pra-samaya means 'to heal', concluding thereby that Samas means healer. This reference to Sanskrit brings us to our examination of the Vedas.

Parallels in the Hindu Scriptures, the Vedas

According to James Darmesteter in the introduction to his translation of the Vendidad, quotes the Rig Veda at 1.158.5 and 10.99.6 as saying, Traitana or Trita (meaning third) Aptya (born of the waters) vanquished the three-headed, six-eyed fiend (Ahi) and freed the kine (as in RV 10.8.8: Well-skilled to use the weapons of his father, Aptya, and urged on by Indra, (Trita) fought the battle. Then Trita slew the seven-rayed, three-headed foe and freed the cattle of Tvastar's son. 10.99.6. Lord of the dwelling, he subdued the demon who roared aloud, six-eyed and triple-headed. Trita, made stronger by the might he (Indra) lent him, struck down the boar with shaft whose point was iron). The slaying of a snake or dragon appears to have a parallel in the Avestan account of Thraetaona Athwya slaying the three-headed, six-eyed Azi Dahak (Zahhak). Trita's title Aptya appears to be a contraction of Apam Napat, progeny of the waters. Apam Napat is found both in the Vedas and the Avesta. Yasht 8.34 state that Apam Napat divides the waters amongst the countries in the material world. If these events in the Vedas and the Avesta are indeed congruent as appears apparent, then the Vedic Trita appears to be congruent with the Avestan Thraetaona. Vedic Trita and the Avestan Thrita also appear to be congruent which by analogy makes Thraetaona another name for Thrita.

The first to prepare Soma in the Rig Veda are Vivasvat, who is the father of Yama and Manu, and Trita (son of Aptya).

Thraetaona's Domicile & Theatre of Events:

Varena, Rangha & Patashkhvargar/ Padashkhvargar

While much of the Avesta's geography and legends have their theatre in the east of Aryana, Thraetaona's area of domicile is stated in Vendidad 1.17 to be in Verena (W. Mazandaran, Gilan, otherwise known as Dailam or Tabaristan) in the west of Aryana: "The fourteenth of the good lands and countries... was the four-cornered Varena, where Thraetaona (Feridoon), who smote Azi Dahaka (Zahhak) was born." Thraetaona/Feridoon has his capital at in eastern Mazandaran at Tammisha (Kus) between Sariyeh and Gorgan/Astarabad at the south-east corner of the Caspian Sea. The highest mountain peak in the Alburz Mountain, Damavand Mountain is where Thraetaona/Feridoon bound and imprisoned Azi Dahaka (Zahhak) and was said to have been located in or near the land of Patashkhvargar/ Padashkhvargar.

Thraetaona/Feridoon was aided in defeating Azi Dahaka (Zahhak) by the blacksmith Kaveh who the Kurds claim as one of their own. Kurdistan which is today divided between north-western Iran, northern Iraq, south-eastern Turkey and north-eastern Syria, lies in what was the sixteenth and last Vendidad nation, Rangha which is also the Avestan name for the River Tigris (Arvand in Middle Persian). The Rangha also features as the place where Keresaspa prayed for the ability to avenge the death of his brother Urvakhshaya, an event recorded in the Ram Yasht at 15.27-8: The manly-hearted Keresaspa offered prayers by the Mazda given Gudha, a channel of the Rangha, upon a golden throne, under golden beams and a golden canopy, with bundles of baresma and offerings of full boiling [milk]. He implored a boon be granted, saying: Grant me this, that I may succeed in avenging my brother Urvakhshaya, that I may smite Hitaspa and yoke him to my chariot. The Gandarewa, who lives beneath the waters, the progeny of Ahura in the deep, he is the only master of the deep. (Given what we read below about Gandarewa, this translation bears scrutiny. The implication is that Urvakhshaya, Keresaspa's brother was killed by Hitaspa. The context for mentioning Gandarewa needs further scrutiny.)

Rangha is mentioned nine time in the Yashts some times with names of apparent tributaries: Aban Yt. 5.81. Yoishta, one of the Fryanas, offer prayers... on the Pedvaepa of the Rangha.

Meher Yt. 10.104. ...the eastern-most river and... the westernmost river, that which is the Sanaka of the Rangha by the boundary of the earth.

Rashne Yasht 12.11, 12. ...Aodhas of the Rangha, ...Sanaka of the Rangha. http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.in/2013/02/thraetaona-keresaspa-urvakhshaya.html

Pahlavans & Sakastan 5. Trita, Visvarupa & Ahi in the Vedas In nine parts: » 1. Introduction » 2. Timur's Account » 3. Lineage & Nation » 4. Thraetaona & Thrita. Keresaspa & Urvakhshaya. Varena, Rangha & Patashkhvargar » 5. Trita, Visvarupa & Ahi in the Vedas » 6. Battles with Dragon-Snakes » 7. Garshasp, Saam & Zal in the Shahnameh » 8. End Times. The Renovation of the World » 9. Religion in Sakastan

The Avestan Thraetaona and Thrita likely have parallels in the Hindu scriptures' personages of Traitana or Trita (Trita is said to mean third*). Scholars commonly equate Thraetaona with Thrita and Traitana with Trita. These Avestan and Vedic personages are said to share so many characteristics and roles in their respective mythologies, that they are identified as having common origins from the era when the two traditions were undivided. Nevertheless, it is odd that two names are used to define the same person. In the case of the Avesta, Thraetaona and Thrita are mentioned in consecutive verse of the same chapter - as if referring to two different individuals. (*In the Brahmanas, Trita is the third of three brothers: Ekata, Dvita and Trita - which sounds like first, second and third.)

When comparing passages in the Avesta and the Rig Veda, at the outset we find that Thraetaona is the son of Athwya while Trita is the son of Aptya. Some authors see Aptya as a contraction of Apam Napat, progeny of the waters. Apam Napat is found both in the Vedas and the Avesta. Yasht 8.34 state that Apam Napat divides the waters amongst the countries in the material world. The clan of Aptyas (who are also classified as water deities) were created by Agni.

Next, we find that in the Avesta's Yasna 9.7 & 10, Vivanghvant (Yima's father) Athwya (Thraetaona's father) and Thrita (Urvakhshaya and Keresaspa's father) are among the first three preparers of haoma, while in the Rig Veda, the first preparers of Soma are Vivasvat (Yama and Manu's father) and Trita (son of Aptya).

Perhaps, the most cited congruence between these Avestan and Vedic personages are the battles our stalwarts waged with an evil three-headed, six-eyed snake (often - perhaps incorrectly - translated as a dragon). In Zoroastrian literature, the snake is named Azi and Baevareaspa/Bivarasp/Pivarasp or Dahak (Zahhak), while in the Vedas, the snake is named Ahi and Visvarupa.

The Killing and Beheading of Visvarupa - the Snake-Like Fiend with Three Heads Rig Veda Passages

[Adapted by this author from translations by Ralph T Griffith at ancientvoice. In the English transliteration of the nouns we find the following names Trita (29 occurrences), Trta (11 occurrences) and Traitana (1 occurrence).] RV 2.11.18. Hero, assume the might with which you extol Vrtra piecemeal, the Danava Aurnavabha. You have disclosed the light to light the Arya on your left hand - O Indra (you) sank the Dasyu. RV 2.11.19. May we gain wealth, subduing with your help and with the Arya, all our foes, the Dasyus. Our gain was that to Trita of our party you gave up Tvastars' son Visvarupa (the three headed snake-person). RV 2.11.20. He (Indra?) cast down Arbuda, his vigour strengthened by libations poured by Trita. Indra sent forth his whirling wheel like Surya, and then aided by the Angirases, rent Vala. RV 2.11.21. Now let that wealthy cow of yours, O Indra, yield in return a boon to him who praises you. Give to your praisers; let not fortune fail us. Loud may we speak, with brave men, in the assembly.

RV 1.158. When Traitana split my (Visvarupa speaking?) head asunder, the Dasa wounded his own breast and shoulders.

RV 10.8.7. Through his wise insight, Trita in the cavern, seeking as ever the Chief Sires' intention, having carefully been tended in his parents' bosom, called the weapons' kin, and went forth to combat. 10.8.8. Urged on by Indra and well-skilled in the use of his father Aptya's weapons, (Trita) fought the battle. Then Trita slew the seven-rayed, three-headed foe (Visvarupa) and freed the kine (cattle) of Tvastar's son (Visvarupa). RV 10.8.9. Then the Lord of the brave, Indra, split him (the fallen Visvarupa killed by Trita) in pieces - he who sought to gain much strength and deemed himself mighty. He (Indra) severed his (Visvarupa's) three heads from his body, seizing the cattle of the omniform son of Tvastar. [O’Flaherty (1975) at p.71 interprets these verses as: Trita Aptya, sent by Indra, slew the three-headed one, (and then) Indra beheaded Visvarupa, cutting off his three-heads. Here, while Trita kills Visvarupa, Indra beheads him. This is the sole Rig Vedic reference to the killing of Visvarupa.]

RV 10.99.6. The lord of the dwelling, he (Trita) subdued the demon who roared aloud - the six-eyed and three-headed (fiend). Trita, (who had been) made stronger by the might he (Indra) lent him, struck down the boar (varaha) with a shaft whose point was (made from) iron (perhaps a spear). (In Yasna 9.8 Thraetaona kills Azi Dahaka who is also described as being three-headed and six-eyed.)

Transfer of the Penalties of Sin

In subsequent texts such as the Atharva Veda, the slaying of Visvarupa by Trita exemplifies how the penalty of a sin can be transferred to others. Visvarupa was a Brahmin and the killing of a Brahmin is a sin, even though the Brahmin might be a demonic threat to Indra. First, Indra gets Trita to do the killing and next the sin was erased and transferred by an appropriate ritualistic and formal offering of prayers (i.e. yajna, often translated as a 'sacrifice'). The Aptyas (the plural might indicate the entire clan) - who were culpable of the sin because they knew Visvarupa was going to be killed - transferred the penalty of the sin to mortals who commit the sin of making ritual offerings without paying a fee to the priest(s). In this entire episode, the credit for killing Visvarupa is taken by Indra while the blame is assigned to Trita and the Aptyas. The Aptyas in turn transfer the penalty for the sin of being a Brahmin-killer to other would-be sinners i.e., those who cheat Brahmins out of their income. It would appear that this acquisition of a sin was a voluntary scheme by the Aptyas, who while divine, were not as divine as Indra, ostensibly, thereby doing him a service. There is a prayer from the Atharva Veda at 6.113 said by people who catch a disease - one that laments: "The gods wiped off their sin on to Trita and Trita wiped it off on to human beings." We think we can say that such a sentiment would be entirely untenable in Zoroastrian ethics. Trita in this episode takes on the unenviable role of being the intermediary through whom the sins of the gods were transferred to humanity - and thereby the cause of human suffering, which is curious because the Avestan Thrita is a healer par excellence. We read (Westergaard in Ind. Studien and Dr. Haug in Essay on the Sacred Writings...at p. 235) that the Vedic Trita was also a healer, though the references that this author has read are somewhat tenuous. Perhaps the authors are being influenced by the Avestan Thrita. http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.in/2013/02/trita-visvarupa-ahi-in-vedas.html

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