पृष्ठम्:A Sanskrit primer (1901).djvu/३९

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Introduction. 23 are weak; or, if there be the distinction of three stem-forms, then the instr., dat., abl., gen., and loc. sing., the gen. and loc. du., and the gen. pl. (all of which take endings beginning with a vowel), are weakest; and the instr., dat., and abl. du., the instr., dat., abl., and loc. pl. (whose endings begin with consonants), are middle. 89. In the neuter, the only strong cases are the nom. and acc. pl.; if there be the triple distinction, then the nom. and acc. sing. are middle, and the same cases in the dual are weakest. Otherwise the cases are classified as in the masculine. 90. Case-endings. The normal scheme of case - endings, as recognized by the native grammarians (and conveniently to be assumed as the basis of special descriptions), is this: Singular Dual Plural m.f. n. m.f. n. m. f. n. S m au į as i A. ат āu i as i I. å i thyām bhis D. e bhyām bhyas Ab. as bhyām bhyas G. as L. i It applies entire to consonant-stems, and to the radical division of i and ū-stems; and to other vowel-stems, with considerable variations and modifications. The endings which have almost or quite unbroken range, through stems of all classes, are bhyām and os of the dual, and bhis, bhyas, ām, and su of the plural. 91. Pada-endings. The case-endings Whyām, bhis, bhyas, and 8u — i. e. those of the middle cases — are called pada (“ word”)- endings. The treatment of stem-finals before them is generally the same as in the combinations of words with one another. OS ām Os su Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ®