83. The declension of substantives and that of adjectives correspond so closely that the two classes of words must be treated together. The pronouns and numerals, on the other hand, exhibit here as in the kindred languages many striking peculiarities.
84. Numbers and genders. There are three numbers, singular, dual, and plural; and the usual three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter. The dual is used much more extensively than in Greek, where it appears in a moribund state.
85. Cases. The cases are eight in number, given generally in the following order: nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative, and vocative. The object sought in the arrangement is simply to set next to one another those cases which are to a greater or less extent, in one number or another, identical in form; and, putting the nominative first, as leading case, there is no other order by which that object could be attained.
For the uses of the cases in detail see Wh. 267-305
86. The stems of substantives and adjectives may for convenience be classified as follows: I. Stems in अ a. II.Stems in इ i and उ u. III. Stems in आ a, ई i, and ऊ u: namely, A. radical-stems, and a few others infected like them; B. derivative stems. IV.Stems in ऋ ? (or अर् ar). V. Stems in consonants.
87. Strong and weak cases. In stems ending in consonants. and those in ऋ r (or अर् ar), there is seen a distinction of stem-form in different cases. Sometimes the stem-forms are two, when they are called strong | and weak respectively; sometimes three: strong, middle, and weakest. As is the case with verbs, this variation of stem-form often goes hand-in-hand with a shift of accent.
88. In the masculine and feminine, the strong cases are the nom. and acc., both sing. and dual, and the nom. pl. The rest