144 Lesson XXXIV.
value of qualifying adjective. Often they have a pregnant sense, and become the equivalents of dependent clauses ; or the 'having' implied in them becomes about equivalent to our 'having' as a sign of past action. Thus, प्राप्तयौवन ‘possessing attained adolescence', i. e. 'having reached adolescence '; अनधिगतशास्त्र ‘with unstudied books', i. e. ‘one who has neglected study'; गतप्राण 'whose breath is gone', i. e. 'lifeless'; आसन्नमृत्यु ‘to whom death is come near'.
378. B. Compounds with govermed final member.
1. Participial compounds, exclusively Vedic.
2. Prepositional compounds. Thus may conveniently be called those compounds in which the prior member is a particle with true prepositional value, and the final member a noun governed by it. Thus अतिरात्र 'lasting over night'; अतिमात्र ‘beyond measure ', 'excessive'; अपिकर्ण 'next the ear'.
379. Adjective compounds as nouns and adverbs. Compound adjectives, like simple ones, are freely used substantively as abstracts and collectives, especially in the neuter, and less often in the feminine; and they are also much used adverbially, particularly in the acc. sing. neuter.
380. The substantively used possessive compounds having a numeral as prior member, with some of the strictly adjective compounds, are treated by the Hindus as a separate class, and called dvigu *. Examples of such numeral abstracts and collectives are: त्रियुग n., ‘the three ages'; त्रियोजन n., 'space of three leagues' Feminines of like use occur in the later language; thus त्रिलोकी (by the side of ०क n.,) ‘the three worlds' .
381. Those adverbially used accusatives of secondary adjective
*The name is a sample of the class, and means 'of two cows' (said to be used in the sense of 'worth two cows').