अाख्यात verbal form, verb; cf. भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nir. I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनि- पाताश्च M. Bh. I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च M. Bh. I.2.37 Vārt. 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं V. Pr. V.1; cf. भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाज- गोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; cf. also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means ver- bal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differ- entiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ etc. as dis- tinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immater- ial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted above from the Nirukta and the Mahā- bhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the acti- vities and things in this world but with every process and entity; cf. पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्ति- भवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायि- नीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रिया- त्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt. affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt. affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal acti- vity is treated as a noun and regu-
larly declined;cf.कृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words end- ing with kṛt. affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern gram- marians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; cf. अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyā- karaṇabhūṣaṇa.
अख्यातप्रक्रिया a work dealing with verbs, written by Anubhūtisvarūpā- cārya on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa.
अाख्यातविवेक a work dealing with verbs and their activity by Kṛṣṇa- Shāstrī Āraḍe a great Naiyāyika of the 18th century.
अाख्यातव्याकरण a treatise on verbs discussing verbal forms by Vaṅga- Sena.
अागन्तुक lit. adventitious, an addi- tional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form e.g. वदि, एधि, सर्ति etc.; cf. इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: cf. also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनि- भ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root cf. इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णा- त्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārt. 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; cf. ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second