the denotations of the case-termi- nations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; cf. वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
प्रातिलोम्य in inverse order, antithesis. reverse sense; e. g. प्र and परा mean the reverse of अा, or प्रति means the reverse of अभि; cf अा इत्यर्वागर्थे । प्र परेत्येतस्य प्रातिलोम्यम् etc. Nir. I. 4.
प्रातिशाख्य a work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itself. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arrang- ed from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindled. Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of 33
the ancient ones -the Rk Prati- sakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi Prati- Sakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learn- ed scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Prati- sakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth cen- tury has written a brief commenta- ry on the Rk Pratisakhya and ano- ther one on the Vajasaneyi Prati- sakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasya- ratna and the other called Vaidika- bharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisa- khya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
प्रातिश्रुत्क places of echo or reverbera- tion viz.chest and others, of sound which gets its origin at the navel but becomes reverberated at chest, throat, top of the month, mouth and nose; cf. तस्य ( उत्पत्त्याश्रयस्य शब्दस्य ) प्रातिश्रुत्कानि भवन्ति उरः कण्ठः शिरो मुखं नासिके इति, T. Pr. II. 3.
प्रातिहत name given to the circumflex vowel, standing at the beginning of a word and following the final vowel of the previous word which