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GLOSSARY 123 Sun or Moon, it is the apo- gee; and in the case of the other planets it is the apogee or aphelion, the geocentric longitude of the apogee being equal to the heliocentric longitude of the aphelion. The sighrocca of a superior planet (Mars, Jupiter, or Saturn) is defined as the mean Sun; that of an inferior planet (Mercury or Venus) is an imaginary body which is supposed to more in such a way that its direction from the Earth is always approxi- mately the same as that of the actual planet from the Sun. Utkrama (3^r) (1) Reverse order. (2) Utkrama jya. See Utkramajya. Utkramajiva (^Tsftar) Same as Utkramajya. Utkramajya (sfWfrr) Rversedsine. Rversin = Radius X (l—cos0). U tkramajya-phala (^cw^iw ) Result (or correction) deriv- ed with the help of the utkramajya of a certain arc. Utkramabhava jiva (scWJTTT ^fter) Same as Utkramajyi . Uttara (^rr) North. Udak (^P) North. Udaggola ( sswfta" ) Northern hemisphere. Udaya (357) ( 1 ) The rising of a planet on the eastern hori- zon. (2) Heliacal rising of a planet. (3) Udaya-lagna, i.e., the rising point of the eclip- tic. (4) Addition, as in Ksayodayau (subtraction and addition). Upapluti (3T^fa) Eclipse. Usnadldhiti (ssw^fafr) The Sun. Rtu (^5) Six. Ekadikka (^feR>) Same direction. Aindnifcil) The east, eastern direction (presided over by Indra). Ojn (afar) Odd. Kakubh (vf*r) Ten. Karana (*PTT) The name of one of the five principal elements of the Hindu Calendar. Karkata The sign Cancer. Karna (^) (1) The hypote- nuse of a right-angled triangle. (2) The distance of a heavenly body. Karnabhukti (^ofaftrr) True daily motion of a planet derived with the help of the planet's distance. Karnasutra (^"T^) The hypoten- use-line. Kala (^tt) Minute of arc.