पृष्ठम्:A Sanskrit primer (1901).djvu/२४

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एतत् पृष्ठम् अपरिष्कृतम् अस्ति

Introduction. a-vowel stands in no relation of kindred with any of the classes of consonantal sounds. But the e- rowel is distinctly palatal, and the u-vowel as distinctly labial. 23. B. The ? and ?- vowels. Both of these are plainly the result of abbreviating syllables containing a Tror a l along with another rowel: ļ is to be sounded like the re in the English fibre, ļ like le in able: 24. C. The diphthongs. 1. The e and 0, which are always long, should receive the long e and 0-sounds of the English they and bone, without true diphthongal character. In their origin, both were doubtless in the main pure diphthongs (e = a +i, o = a + u); but they lost this character at a very early period. 2. The āi and āu are spoken like the ai in English aisle and au in German Baum (ou in English house); that is, as pure diphthongs with long prior element. They were originally, doubtless, distin- guished from e and o only by the length of the first element. ma H). Consonants. 25. A. Mates. In each series of mutes there are two surd members, two sonants, and one nasal (also sonant); e.g., in the labial series, the surds p and ph, the sonants b and bh, and the sonant m. 26. The first and third members of each series are the ordinary corresponding surd and sonant mutes of European languages; thus, k and g, t and d, p and b. 27. Nor is the character of the nasal any more doubtful. What m is to p and b, or n is to t and d, that is also each other nasal to its own series of mutes: a sonant expulsion of breath into and through the nose, while the mouth- organs are in the mute- contact. 28. The second and fourth of each series are aspirates; the 111 Univ Calif - Ditized by Microsoft ®