Lesson XXVII. 111 00 ticiple has no passive, but only an indefinite past, sense; thus, ta, gone', ya, 'been’; oraa, “fallen'. 290. This participle is often used as an adjective. Very com- monly, also, it supplies the place of a finite verb, when some form of FH, 'be', or H is to be supplied; thus, Ħ 19: “ he is gone”; HOT Thi fafanH “by me a letter was written”. The neuter is frequently used as a substantive; thus, TIA “a gift’; FTUA ‘milk ’; and also as nomen actionis. Sometimes it has a present significa- tion, particularly when made from neuter verbs; thus, fea (from en) often “standing'. 291. A. With suffix a [U]. The suffix 7 is taken by a number of roots. Thus: 1. Certain roots in IT, and in i and u- vowels; thus, on or पी ‘swell, be fat', पीन; हा ‘abandon', हीन; स्ना ‘wither', स्नान; क्षि destroy', क्षीण; श्वा or श्वि ‘swell', अन; लू cut', लून. 2. The roots in variable # (so-called -roots), which before the suftix becomes &T or By, as in the pres. pass.; thus, 27 (fany), ato; , nu; 19 (97) fill', qu. 3. A few roots ending in 5 (which becomes 7 before the a); thus, H3 break’, 47; 14T 'bend', y4; HET ‘sink’, H4; रज ‘be sick', रुग्न; विज • fear', विग्न. Also one or two others which exhibit a guttural before the नः लग ‘attach', लम; व्र “cut up', qau. 4. A number of roots, some of them very common, in a (which becomes 7 before a): #C, HA; (fa-&, faeu;) fara Scut', fa. * 292. Some few verbs make double forms; thus, t'hasten ’, ad or afra; faz 'acquire', fqa or far.
- Commonest exceptions: खादित from खाद्‘eat'; मत्त from
मद; मुदित from मद ‘rejoice'; रुदित from रुद ‘weep'; उदित from वद् ‘speak'; विदित from विद ‘know'. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ®