अधिक (1) additional or surplus acti- vity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; cf. M. Bh. on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
अधिकरण (1) support: a grammati- cal relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal acti- vity. cf. अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' cf. अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
अधिकार governing rule consisting of a word (e.g. प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः etc.) or words (e.g. ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे etc.) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference bet- ween अधिकार and परिभाषा; cf. अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1
समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeated. The repeti- tion goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्नि- पाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its in- fluence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional pro- perties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्य- केभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposing. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; cf. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवा- हवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
अघिकारसूत्र a superintending aphori- sm, which gives no meaning of itself where it is mentioned, but gives its meaning in the number of