ly on account of the proximity of similar letters.
भुग्न name of a Saṁdhi or coalescence given by the writers of the Prātiśākhya works where the diph- thong vowels ओ and औ, followed by any vowel which is not labial, are turned respectively into अव् and आव्: e.g. ऋतेन मित्रावरुणावृतावृधा- वृतस्पृशा (Ṛ. Saṁh.I.2.8); cf. ओष्ठ्ययो न्योर्भुग्नमनोष्ठये वकारोत्रान्तरागमः । यथा ऋतेन मित्रावरुणावृतावृधावृतस्पृशा । अनोष्ठये इति किम् । वायो उक्थेभिः 2.2. (R.Saṁh. I.2.2). इत्यतः वाय उक्थेभि cf. R. Pr. II.11.
भूत lit. what has become or happen- ed. The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general, which has been subdivided into (a) unseen past (परोक्षभूत or लिट् ), (b) past, not of to- day (अनद्यतनभूत or लङ् ) and (c) past in general (सामान्यभूत or लुङ्),cf. भूते P.III.2.84, परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.116 and अनद्यतने लङ् P.III.2.111.
भूतपूर्वगति lit. denotation of some- thing which formerly was existing; a consideration of that form of a word which was formerly present. The word is used frequently by commentators when they try to ap- ply a rule of grammar to a changed wording under the plea that the wording required by the rule was formerly there; cf.भूतपूर्वगत्या (पकारलोपे कृतेपि ) दाप् भविष्यति, M. Bh. on P.I.1.20 Vārt. 9; cf. also M. Bh. on P.I.1.56, VII.1.9 and VII. 3.103; cf.also सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Par. Śeḵ. Pari. 76.
भूपाद name popularly given by Śiradeva and other grammarians to the third pāda of the first adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyi as it begins with the Sūtra भूवादयो धातवः P.I.3.1.
भूमन् plurality of the individuals
referred to; cf. बहोर्नञ्वदुत्तरपदभूम्नि P. VI.2.175.
भूमादि the limited senses भूमन् (plu- rality) and others in which भतुप् and other possessive taddhita affixes should take place, and not in the general sense of the 'presence at one place' as also 'the possession by some one individual;' cf. भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने । संसर्गेस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: M. Bh. on V. 2.94.
भूवादि lit headed by भू , or headed by भू and वा as some scholars like to explain; the term means roots; in general, which have भू as the first root in Pāṇini's list of roots; cf. भूवादयो धातव: P. I. 3.1; The word भूवादि denoting roots stands in contrast with the word भ्वादि which stands for the roots of the first conjugation. भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते | भुवो वार्थं वदन्तीति भ्वर्था वा वादयः स्मृता: Kāś. on P. I. 3.1.
भृशादि a class of nouns headed by भृश to which the denominative affix य is added in the sense of 'being or becoming what they were not before;' e.g. अभृशो भृशो भवति भृशायते; similarly ，शीघ्रायते, मन्दायते, उन्मनायते, दुर्मनायते etc.cf.Kāś.III.1.I3.
भेद difference, differentiation; .cf. सति भेदे र्किचित्समानमिति कृत्वा सवर्णसंज्ञा भविष्यति M. Bh. on P. I.1.9, Vārt. 2.
भेदक (1) lit.distinguishing; differentiating; cf भेदकत्वात्स्वरस्य | भेदका उदात्तादय: | M. Bh. on P. I. 1.1 Vārt. 13; (2) adjective; cf. भेदकं विशेषणं भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II: 1.57; (3) variety; kind; cf. सामान्यस्य विशेषो भेदकः प्रकार: Kāś. on P.V. 3.23; (4) indicating, suggesting, as contrasted with वाचक; cf. संबन्धस्य तु भेदक: Vākyapadīya.
भेद्य that which is distinguished; the word which is qualified; cf. भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II. 1.57.