the sum amounts to 7 signs, 16 degrees, and 40 minutes), the The term yat2ata (or, what is generally known as ata or malhayata) literally means "a very great portentious calamity astronomical phenomenon which is considered to be extremely imauspicious “The time intervening between the moments of the beginning and end is to be looked upon as exceedingly terrible, having the likeness of the consuming fre, for bidden for all work. While any part of the discs (of the Sun and the Moon so long is there a continuance of this aspect causing the destruction of all works he continues, “from a (pre ious) knowledge of the time of its occurrence, very great advantage is obtained, by means of bathing, giving, prayer, ancestral offerings, vows oblations, and other । * The phenomenon of yot ala is said to have a universal effect. According to our author *when the phenomenon of pyatala occurs, even on cutting the branches of a milk-tree ( ralaru), there is absence of millk”. The text describes the three varieties of the pat2ata, [2:40, paidlta and 20amustaka, giving simply the regions of their occurrence. It does not go into the details of their calculation. The subject, however, is so important for the astrologer that works on Hindu astronomy generally include a chapter giving a detailed discussion of this subject.* In modern Hindu Calendars (called Paffcatiga) are gven the titi, karapa, maksatra and yoga current at sumrise for every day ofthe year and also the times when they end and the next ones begin. The yogu has not been reated by Bhaskara I, but it forms one of the five important clement of the Hindu (Calendar. Like the makऽatras, the number of yogas is also twenty-seven. The method of finding the number of yogas passed 'over and the time clapsed at sunrise since the commencement of the current yoga is similar to that prescribed for the maksatra. The differ ence is that in the case of the yoga calculation is made with the sum of the longitudes of the Sun and the Moon , whereas in the case of the nal०rtra calculation is made with the help of the longitude of the Moon only. The PS, i. 20-22; $D7, 1, xi. 1; B७S, xiv.33-34; MS, xi. 1; ऽऽ०, wi. 1-2; ऽ6: , xi. 8; 7ऽ, wi. 1.2
- Cf. Burges B., Siya-iddhanta (English Translation), Calcutta (1935)
- See e.g. Sist, xi; BS2७, ४iv; ऽऽ०, wi;Si8, 1; xi. TS, wi.