Terminology relating to (the measurement of) Other Metals.
42. What is known as a kalā' consists of four pādus; six and a quarter kalās make one yava; four yavas make one aṃśa ; aṃśas make one bhāga
43. Six bhāgas make one draksūņa ; twice that (draksūņa) is one dīnāra; two dīnāras make one satēra. Thus say the learned men in regard to the (measurement of other) metals.
44. Twelve and a half palas make one prastha; two hundred palas make one tulā ; ten tulās make one bhāra. Thus say those who are clever in calculation.
45. In this (matter of measurement) twenty pairs of cloths, of jewels or of canes (are called) a kōtikā. Next I give the names of the (principal) operations (in arithmetic).
Names of the operations in Arithmetic.
46. The first among these (operations) is guņakāra (multiplication), and it is also (called) pratyutpanna; the second is what is known as bhāyahāra(division ); and kŗti (squaring) is said to be the third.
47. The fourth, as a matter of course, is varga-mūla (square root), and the fifth is said to be ghaņa(cubing) ; then gharamūla (cube root) is the sixth, and the seventh is known as citi (summation).
48. This is also spoken of as saņkalita. Then the eighth is vyutkalita (the subtraction of a part of a series, taken from the beginning, from the whole series), and this is also spoken of as śēșa. All these eight (operations) appertain to fractions also.
General rules in regard to zero and positive and negative quantities.
49. A number multiplied by zero is zero, and that (number) remains unchanged when it is divided by, * combined with (or)
- It can be easily seen here that a number when divided by zero does not really remain unchanged. Bhāskara calls the quotient of such zero-divisions khahara and rightly assigns to it, the value of infinity. Mahāvīrācārya obviously thinks that a division by zero is no division at all.