SANSKRIT STUDIES By M. Hiriyanna POPULAR ESSAYS IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY THE QUEST AFTER PERFECTION ART EXPERIENCE SANSKRIT STUDIES
M. H IR1YANNA
MYSORE First Published 1954
This book is copyright. It may not be reproduced either whole or in part without written permission.
PRINTED IN INDIA
TI^J^figLEY PRESS AND PUBLISHING HOUSE, MYSORE CITY PUBLISHERS ’ NOTE
Some papers of a general nature relating to Sanskrit literature and language, of the late Prof. Hiriyanna have been brought together in this volume. Except the first and the last essay, the rest have appeared in various journals and publica- tions. The last, The Study of Sanskrit , is an address delivered on the occasion of the inauguration of the Sanskrit Association of the Maharaja’s College, Mysore, during the year 1916. Sanskrit Poetry: A Historical Retrospect appears to be one of the early papers of the author. The editors found it necessary to omit a few sentences from - the text of this paper and these omissions are indicated by dots in the text. Keith’s
Classical Sanskrit Literature was reviewed by the author for two journals, The Mysore University Magazine and the Journal of the Karnataka Sahitya Parishat . Hence ideas appearing in the former review have been omitted from the latter to avoid repetition. These omissions are also indicated by dots. Words or sentences added by the editors either in the body of the text or in the footnotes are enclosed within square brackets.
We are grateful to Prof. Hiriyanna’s daughter for having permitted us to publish these studies. Our grateful thanks are also due to Prof. T. N. Sreekantaiya of the Karnatak University, Dharwar and Sri N. Sivarama Sastry of the University of Mysore who have rendered us all possible help in the editing of these Studies . A CKNO WLEDGMENTS
The late Prof. Hiriyanna’s daughter desires to express her grateful thanks to the Editors of the Indidn Review and the Journal of the Karnataka Sahitya Parishat and the Registrar of the University of Mysore , for their courtesy in allowing her to include in the present collection the several articles first published by them.
‘Vision of Vasavadatta’ — Indian Review , October 1929.
Kalidasa — The Maharaja' s College Magazine , September 191 3. The Vocabulary of the ‘ Meghasandesa’ — Foreword to Padavali
of the Meghasandesa and Kuntalesvara-dautya of Kalidasa . Compiled by His Holiness Sri Yatiraja Sampatkumara- Ramanujamuni of Melkote (Mysore). Published by A. Srinivasa Iyengar, Sri Yatiraja Mutt, Melkote 1939.
‘Malatl and Madhava’ — Indian Review , August 1930.
‘ Uttara-Ramacarita ’ — The Mysore University Magazine , February 1917.
‘Classical Sanskrit Literature’ — The Mysore University Maga - zine y September 1924. Journal of the Karnataka Sahitya Parishat , July 1924.
‘ A History of Sanskrit Literature ’ — The Mysore University Magazine , March 1929. CONTENTS
PUBLISHERS’ NOTE ...
■ • •
• • •
L, SANSKRIT POETRY: A HISTORICAL RETROSPECT...
■JJ, ‘VISION OF VASAVADATTA’ —
yjy. THE VOCABULARY OF THE ' MEGHASANDESA'
V. ‘MALATl AND MADHAVA’ OR ‘THE TRIUMPH OF LOVE’...
U.,. ‘ UTTARA-RAMACARITA ’-’f ■
Vy*^* CLASSICAL SANSKRIT LITERATURE’
VIJI^A HISTORY OF SANSKRIT LITERATURE ’
THE STUDY OF SANSKRIT ... SANSKRIT STUDIES
A HISTORICAL RETROSPECT
To the well-known difficulty of treatment which is inherent in all art, there is to be added in the case of Sanskrit Poetry, another arising from the immensity of its range. Poems in Sans- krit are to be counted by hundreds and they cover a period of several centuries especially if we include the Veda also within our purview. I need hardly point out that my purpose is not to survey the whole of this vast and difficult field. The task I have set myself this evening is much humbler. I wish to place before you two well-marked tendencies in Sanskrit poetry which bear to each other a relationship of historical sequence and to show that the change of ideal implied by them is in perfect harmony with the general development of mental life in ancient India. As a prelim- inary to what I shall say, I may remark that in matters like poetry which are the products ©f human feeling and thought, advance from one stage to another is never absolute and final. Owing to the ineradicable diversity of human temperament, whatever ideal once becomes deeply rooted in the social consciousness tends to persist ever afterwards and hence we find that the old is often preserved by the side of the new. Nevertheless each stage of development has its own dominant tendency through which we get an insight into the essential spirit of that stage.
The earliest Indian Poetry that has come down to us is found in thej Rgveda. It is well known that this work consists of sacred songs and that its interest to a modern student is historical, not poetical. But at the same time, it would be incorrect to think that the work is devoid of aesthetic merit. Religious fervour everywhere gives rise to true poetry and India is not an exception to the rule. The Rgveda has a poetic side also and the poetical quality exhibited in some of the hymns is indeed very high. Vedic poetry, like Vedic religion with which it is closely connected, is the outcome of the personification of the visible powers of nature. The poets, no doubt, address these powers as gods but, generally speaking, there पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१० पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/११ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१२ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१३ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१४ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१५ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१६ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१७ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१८ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/१९ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२० पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२१ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२२ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२३ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२४ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२५ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२६ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२७ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२८ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/२९ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३० पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३१ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३२ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३३ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३४ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३५ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३६ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३७ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३८ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/३९ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४० पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४१ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४२ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४३ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४४ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४५ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४६ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४७ SANSKRIT STUDIES
plot at all. Accordingly, Sanskrit poets look upon any obtrusion of the plot as a sort of materialism in poetry. The restriction, however, need not be viewed as a check on the exercise of invent- ive power by the poet ; for although the stcfry is to be familiar in its outline, the special situations which a dramatic composition requires may entirely be the creation of the author’s genius, provided only the innovations introduced are necessitated by the chief aim of his art, viz., the development of rasa.
There are in the Uttara-rdmacarita some alterations in the story which, as is well-known, is taken from the last book of the Ramayana . In the epic, when Laksmana leaves Sita near Valmiki’s hermitage and returns, the pupils of Valmlki carry the news to him. The sage comes to meet the helpless queen and knowing, as he does, that she is pure and innocent, consoles her and takes her to his hermitage. There, later on, Sita gives birth to Lava and Kusa. But in the play, soon after the cruel decree of Rama drives her to the seclusion of the forest, Sita throws herself into the Ganges, and in the agony of the situation gives birth to the twins. Ganga and Bhumi intervene and lead her to their world, after entrusting the children to the care of Valmiki. In the epic story it is known to almost all* where Sita is. Satrughna, on his way to fight Lavana, halts in Valmiki’s hermitage, and it is on that very day that Sita is delivered of the twins. According to one recension of the Ramayana , Satrughna has even a talk with Sita before he leaves the hermitage. Such knowledge of Sita’s place of residence would not aid the development of pathos so well as a total ignorance of her whereabouts. In the drama her fate is all unknown, and the resulting grief is proportionately great. Witness, for instance, the helpless misery of Rama when he says to Vasanti, in reply to her question as to what had become of Sita. in the forest — kravyadbhir angalatikd niyatam mlnpla. Again in the epic, Lava and Kusa do not meet Rama in the hermitage, but in the sacrificial hall at Ayodhya, whereto they are sent by Valmiki to recite his poem— the Ramayana . Observing their features, Rama strongly suspects that they are Sita’s children, and sends for Valmiki. The sage appears with Sita. Her innocence is established on supernatural evidence, and the people’s doubts are removed. But Sita prays to her mother to relieve her of the iniquities of life ; ^he earth opens and receives her, and she disappears declaring her purity. In the play, on the other hand, she is restored to पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/४९ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५० पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५१ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५२ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५३ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५४ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५५ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५६ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५७ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५८ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/५९ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६० पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६१ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६२ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६३ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६४ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६५ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६६ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६७ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६८ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/६९ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/७० पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/७१ पृष्ठम्:Sanskrit Studies.djvu/७२