A Sanskrit primer

विकिस्रोतः तः
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A Sanskrit primer
Perry, Edward Delavan


In the preface to the work* of which the following is a revision, Prof. BUHLER writes as follows: ‘‘The following Leitfaden was written last winter [1881-82], and, printed in manuscript form, was used in the instruction of quite a large number of scholars. It is based upon the purely practical method of Sanskrit instruction, which was introduced at HAUG's and my own instance into the Indian secondary schools, and has become established there by means of R. G. BHANDARKAR's text-books. The attempt to transfer this method to European universities is justified by the practical success which, as my experience shows, is to be gained thereby . For I have found that beginners master the first difficulties of Sanskrit very rapidly, and that learners take the most lively and continued interest in the study, if opportunity for activity on their own part is given then from the very first, and they are introduced at once into the living language. Moreover, the question of economy of time is made the more weighty by the fact that the elements of Sanskrit form an

  • Leitfaden fur den Elementarcursus desSanskrit; mit Uebungs

sticken und zwei Glossaren. Von GEORG BUHLER. Wien, 1883. I have translated above a little freely. iv

important aid to students of Classical and Germanic Philology, yet to a large number of such are accessible only when the subject can be mastered in a short time. On the other hand, the disad vantages necessarily entailed by the purely practical method may readily be removed later by a short methodical exposition of the grammar • • • • • • The verses in the exercises are taken chiefly fronm BOEHTLING's Indische Spruchen ; the sentences are in part derived from various Sanskrit works, or modelled after passages contained in them. To the last lessons no Sanskrit exercises have been appended, since the reading of the Nala or of some other easy Sanskrit work may very well be begun as soon as the formation of the perfect has been learned."

After using the Leitfdden for some time in the instruction of a class, I was convinced of its great merits as a practical introduction to the language; while on the other hand it seemed very unfortunate that it held throughout to the native system of grammar. which, since the appearance of Prof. WHITNEY's work, we in America at least have learned to distrust. Under these circumstances it seemed advisable to attempt a combination of BUHLER'S practical exercises with WHITNEY's theory; and to this end the book has been really rewritten. An introduction has been added, giving a general view of the structure of the language; the exercises have been pruned here and there, chiefly to remove forms which seemed too unusual or doubtful to have a just claim on the beginner's memory; and the number of lessons has been reduced from forty-eight to forty-five, by condensing the description, needlessly full for beginners, of the aorist, precative, and secondary conjugations. I have endeavored to retain nothing but what would supply the real wants of those for whom the book is dev

signed; yet here and there, having in mind those who may take up this study without a teacher, I have added explanations which I should otherwise have left for oral communication by the instructor.

A detailed explanation of the changes in the grammatical part of the book would require too much space to be given here. They may be summarized in the statement that I have striven to remove all forms at present ‘‘non -quotable". In the explication of the rules I have sought to be brief, but never to the sacrifice of clearness. In very many cases not only the substance but also the words of Prof. WHITNEY's rules have been incorporated into those of the Primer, which was done with his sanction. It seemed quite needless to designate all such borrowings by quotation-marks.

Many acknowledgments are due to those whose aid has made possible the appearance of the work . Prof. BUHLER's ready generosity in consenting to the rendering of his book into a very different form from that which he gave it deserves most grateful mention. To Prof. WHITNEY I owe deep gratitude for many valuable suggestions; he was kind enough to look over the work in manuscript, and, later, to put at my disposal the advance sheets of his invaluable collection of verb - forms. To Prof. LANMAN I am equally indebted; as well for many useful hints as for the arduous task of looking over proof-sheets, which he imposed on himself with characteristic readiness. My pupil, Mr. A. V. W. JACKSON, assisted me not a little in the compilation of the Glossaries. My acknowledgments are also due to the printers, GEBR. UNGER (TH. GRIMM) of Berlin, for the careful manner in which their part of the work has been done.

From V. S. APTE's "Guide to Sanskrit Composition" I have derived occasional examples. vi

The appearance of the book has been delayed considerably beyond the date originally planned for it. The printing was begun in November last, but was interrupted by my illness, and a resulting stay of considerable length in the West Indies.

I shall esteem it a favor if any who may use this book will notify me of misprints or inaccuracies of any sort which they may remark.

E. D. P.

BERLIN, August, 1885.


In this edition errors have been corrected in the plates wherever possible, otherwise noted in a list of corrections and additions at the end of the book. My thanks are due to Prof. LANMAN and Prof. H. F. BURTON of Rochester for corrections furnished.

E. D. P.

New YoRK, September, 1886.


The revision of the book for the new impression I owe to Dr. LOUIS H. GRAY, to whom I am glad to express my hearty thanks for his kindness in undertaking and performing this irksome task.


Munich, July, 1901. 'Table of Contents, in systematic grammatical arrangement. The figures in heavy type refer to paragraphs. Introductory suggestions, p. i. I. Alphabet and Sounds. Characters, -20. Classification of Sounds, and Pronunciation, 2-47. – Light and Heavy Syllables, 48. – Accent, 56. II. Changes of SoundsGuna and ruldhi. 49-54. II. Rules of Buplomic combination. Rules of Vowel Combination, 105, 106, I56–6, 164. — General Laws concerning Finals, 239-242. - Deaspiration, 242 . Transferral of Aspiration, 244, 249, 428. - Surd and Sonant Assimilation, 47148, 266, 267. Combinations of Final 8 and , 95, 7–l23, I29. – Conversion of s to x, p. 27 (note **) , 191, 192, 342 , 352. – Conversion of 1 to 2, p. 32 (note **), I66. Convession of Dental Mutes to Linguals and Palatals, 149, 150, p. 99 (note). 342. - Combinations of m, p. 29 (note), I38-140 , 184. -- Change of ch to ch, p. 27 (note *), I65. - Combinations of m, p. 29 (note). - Final = [and w] I84. — Final k, & , p, 266. Final t, 48–I5. IV. Decleusion. Gender, Number, Case, 83-89. – Case-endings, 90, 90. Pad-endings, 9, 24. . Substantives and Adjectives. Vowel-stems: Stems in a, m. n.. 103, II– Stems in ४, m., 13, II5; n , 14. [5. UnivCali - Digitized by Microsoft ® viii - Stems in u, m., 128; n., 136, 137. - Stems in i and d. f., 185--187. – Stems in ā, ā, ū: (a) Root-words. In ā, 212, 213; in i, 189, 212, 214; in ū. 197, 212, 214. (b) Derivative Stems, f. In ā, 162; in 7, 183; in ū, 198. — Stems in ?, 2014-205, 208. — Stems in Diphthongs: go, 209; nāu, 211; rāi, 277. Consonant-stems: General, 237—242. – (a) Root-stems, 243, 244, 246—250. – (b) Derivative Stems. In as, is, us, 252—254. lo an (an, man, van), 265. – In in (in, min, vin), 251. - In ant (ant, mant, vant) 256–264. – Perfect Participles in vāns, 268. – Comparatives in yas, 255. Irregular Nouns: 269–284. Comparison, 337–345. Formation of Feminine-stems, 187, 251, 255, 262—264, 268. VI. Numerals. 328–336. VII. Pronouns. 223—236, 285–288, 413. VIII. Conjugation Model Voice, Tense, Mode, Number, Person, 57–65. – Verbal Ad- jectives and Nouns, 66–68. Secondary Conjugation, 69–70. — Mode and Tense-stems, 71. IX. Present-System. Conjugation Classes, 72—80. First Conjugation. General, 383–387. I. Root-class (Hindu second or ad-class), 404—-412, 414 --429. II. Reduplicating Class (H. third or hu-class), 430—440. III. Nasal Class (H. seventh or rudh-class), 441–446. IV. Nu and u-Classes (H. fifth and eighth, or su and tan- classes), 388–395. V. Nā-Class (H. ninth or kri-class), 399-403. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Second, or a-Conjugation. VI. a-Class (H. first or bhu-class), 92-94, 97—102, 134, 135. 152–154, 178–182, 188, 193–196, 199, 200, 206, 207, 210, 222, 260. VII. Accented á-Class (Hindu sixth or tud-class), 107–110, 152–154 etc. (as for a-class). VIII. ya-Class (H. fourth or div-class), 124—127, 131-134, 152–155 etc. (as for a-class). IX. Accented ya-Class or Passive Conjugation, 168—176, 188, 199, 200, 210, 222. [Causative and Denominative Conjugation (partly=H. tenth or cur-class), 141-146, 152–154 etc. (as for a-class); also 215-221.] X. Perfect-System. 447-471, 474. Periphrastic Perfect, 472, 473. XI. Aorist-System. General, 486. – Simple Aorist: Root-aorist, 487; a-aorist, 488. – Reduplicated Aorist, 489, 490. – Sibilant Aorist: s-aorist, 491; is-aorist, 492; sis-aorist, 493; sa-aorist, 494. — Aorist Passive, 495, 496. XII. Future-System. General, 475. – Simple Future, 476--481. — Conditional, 482. - Periphrastic Future, 483—485. XIII. Verbal Adjectives and Substantives: Participles, Infinitive, Gerund. Passive Participle in ta or na, 289-301. -- Past Active Par- ticiple in tavant or navant, 302, 303. — Gerunds: Absolutives, 304-313. - Infinitive, 314-322. - Future Passive Participles: Gerundives, 323-327. XIV. Derivative or Secondary Conjugations. General, 497. – Passive, 498. – Causative, 507, 508. - Intensive, 499–502. – Desiderative, 503–506. — Denomina- tive, 509, 510. XV. Periphrastic Conjugation. Perfect, 472, 473. – Future, 483—485. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® XVI. Verhal Prefixes: Adverbs and Prepositions. 81, 82, 167, 190, 395-397. XVII. Formation of Compound Stems. Classification, 346—353. — Copulative Compounds, 354–357. — Determinative Compounds, 358; Dependent, 359—361; De- scriptive, 362–365. – Secondary Adjective Compounds, 366– 370; Possessive, 371—377; with Governed Final Member, 378. - Adjective Compounds as Nouns and Adverbs, 350, 379–381. [Drandva-compounds, p. 136 (note); Tatpuruṣa-compounds, p. 137 (note **); karmudhāraya-compounds, p. 137 (note *); Dvigu-con- pounds, 380; Bahuvrihi-compounds, p. 142 (note); Aryayābhāva- compounds, 381.] XVIII. Syntactical Rules. Position of Modifiers, p. 35 (note). — Repetition of Words, p. 67 (note *). -- Agreement of Adjectives, 245. — Force of Cases, 104, 112. - Prepositions with Cases, 82, 130. – kim with Instrumental (and Genitive), p. 89 (note). - Construction with Comparatives, 345. – Numerals, 333. – Pronouns, 225, 234 -236. – iti, p. 47 (note). - Force of Tenses: Present, 96; Imperfect, 182; Perfect, 474; Aorist, 486. — Force of Modes: Imperative, 194—196; Optative, 207. – Causative, 221. - Passive, 177. – Past Passive Participle, 290. – Past Active Participle, 303. - Gerund, 311-313. — Infinitive, 320-322. – Future Passive Participle, 327. Appendix. Hindu Names of Letters. – Modern Hindu Accentuation of Sanskrit. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Suggestions for using the Primer. The Primer can be finished by earnest students in sixteen or seventeen weeks, reckoning three lessons per week, with here and there an hour for review. After that LANMAN's Sanskrit Reader, an introduction to which this work is partly intended to be, should be taken up. Students are strongly recommended to provide themselves with WHITNEY's Sanskrit Grammar at the outset. It seemed advisable to leave the Introduction undivided into lessons, as different teachers may prefer to impart the alphabet, etc., to their scholars at different rates of speed. Some of the exercises for translation may be found rather too long to be com- pleted in one lesson. In such cases it will probably be better, after requiring the translation of only so many sentences as the pupil may reasonably be expected to master in the preparation of one day's lesson, to proceed directly to the next lesson in the following hour, leaving the untranslated sentences for a review. The vocabularies prefixed to each exercise are not exhaustive, since words which have been treated of immediately before are sometimes onitted from then. The glossaries at the end of the book will, it is hoped, be found complete for the exercises; but the meaning of compound words must in most cases be learned froin their elements; and proper names have often been omitted, their Sanskrit forms being discernible from the transliteration. The table of contents in systematic grammatical arrangement is designed to facilitate the finding of any desired article; it may also be found useful as an outline for a rapid grammatical review. Arrangement of Vocabularies. The vocabularies are arranged Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® xii in strict alphabetic order (see below). All nouns, whether sub- stantives or adjectives, are given in the stem-form. All verb-forms are placed under the root; prepositional compounds of verbs like- wise, and not in the alphabetic place of the preposition. Of verbal adjectives and nouns, some important ones have been given in their alphabetic places, but the meaning of most of them must be learned from their respective roots. Pronouns are given generally in the form of the nominative. Alphabetic Order. The alphabetic order is that given in § l, but the following points are to be noticed here: The visarga stands next after the vowels; but a visarga re- garded as equivalent to a sibilant and exchangeable with it has the alphabetic place of that sibilant. The sign i, representing “the anusvāra of more independent origin”, has its place before all the mutes etc.; thus danç and danştrā stand before dakşa. The sign », representing an assimilated m, is placed according to its phonetic value. 1. If m, resulting from the assimilation of m to a semivowel, sibilant, or h, represent a nasal semivowel or anusvāra, then its place is like that of n. Thus purs comes before punya and saņçaya before sakrt. 2. But if i be the product of m assimilated to a mute, representing ñ, ñ, n, n, or m, then its place is that of the nasal so represented. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. Alphabet. 1. Sanskrit is commonly written in what is called the Devanāgarī alphabet. The characters of this, and the European characters which will be used in transliterating them, are as follows: Vowels. short long At a 37 simple a 37 palatal इ । labial 3 u lingual #r dental ! ऊ ॥

palatal diphthongs | labial Visarga : ḥ, Anusvāra • ^ or m. ariate atto 31 Î ãi

  1. it au

371 Semi voveis siiants 16 Consonants. surd Siird asp. sonant sonant asp. nasal guttural aj k Ekh 99 g gh gū palata! च ८ छ ch jh lingual !! ठ th Z dh U n TS dental at ल 3 labial apoph 9 bh en Mutes gal 15 Mh a th 16 Am Perry, Sanskrit Primer. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction, Semivowels palatal ay lingual to a lua;s sonant. dental cani labial a 2. Sibilants: palatal I $; lingual o ş; dental # 8. Aspiration <h. 2. The above order is that in which the sounds are catalogued by native grammarians; and European scholars bave adopted it as the alphabetic order, for dictionaries, etc. The writing runs from left to right. 3. The theory of the devanāgarī mode of writing is syllabic and consonantal. That is, it regards as the written unit, not the simple sound, but the syllable; and further, it regards as the sub- stantial part of the syllable the consonant (or the consonants) pre- ceding the vowel — this latter being merely implied, as is the case with short a, except when initial, or, if written, being written by a subordinate sign attached to the consonant. 4. Hence follow these two principles: A. The forms of the vowel-characters given above are used only when the vowel forms a syllable by itself, or is not combined with a preceding consonant: that is, when it is initial, or preceded by another vowel. In combination with a consonant, other modes of representation are used. B. If more than one consonant precede a vowel, forming with it a single syllable, their characters must be combined into a single character 5. According to the Hindu mode of dividing syllables, each syllable must end in a vowel, or visarga, or anusvāra, except at the end of the word; and as ordinary Hindu usage does not divide the words of a sentence in writing, a final consonant is combined into one syllable with the initial vowel or consonant of the following word. so that a syllable ends in a consonant only at the end of m the sentence. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. pa ' . Thus the sentence kşetresu siktābhir meghānām adbhir dhānyam prarūdham — by the water which drops from the clouds upon the - tields the grain grows tall' – would be considered as consisting of the syllables kşe tre şu si ktā bhi rme ghā nā ma dbhi rdhā nyaň pra rū dham. Each of these syllables would be indicated by a single group of signs, without any reference whatever to the di- vision of the words composing the sentence; and the syllables are always written independently, with more or less closeness of approach; either like this: hag fa at fa *27 AT A TG UIT Z JE ZA — or tbus : 799- सिक्ताभिमेघानामद्भिर्घान्यंप्रढम. 6. In Sanskrit works printed in Europe, the common practice is to separate the words so far as this can be done without any alteration of the written form. Thus, a Ty qa: indrāya namah ; but nafaqafua tat savitur varenyam, because the final a 1 and Ir are not written with their full forms. But some few works have been printed, in which, by a free use of a sign called virāma (see below, $ 8), the individual words are separated. In translite- rated texts there is no good reason for printing otherwise than with all the words separated. 7. Under A. Vowels combined with preceding consonants are written as follows: 1. a: Short a has no written sign at all; the consonant-sign itself implies a following a, unless some other vowel-sign is attached to it (or else the virāma — see below, $ 8). Thus the consonant-signs given above are really the signs for ka, kl. co, cha, etc. (as far as 8 ha). 2. ā: oft ha cā. Et dhā etc. 3. i and i: fai ki. fu pi. fu dhi. — at kā. o pă. Et dhã. The hook above, turning to the left or to the right, is histori- cally the essential part of the character, baving been originally 1* Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. the whole of it; tbe hooks were only later prolonged, so as to reach all the way down beside the consonant. Observe that the i-books and the u-hooks, respectively above and below the line, are analogous in turning to the left for the short vowel and to the right for the long. 4. u and ū: gi ku. gcu. a bu. — ar kū. T cũ. bhū. Owing to the necessities of combination, consonant and vowel-sign are sometimes disguised; thus, & du, 5 dû; Tru, rū; or hu, Ę hū. 5. ? and ?: 5 kr. pr. – a kř. tř. With the h-sign, the vowel - book is usually attached to the middle; thus, hr. 6. !: okļ. 7. Diphthongs. e: a ke, û pe. ê ye. ãi: â kāi. û dhāi. |_0: को ko. भो bho. du: कौ kanu. रौ rau. In some printed texts the signs for o and āu are separated, the = or A being placed over the consonant-sign, and not over the perpendicular stroke; thus, ant ko, at kāu. 8. A consonant-sign may be made to signify the sound of that consonant alone, without an added vowel, by writing beneath it a stroke called the virāma (“ rest', 'stop'); thus, a k, ah, ad. Strictly, the cirāma should be used only at the end of a sentence; but it is often used by scribes, or in print, in the middle of a word or sentence, to avoid awkward or difficult combinations; thus, fecrat: liabhiḥ. forzą lițsu. 9. Under B. The combinations of consonants are in general not difficult. The perpendicular and horizontal lines are common to almost all; and if two or more are to be combined, the following method is pursued. The characteristic part of a consonant-sign that is to be added to another is taken (to the exclusion of the perpendicular or of the horizontal framing - line, or of both), and they are put together according to convenience, either side by side, OL Y SO Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. 2T or one above the other: in some combinations either arrangement is allowed. The consonant to be pronounced first is set first in the one arrangement, and above in the other arrangement. Only the consonant at the right of a horizontal group, and that at the top of a perpendicular group, are written in full. Examples of the horizontal arrangement are: ग्ग 990, जे 7ju, प्य pga, नम tama, त्य ttha, भ्य bhya, क ska, য $na. Examples of the perpendicular arrangement are: E kka, ucca, ži kva, 71 ñja, y pta, a tna. 10. In some combinations there is more or less abbreviation or disguise of the independent form of a consonant-sign. Thus, of ap k in F kta; and in U kņa, ay kya etc.; of a t in 7 tta; of a d in 5 dga, Edda, y ddha, 3 dbha etc.; of Ħ m and I y, when following other consonants , thus, ai kya, at kma, Fñma, 3 dma, 7 dya, Ethma, hya, J thya, a dhya ; of 7 %, which generally becomes sy when followed by a consonant; tbus, çca, çna, #çla, sy sya. The same change is usual when a vowel-sigu is added below; thus, i çu, çr. II. Other combinations, of not quite obvious salue, are u ņņa., E sța, 8 stha; and the compounds of g h, as ren hņa, hna. 12. In a case or two, no trace of the constituent letters is recognizable; thus, 7 kşa, 5 jña, 13. The seniivowel I r, in making combinations with other consonants, is treated in a wholly peculiar manner, analogous with that of the vowels. 1. As the first of a group of consonants it is written with a hook above, opening to the right (like the subjoined sign of r); thus, a rka, å rpta. When a compound consonant mat Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. >mm ar thus containing r as its first member is followed by one of the rowels i, i, e, o, āi, āu, with or without a nasal symbol, the r-. sign must stand at the extreme right; thus, a rke, af rko, oni rkāu, fairki, ant rkā, ärkań, mifh rkānsi, af rbhim. 2. If pronounced after another consonant or consonants, r is indicated by a slanting stroke below, to the left; thus, Agra, u pra,

  1. sra, 7 dra. And, with modifications of the preceding consonant-

sign like those noted above, 7 tra, çra. In the middle of a group, r has the same sign as at the end ; thus, z grya, a srva. 3. When Tr is to be combined with a following ?, it is the vowel which is written in full, with its initial character, and the consonant in subordination to it; thus, rr, farefa nirīti. 14. Combinations of three, four, or even five consonants (this latter excessively rare) are made according to the same rules; thus, ttva, ddhya, y drya, y drya, the psva, per tsya, çoya, 89 sthya ; q ñkşva, strya, read tsmya; Fat rtsnya. 15. Both MSS. and type-fonts differ considerably in their management of consonant-combinations, but a little practice will enable one who is thoroughly familiar with the simple signs and with the principles of combination to decipher, as well as to make for himself, all such groups. 16. A sign (5) called the aragraha, or "separator', is used in printed texts to mark the elision of initial a after final e or o (see below, $ 119, 158): thus à sa te "bruvan. But some texts, especially those printed in India, dispense with this sign. In our transliteration this sign will be represented by the inverted comma, as in the example just given. In the MSS. the s is also used as a hyphen, and sometimes as a mark of hiatus. 17. The sign • is used to mark an omission of something easily understood (whether from the context, or from previous knowledge), e ell. SUS a 01 VIO Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. 11 and thus becomes a mark of abbreviation; thus, Tah Phoata gatas -tam -tena, i. e. gatam gatena etc. 18. The only signs of punctuation are 1 and ll. 19. The numeral figures are 91, 22, 3 3, 8 4, 4 I, & 6, 07, 68, e 9, o 0. In combination, to express larger numbers, they are used precisely as are European digits; thus, 28 24, 854 485, DERO 7620. This system of notation originated in India, and was brought to Europe by the Arabs, who call it the Indian system, as we style it the Arabic. 20. In writing Sanskrit the Hindus generally begin at the left of the letter, and make the horizontal top-stroke last; thus, 1, ", 0; , 2, ; i, a, a. But often the horizontal stroke is made first, and the perpendicular stroke added without raising the pen from the paper; thus, 7, a; 7, anu. System of Sounds: Pronunciation. 21. The Sanskrit is used in India to this day very much as Latin was used in Europe in the previous century: it is a common medium of communication between the learned, be their native tongues what they may, and it is not the vernacular of any district whatever. Hence it is not strange that the pronunciation of San- skrit words varies greatly among scholars from different parts of India; and probably no one system represents the true ancient mode of utterance with much exactness. I. Vowels. 22. A. The a, i, and u-vowels. These three occur both short and long, and are to be pronounced in the · Italian’ manner – as au for-)gan and father, pin and pique, pull and rule, respectively. The Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. a-vowel stands in no relation of kindred with any of the classes of consonantal sounds. But the e- rowel is distinctly palatal, and the u-vowel as distinctly labial. 23. B. The ? and ?- vowels. Both of these are plainly the result of abbreviating syllables containing a Tror a l along with another rowel: ļ is to be sounded like the re in the English fibre, ļ like le in able: 24. C. The diphthongs. 1. The e and 0, which are always long, should receive the long e and 0-sounds of the English they and bone, without true diphthongal character. In their origin, both were doubtless in the main pure diphthongs (e = a +i, o = a + u); but they lost this character at a very early period. 2. The āi and āu are spoken like the ai in English aisle and au in German Baum (ou in English house); that is, as pure diphthongs with long prior element. They were originally, doubtless, distin- guished from e and o only by the length of the first element. ma H). Consonants. 25. A. Mates. In each series of mutes there are two surd members, two sonants, and one nasal (also sonant); e.g., in the labial series, the surds p and ph, the sonants b and bh, and the sonant m. 26. The first and third members of each series are the ordinary corresponding surd and sonant mutes of European languages; thus, k and g, t and d, p and b. 27. Nor is the character of the nasal any more doubtful. What m is to p and b, or n is to t and d, that is also each other nasal to its own series of mutes: a sonant expulsion of breath into and through the nose, while the mouth- organs are in the mute- contact. 28. The second and fourth of each series are aspirates; the 111 Univ Calif - Ditized by Microsoft ® 10 Introduction. 34. 5. Labials: p, ph, b, bh, m. These are exactly the equi- valents of the English p, b, m. 35. B. Semivowels: y, r, l, v. 1. The palatal semivowel y stands in the closest relationship with the vowel i (short or long): the two exchange with one another in cases innumerable. Very probably the Sanskrit y had everywhere more of an i-character than our y. 36. 2. The r is clearly a lingual sound. It thus resembles the English smooth r, and like this seems to have been untrilled. 37. 3. The l is a sound of dental position, quite as in Euglish. 38. 4. The labial v is pronounced as English or French v by the modern Hindus - except when preceded by a consonant (except r) in the same syllable, when it sounds like English w; and European scholars follow the same practice (with or without the same exception). But strictly tbe v stands related to an u- vowel precisely as y to an i-vowel: that is, it is a w-sound in the English sense, or perhaps more like the ou in French oui. The rules of Sanskrit euphony affecting this sound, and the name “semi- vowel”, have no application except to such a w-sound: a v-sound (German w) is no semivowel, but a spirant, like the English th- sounds and f. The four senii volvers are always conint fcorr.' 39. C. Sibilants: $, ș, s. 1. The s is of plain character: a dental, and exactly like the English s (as in lesson — never as in ease). 40. 2. The ș is the sibilant pronounced in the lingual position. It is, therefore, a kind of sh-sound, and by Europeaus is pronounced as ordinary English sh, no attempt being made to give it its proper lingual quality. 41. 3. The ç is by all native authorities described as palatal. It is the usual sh-sound of English, though the Hindus are said VOW Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. 11 DOU to speak it somewhat differently nowadays. By Europeans it is variously pronounced — perbaps oftener as s tban as sh. 42. All three sibilants are always surd. 43. D. Aspiration; h. This is usually pronounced like the ordinary European surd aspiration h. But its true value in the euphony of the language is that of a sonant. It is not an original sound of the language, but comes in most cases from an older gh, in some few cases from dh or bh. It appears to include in itself two stages of corruption of gh: one corresponding with that of k to c, the other with that of k to g. 44. E. Visarga: ì. The ḥ appears to be merely a surd breath- ing, a final h-sound (in the European sense of h), uttered in the articulating position of the preceding vowel. The risarga is not original, but always a mere substitute for final s or r. 45. F. Anusvara. The anusvāra, å or in, is a nasal sound lacking that closure of the organs which is required to make a nasal mute; in its utterance there is nasal resonance along with some degree of openness of the mouth. European scholars give the anusvāra the value of the nasal in the French -an, -on, -en, -in, etc., wbich is a mere nasal coloring of the preceding vowel. 46. Two different signs, · and , are used in the MSS. to indicate the anusvāra. Most commonly · is employed; ☺ will not often be met with in printed texts, except to mark the change of a nasal mute to anusvāra before a following semivowel, parti- cularly l; thus, ara qat tanl labdhān. Cf. § 139. 47. It is convenient in transliteration to distinguish the assi- milated m (in all cases) by a special sign ń, from the anusvāra of more independent origin, represented by ń. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. Light and Heavy Syllables. 48. For metrical purposes syllables (not vowels) are dis- tinguished as “heavy' and 'light'. A syllable is heavy if its vowel is long, or short and followed by more than one consonant (“long by position"). Visarga and anusvāra are here counted as full con- sonants. The aspirated mutes, of course, do not count as double letters. . Changes of Sounds. Guna and Vrddhi. 49. The changes to which both the vowels and the consonants of Sanskrit are subject are very numerous. Among the vowel- changes, the most regular and frequent are the so-called guna and vrddhi, which are of frequent occurrence in derivation and inflection. 50. The following table exhibits these changes: Simple vowels wa wa Fifa zu Brú 1 ? Guņa अ आ 6 ए । ओ ० । शुर ar Vrddhi

  1. Tā û ai ! Tāu | 17 år

n 51. Theoretically the changes of Ț would coincide with those of ļ, and the vrddhi of ļ would be āl; but actual cases of these are quite unknown. The guņa of ? is al (just as that of ? is ar), but it occurs only in one root, klp. As will be seen in the sequel, the guna-sound coincides with the result of the combination of an a with the simple vowel corresponding to that guna; thus, ya combines with a following 7 i ori into Q e, which is also the guņa of 7 i and & i. The výddhi, in like manner, is identical with the result of combining an am a with the corresponding guna; thus, a combines with a following d e into û ài, the vrddhi of 7 i and 7 i. For the present the table is to be learned outright. 52. In all gunating processes a remains unchanged — or, Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. 13 as it is sometimes expressed, ma is its own guna; n à remains unchanged for both guna and orddhi. 53. The guņa-increment does not, except in exceedingly rare instances, take place in a beavy syllable (see § 48) ending in a consonant: e. g., faq cit may become a cet, and it ni may become â ne; but fara cint or fara nind or sta jāv may not become चेन्त्_cent or नेन्द् nend or जैव jee. 54. Other changes of vowels and consonants occur very fre- quently, in the making-up of single words from roots, by means of suffixes and endings, and in the formation of compound words by the union of two or more stems - a process of the very greatest frequency in Sanskrit. Furthermore, in the form in wbich the language is handed down to us by the literature, the words composing a sentence or paragraph are adapted to and combined with each other by nearly the same rules as those wbich govern the making of compounds, so that it is impossible to take apart and understand the simplest sentence in Sanskrit without understanding those rules. The most important of the rules for such combination will be given piecemeal in the lessons. no Roots and Stems. 55. A knowledge on the student's part of the meaning and application of the terms root, stem, personal ending, etc., is pre- supposed. The formative processes by which both inflectional forms and derivative stems are made, by the addition of endings to bases and roots, are more regular and transparent in Sanskrit than in any other Indo-European language.* In the present work, which aims preeminently to give the student considerable practical acquaintance with the language within a brief compass of lessons, not every given form will be explained by analysis. But wherever any explanation of forms is given, it will of course be according to this method. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 14 Introduction. Accent. 101 A 56. The phenomena of accent are, by the Hindu grammarians of all ages alike, described and treated as depending on a variation of tone or pitch; of any difference of stress involved, they make no account. These accents are marked only in certain Vedic texts, and employed only in their recitation, whereas the accents used nowadays by Hindus in the pronunciation of Sanskrit (and left undenoted in writing) are mainly ictus-accents, i. e. variations of stress. The principles of the latter system will be given in an appendix. The older system of accents bas great etymological im- portance; the latter none whatever; and only the older system will be referred to in the following. Here it will be enough to state that the primary tones or accent-pitches of the older system are two: a higher, or acute; and a lower, or grave. A third, called svarita, is always of secondary origin, being ordinarily the result of actual combination of an acute vowel and a grave vowel into one syllable. It is uniformly defined as compound in pitch, a union of higher and lower tone within the limits of a single syllable. It is thus identical in physical character with the Greek and Latin circumflex, and fully entitled to be called by the same name. Whenever, in the sequel, accent is mentioned, without further de- finition, the acute accent is to be understood; and it will be de- signated by the ordinary acute sign. Conjugation of Verbs. 57. The Sanskrit verb exhibits the closest analogy with that of Greek, being developed in tense-systems, as outgrowths of certain tense-stems. In the older stage of the language, i. e. in the so- called Vedic period, the modal ramifications of each tense - stem are as numerous as in Greek; but in the later stage, the Sanskrit proper (also called the classical language), these outgrowtbs have Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ®. Introduction. 15 e been lopped off to so very great an extent, that with one insigui- ficant exception, the precative or aorist optative, only the present- system still retains any modal variety whatever. 58. There is a simple or ordinary conjugation of verbal roots, which we call primary; and there are certain more or less fully developed secondary or derivative conjugations ($ 69). 59. Voices. There are two voices, active and middle, which extend throughout the whole system of conjugation. For the present- system alone there is a special passive inflection; the middle forms outside that system, and sometimes even within it, are liable to be used likewise in a passive sense. Au active form is called by the Hindu grammarians parasmāi padam 'word for another'; a middle form, ātmane padam ‘word for one's self.' Some verbs are conjugated in both voices, others in one only; sometimes some of the tenses are inflected only in one voice, others only in the other voice, or in both; of a verb usually inflected in one voice sporadic forms of the other occur; and sometimes the voice differs as the verb is compounded with certain prepositions. 60. Persons and Numbers. There are three persons: first, second, and third; and, as with substantives, adjectives, and pro- nouns, three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. All these persons and numbers are made from every tense and mode—except that the first persons of the imperative are really subjunctive forms. 61. The native grammarians denote as the first person what we call the third; and as we are wont to speak of the verb deyw, the verb žpxonal, the verb amo, etc., so the Hindus use for instance Hafa bhávati (3rd sing. pres. indic. of \ bhū) to signify the whole system of verbal forms from that root, since Hafa heads the list of forms in the native gramniar, as réyw, or épxordio or amo, does in Greek or Latin. The Hindus even make substantives out of Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 16 Introduction. such catchword forms, and inflect them according to the needs of expression. 62. In the following, the conjugation-class of verbs will be indicated by the 3rd sing. pres. ind., placed in parenthesis after the root; thus, # bhū (Hafa bhávati). 63. Tenses and modes. The scheme of tenses and modes put forth by the Hindus bolds good only for the later language, and even there utterly confounds the ideas of mode and tense. 64. The only logical arrangement of the modes and tenses in Sanskrit is shown in the following table (which includes only the classical speech): I. Present-System: a. Indicative. b. Imperfect. c. Imperative. d. Optative. e. Participle. II. Perfect System. a. Indicative. b. Participle. III. Aorist Systems (of triple formation). a. Indicative. b. Op- tative (sometimes = “Precative”). IV. Future Systems. A. Şibilant Future. a. Indicative. b. Preterit(= "Conditional"). c. Participle. B. Periphrastic Future. a. Indicative. 65. The tenses here distinguished as imperfect, perfect, and aorist receive those names from their correspondence in mode of formation with tenses so called in other languages of the family, especially in Greek, and not at all from any differences of time designated by them. In no period of the Sanskrit language is there any expression of imperfect or pluperfect time – nor of perfect time, except in the older language, where the “aorist” has this value; in the later speech, imperfect, perfect, and aorist (of rare use) are so many undiscriminated past tenses or preterits. COT Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. 17 Verbal Adjectives and Substantives. 66. Participles. The participles belongiug to the tense-systems have been already indicated in the table at $64. There is, besides, a participle formed directly from the root of the verb, which is prevailingly of past and passive (sometimes neuter) meaning. Moreover, future passive participles, or gerundives, of several different formations, are made, but without connection with the future-stemis. 67. Infinitive. The classical Sanskrit has a single infinitive. It is really an accusative case of a verbal noun, having nothing whatever to do with the tense-systems. 68. Geruud. A so-called gerund, or absolutive, is especially frequent, and is, like the infinitive, a stereotyped case-form (in- strumental) of a derivative verbal noun. Its value is that of au indeclinable active participle, with indeterminate, but oftenest past, temporal force. LCO S 2 Secondary Conjugations. 69. The secondary conjugations are as follows: 1. Passive; 2. Intensive; 3. Desiderative; 4. Causative. In these, not the simple root, but a conjugation-stem, underlies the whole system of inflections. Yet in them all is plainly visible the character of a present-system, expanded into a more or less complete conjuga- tion; the passive is palpably a present-system. Compare § 58–59. 70. Under the same general head belong: 5. Denominative conjugation, which results from the conversion of noun-stews, both substantive and adjective, into conjugation-stems; 6. Compound con- jugation, resulting from the prefixion of prepositions to roots, or from the addition of auxiliary verbs to noun-stems; and 7. Periphrastic conjugation, from the looser combination of auxiliaries with verbal nouns and adjectives. Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 2 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 18 Introduction. 71. The characteristic of a proper (i. e. finite or personal) verb-form is its personal ending. By this alone is determined its character as regards person and number, and in part also as regards mode and tense. But the distinctions of mode and tense are mainly made by the formation of mode and tense-stems, to which, instead of to the bare root, the personal endings are appended. e Conjugation - Classes. 72. Of the whole conjugation, the present-system is the im- portant and prominent part. Its forms are very much more fre- quent than those of all the other systems together. As there is also great variety in the manner in which different roots form their present-stems, this, as being their most conspicuous difference, is made the basis of their principal classification; and a verb is said to be of this or that conjugation, or class, according to the way in which its present-stem is made. 73. Of these conjugation- classes there are nine, including the passive, which is really a present-system only. The first five exhibit coincidences enough to justify their inclusion into one con- jugation, and the remaining four will compose likewise a second conjugation. The chief distinctions between the two groups are as follows: 74. In the first, the classes have in common, as their funda- mental characteristic, a shift of accent: the tone is now upon the personal ending, now upon the root or the class-sign. Along with this goes a variation in the stem itself, which has a stronger, or fuller, form wben the accent rests upon it, and a weaker, or briefer, form when the accent is on the ending. We distinguish these forms as the strong and the weak stem-forms respectively. 75. In the second conjugation, on the contrary, the accent bas a fixed place, remaining always upon the same syllable of the remai On 3 NOW Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. 19 eo sten, and never being shifted to the endings; and the distinction of strong and weak forms is unknown. Moreover, the present-stem of every verb in the four classes of this conjugation ends in 7 a. There are also other points of difference. 76. The classification current among the Hindu, and hitherto among the European, grammarians comprises ten conjugation- classes, arranged according to no intelligible principle whatever. The native “tenth class” is really no present-class at all, but a causative, i. e. a derivative conjugation, which extends beyond the limits of the present-system. Probably the fact that by no means all conjugation-stems formed by the causative sign bad really a causative value induced the natives to adopt such a present-class. The Hindu scheme also quite omits the passive. 77. The Hindu first, sixth, fourth, and tenth classes form the so- called first conjugation of their scheme, which corresponds, except as regards the tenth class, with our second conjugation. The remainder of the classes form the natives' second conjugation, which agrees in the main with our first. 78. The classes are then as follows: Pes 00 First Conjugation. 1. The root-class (second or ad-class, of the Hindus); its present-stem is coincident with the root itself; thus, 7 ad, 'eat'; qigo'; fem dưiş, “bate'. II. The reduplicating class (third or hu-class); the rooi is reduplicated to form the present-stemi; thus, Je juhu from l' hu, “sacrifice’; 2 dadā from V'dā, “gire'. JII. The nasal class (seventh or rudh-class); a pasal, extended to the syllable na [na] in strong forms, is inserted before the final consonant of the root; thus, fær rundh (or Tuy runadh) from Ty rudh, "hinder'. 2* Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 20 Introduction. IV. a. The nu-class (fifth or su-class); the syllable a nu is added to the root; thus, I sunu from 1' su, 'press.' b. A very small number of roots (only half-a-dozen) ending already in a n, and also one very common and irregularly inflected root not 80 ending (or kr, make'), add 3 u alone to form the present-stem. This is the eighth or tan-class of the Hindu gram- marians; it is best ranked as a sub-class, the u-class; thus, a tanu from varatan, stretch.' V. The nã-class (ninth or krī-class); the syllable at nā (or, in weak forms, it ni) is added to the root; thus, mtu krāņā (or anut krāṇī) from 1 krī, “buy”. See note**, p. 32. Second Conjugation. . VI. The a-class, or unaccented a-class (first or bhū-class); the added class-sign is a sinply; and the root, which bears the accent, is strengthened by guna throughout, if it be capable of taking guna (see $$ 52-53); thus, ha bháva (through the inter- mediate stage bhó-a) from v 4 bhú, “be.' VII. The à-class, or accented a-class (sixth or tud-class); the added class-sign is a, as in the preceding class; but it has the accent, and the unaccented root is not strengthened by guna; thus, az tudá from 1' az tud, 'thrust.' VIII. The ya- class (fourth or div-class); ya is added to the root, which has the accent; thus, a divya from vata dīv (by the Hindus given as fadir), “play.' IX. The passive conjugation is also properly a present-system only, having a class-sign which is not extended into the other systems; though it differs markedly from the remaining classes in having a specific meaning, and in being formable from all tran- sitive verbs, but with endings of the middle voice only. It forms S m Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Introduction. 21 ad, its stem by adding an accented yu to the root; thus, from y v a adya; from 1 To rudh, Tu rudhyá. 79. Roots are not wholly limited, even in the later language, to one mode of formation of their present-stem, but are sometimes reckoned as belonging to two or more different conjugation-classes. 80. The verbs of our second conjugation show much greater simplicity of formation and inflection and are far more frequent and numerous than those of our first; their paradigms will there- fore be given before those of our first. al Prepositions and Prepositional Prefixes. 81. Prepositions, or, more strictly speaking, adverbial prefixes, are used with verbs quite as frequently in Sanskrit as in Greek; and more than one may be prefixed. Thus when y qy budh+ anu is given in the vocabulary, this signifies that the preposition g is prefixed to the proper verbal form; and the 3rd sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb would then be atyfa anubodhati; so dha + FR-UT (or ĦĦT) sam-ă, 3rd sing. HATGETfa samādadhāti. The rules prevailing in Greek for the prefixion of prepositions, etc., to verbal forms will be found to hold good in Sanskrit. 82. There is in Sanskrit no proper class of prepositions (in the modern sense of the term); no body of words baving as their exclusive office the “ government” of nouns. But many adverbial words are used with nouns in a way which approximates them to the more fully developed prepositions of other languages. Words are used prepositionally along with all the noun-cases, except the dative (and of course the nominative and vocative). But in general their office is directive only, determining more definitely, or strengthening, the proper case-use of the noun. NOUI NO 00UI. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 22



83. The declension of substantives and that of adjectives correspond so closely that the two classes of words must be treated together. The pronouns and numerals, on the other hand, exhibit here as in the kindred languages many striking peculiarities.

84. Numbers and genders. There are three numbers, singular, dual, and plural; and the usual three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter. The dual is used much more extensively than in Greek, where it appears in a moribund state.

85. Cases. The cases are eight in number, given generally in the following order: nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative, and vocative. The object sought in the arrangement is simply to set next to one another those cases which are to a greater or less extent, in one number or another, identical in form; and, putting the nominative first, as leading case, there is no other order by which that object could be attained.

For the uses of the cases in detail see Wh. 267-305

86. The stems of substantives and adjectives may for convenience be classified as follows: I. Stems in a. II.Stems in i and u. III. Stems in a, i, and u: namely, A. radical-stems, and a few others infected like them; B. derivative stems. IV.Stems in ? (or अर् ar). V. Stems in consonants.

87. Strong and weak cases. In stems ending in consonants. and those in r (or अर् ar), there is seen a distinction of stem-form in different cases. Sometimes the stem-forms are two, when they are called strong | and weak respectively; sometimes three: strong, middle, and weakest. As is the case with verbs, this variation of stem-form often goes hand-in-hand with a shift of accent.

88. In the masculine and feminine, the strong cases are the nom. and acc., both sing. and dual, and the nom. pl. The rest Introduction. 23 are weak; or, if there be the distinction of three stem-forms, then the instr., dat., abl., gen., and loc. sing., the gen. and loc. du., and the gen. pl. (all of which take endings beginning with a vowel), are weakest; and the instr., dat., and abl. du., the instr., dat., abl., and loc. pl. (whose endings begin with consonants), are middle. 89. In the neuter, the only strong cases are the nom. and acc. pl.; if there be the triple distinction, then the nom. and acc. sing. are middle, and the same cases in the dual are weakest. Otherwise the cases are classified as in the masculine. 90. Case-endings. The normal scheme of case - endings, as recognized by the native grammarians (and conveniently to be assumed as the basis of special descriptions), is this: Singular Dual Plural m.f. n. m.f. n. m. f. n. S m au į as i A. ат āu i as i I. å i thyām bhis D. e bhyām bhyas Ab. as bhyām bhyas G. as L. i It applies entire to consonant-stems, and to the radical division of i and ū-stems; and to other vowel-stems, with considerable variations and modifications. The endings which have almost or quite unbroken range, through stems of all classes, are bhyām and os of the dual, and bhis, bhyas, ām, and su of the plural. 91. Pada-endings. The case-endings Whyām, bhis, bhyas, and 8u — i. e. those of the middle cases — are called pada (“ word”)- endings. The treatment of stem-finals before them is generally the same as in the combinations of words with one another. OS ām Os su Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 24 Lesson I. Lesson I. 92. Verbs. Present Indicative active. Unaccented a-claws. A number of roots conjugated in this class have medial short a. Inasmuch as “my a is its own guna”, these roots merely add an a to form the present-stem; e. g., a vad, present-stem are váda. The final y a of the stem is lengthened in the three first persons. Dual. Plural. Sing 1. TETfA váděmi 2. afh vádasi 3. azfa vádati Tal vádāvas दथे dathas Tot vádatas CTHA vádāmas ádatha asfa vádanti 93. The ending of the 3rd plur. is properly fat anti; it suffers abbreviation, however, by the loss of its y a, in verbs whose stevi ends in a. 94. As a beavy syllable ending in a consonant cannot be gunated, a root like utą jāv makes its 3rd sing. itafa jóvati; Foro nind makes fpefa nindati, etc. See § 53. midas tecles' 95. Euphonic rule. At the end of a word standing in the final position of a sentence, or alone, H s and I r always become visarja : ḥ; and generally also before a k, a kh, u P, a ph, and before sibilants (ETS, $ #s), whether these stand in the same word, or as initial in the following word; e. g. azad 977 radatas punar becomes always aca: ga: vadataḥ punaḥ. 96. Force of the present. The present indicative signifies 1. Present time. 2. Immediate futurity. 3. Past time, in lively narration (“historical present”). Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson I. Vocabulary I. Verbs to he conjugated like a vad: a car (intr.) go, wander, graze ua pat fall; fly. (of cattle);(tr.) perform, commit. 275 yaj sacrifice (c. acc. pers. et ata jāv live. instr. rei). 219 tyaj leave, abandon. T raks proxect. ZR dah burn. 27 rad speak, say. ETą dhâv run. GĦ vas dwell. TH nam (intr.) bow, bend one's ag vah (tr.) carry, bear; (intr.) selfs (tr.) honor, reverence. | flow, blow, proceed. पच् puc cook. TR çans praise. UT va Adverbs and Conjunctions. अतस् atas MA itas | bence wað tatas thence therefore bereupon whence ne yatas { | wherefore e atra iha bere bither तत्र tatra there thither Yonder r T yatra | where whither in that way She ittham, in this way - tathā yet yathā which way as: SO | so | whence? gate kutas ? why? qe kutra | where? H kva ( whither ? auh katham how ? कदा kada when? yrt Thunā now es ariya to-day Van eram so, thus va eva just, exactly तदा tada then JET yadā vil.f un ukes pla. pang sarvatra everywhere #F! a stem, whether gfa iti so, tbus ole as converted into 1 ä сa (postpos.) -que fa instead of afer and alet) Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 26 Lesson I, II. Exercise 1. va ara: 191 #67 429T121 19 Tafa 13 wa TETA 181 UGT UTAN ATT UTTUI 41 ñ yafai 1 & 1 ta TTT: Ilana: jefe 151 EA QUA I eiga qara: 1901 fe 1991 Terezfar 198 199 TATA: 1931 97 stafa il 98 11 15. *Today? they abandonº. 16. Nowl ye go? 17. Alwaysł I protect®. 18. We two bowl again”. 19. Whither? runnest thou? 20. We sacrifice. 21. They two cook. 22. Ye abandon. 23. He burns. 24. Now we live". 25. Ye two praise. 26. Why? do ye bend?? 27. There they fly? 28. Where do ye dwell? Lesson II. 97. Verbs. Unaccented a-class, contd. Roots of this class which end in a vowel, and consonant- roots not forming heavy syllables (853), gunate their vowels in forming their present-stems; ise e. g., fa ji and i nī form je and â ne; dru and 2 bhū forin

->0 adro and aft bho; Et sms forms F#smar; fera cit and a budh

| " form चेत् cet and बोध bodh; वृष 20rs forms वर्ष 20rs. 98. With the class-sign up a, a final d e of the gunated root es unites to form 4 aya — see § 159; so ut o with yo becomes man pa ava ; T ar with 7 a yields T ara. Thus, for jë, 3rd sing. be sefa jáya-ti; # bhū Hafa bhávati; Et sur arfa smárati. ortatará o Date in consonanta au hudh. 99. Roots in consonants: qu budh, 3rd sing. atufa bódhari ; चित् cit, चेतति cetati: वृष ८r8, वर्षति ०drsati.

  • The superior figures indicate the position in the Sanskrit

sentence of equivalents for the words so designated. By this indi- mas -is :voided the necessity of applying euphonic rules which 96. Force cen stated. The order of words in Sanskrit is very 1. Pregent time influences the meaning of the sentence. From the or of words required in the Sanskrit sentence will narration (“histori Words in Italics are not to be translated. Univ Calif - Digitized by Mierosoft ®, Lesson II. 27 27 100. The roots TA gam and JA yam make the present-stems गच्छ gdccha and यच्छ gdccha*. 101. The root HE sad, ésit', makes the present-stem pię sida. The root yg guh, “bide', makes mefa gúhati. 102. Several roots in final m ā form their present-stem by a peculiar process of reduplication; thus, et sthā, 3rd sing. farfa tisthati**; ut på foafa pibati ; ET ghrā faafa jighrati. 103. Masculines and Neuters in a. the a. Masculines: ża deva, “god'. Singular. Dual. Plural. | N. देवस् deeds । zat derāu aath devās Acc. देवम् deodam zata devân Voc. za deva deras (corr.) b. Neuters: The phala, 'fruit'. N. फलम् phalam | फले phale (a+३) फलानि phalam Acc. Voc. Ta phala A dial en AN Actens

  • As a rule, the grammarians do not allow ich to stand in

that form after a vowel, but require it to be doubled, becoming occh. An aspirate is doubled by prefixing the corresponding non-aspirate. Cf. $ 165.

    • The dental sibilant # s is changed to the lingual q ș, if 5+ş

immediately preceded by any vowel save up a and an å, or by a k or Tr– unless the # s be final, or followed by Tr. Thus, frefa ti-stha-ti becomes fagfa tişthati (the change of a th to I th -- a process of assimilation — will be explained below). So og agni-su becomes ufay agnișu; and yhT dhanus-a becomes धनुषा dhanusai. It be The nasalization of the alterant vowel, or in other words, its Dei Finang followed by anusvára, does not prevent its altering effect upon the followir sibilant; thus, gatfg havīnsi. And the alteration takes place in ibe initial of an ending after the final # 8 of a stem, whether the latter be regarded as also changed to ? $ or as converted into visurga ; thus, fact haviş-şu or faig havik-su instead of efa havis-su. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® * 28 Lesson II. Ae 104. Force of cases. 1. The nominative is casus subjectivus. Acc. 2. The accusative is casus objectivus, denoting cbiefly the nearer or direct, sometimes however the more remote, object; sometimes also the terminus ad quem, and extent of time and space. 105. Euphonic combination of vowels. 4. a. 1. अ a or आ @ + अ or आ = आ. e. g. गता अपि gata api = Jarfa gatā pi. ari 2. Form+gi or fi = Ve. e.g. Tal+afaiti= utafagate®ti. atu 3. or + Bu or 3 ü = 0. e. g. MT + 3a uta = mata gato la. ath 4. अ or आ + ऋ? = अर् ar. e. g. महा maha + ऋषिः sih = Hafe: maharşiḥ. 5. अ or आ + ए e or ऐ di = ऐ ai. e. g. गती + एव eva = yaa gatăi 'va. at als 6. or En + o or IT āu = ut āu. e. g. TOT + Turu: oşadhiḥ = oratore: gatāu 'şadhiḥ. 106. It will be the practice everywhere in this work to separate independent words in transliteration, but not in the deva- nāgarī text; and if an initial vowel of a following word has coalesced with a final of the preceding, this will be indicated by an apostrophe – single if the initial vowel be the shorter, double if it be the longer, of the two different initials which in every case of combination yield the same result. To aid the bea ginner, a point • will sometimes be placed, in the devanāgarī, under a long vowel formed by two coalescing vowels; thus, #f4- ATTUTA agninā ’rīņām. cha Verbs, u- class: A gam (gácchati) go. 7 ghrá (ghrair) smell. Vocabulary ll. jayati ? 11s ji (tr. and intr.) conquer, wiry dru run. (dravati the A ni lead, guide. { na yatil vill TI Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson II. 29 ut pā (pibati) drink. 17 nara man (vir and homo). 21 bhū become, be, exist. (blsúvatil 79 nrpa king. YA yam (yácchati) furnish, give. ga putra son. ao vệs rain, give rain; (fig.) Neut.: shower down; overwbelm. 77 kšīra milk. 48m? remember, think on. Te gļha bouse. PTT sthā (tișthati) stand (intr.). F jala water. Subst. Masc.: 79 dāna gift, present. T5 gaja elephant. TOTT nagara city. gael gandha odor, perfume. | Interj.; UTH grāma village. he O, bo. Exercise 11. HET Cara Ersfa 191 * TERTA: 1817 fuara : 131 नृपी बयतः । ४। कदा फलानि यच्छथः ।५। कुत्रधुना गजं नयामि । ६। नयन्ति देवाः । ७ । नयथ हे देवाः । ८। नरः फले यच्छति । ९ । अ- धुना जिघ्रामि गन्धम् । १०। देवं यजावः।११। पुत्र ग्रामं गच्छन्ति ।१२। तत्र गृहे भवतः । १३ । सर्वत्र दानानि वर्षन्ति नृपाः ॥ १४ ॥ 15. The man' drinks milk? 16. The king leads the elephant'. 17. Two houses' fall? 18. The god' giveswater?. 19. Ye both think on (E) the two gods? (accus.). 20. The kings wins the village?. 21. The two elepbants' smell the perfume?. 22. They cook fruits'. 23. The man reverences the gods? 24. The two elephants' live”. 25. The gods giverain (qo).

  • Final # m is commonly written as anusvāra if the fol-

lowing word begins with a consonant; but the Hindus pronounce it as H m in such cases. At the end of a sentence anusvāra should ot be written for Hm, though this is a habit common in the MSS. bei Final radical # m, in internal combination, is assimilated to a the following mute or spirant. In the former case it becomes the nasal in pime class with the mute; in the latter it becomes anusvāra.- the idical an, in internal combination, becomes anusvāra be- viscibilant. hav Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 30 Lesson III. Lesson III. 107. Verbs. Accented å-class. Roots of this class form their present-stem by adding an accented 7 á to the root, which is not gunated. The inflection of these stems is precisely like that of stems belonging to the preceding class, except as to the position of the accent; thus, fan kşip, present-sten fog kşipá, pres. ind. fautfa ksipāmi, frufe kşipási, faufa kşipáti, etc. 108. Several roots in #? of this class (by the Hindus written with ?) form stems in Tira; e. g., o kr, “strew', fatfa kiráti. The roots in g i and 3 u and 3 ū change those vowels into ra iy and ga uv, respectively, before the class-siga; thus, fə kşi, fufa kşiyáti ; # su, Fafa suvati ; y dhū, yafa dhuváti. 109. For the root is, 'desire', ich is regarded as a substitute in the present-stem; thus, sefa iccháti (f 100, note). . Likewise, #ļ makes its present fa șccháti ; and gg prach, sometimes given as prch, makes yefa prccháti. NO. A number of roots following this class are strengthened in the present by a penultimate nasal; thus, frasic, present ind. fhafa siñcáti. The nasal is always assimilated in class to the following consonant; thus 37 ñ is used before palatals, n before dentals, Ħ m before labials; and å before sibilants and a h. 111. Masculines and Neuters in a, cont'd. a. Masculines : Singular. Dual. Plural. I. देवेन devend देवाभ्याम् decabhyam देवैम् devais D. Qars devāya n n Fauh devebhyas Ab. देवात् deredt G. देवस्य deva8ju देवयोस deputyos देवानाम् decinat L. देवे depe । | ॐ देवेषु decresu b. Neuters follow exactly the declension of masculines in the above cases ; thus, when a phalena, 3 phalaya, etc. ve 2 . Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson III. 31 OMN les separation 112. Force of cases. 1. The instrumental answers the questions lorst, wherewith? and whereby? and expresses accompaniment, agent, or means. 2. The dative denotes the remoter object, and direction. Cat. It is also used as dativus commodi; very frequently also to denote end or purpose. Sometimes (and oftenest with copula omitted) it is predicative, in the sense of 'makes for, tends toward'. 3. The Abs. ablative answers the question whence ?, and very frequently denotes cause. 4. The genitive is casus adjectivus, denoting all kinds of Gen. belonging (e. g. gen. subjectivus, objectivus, partitivus). 5. The lo- noc. cative denotes the place where, or the time when, an action occurs. It is often used absolutely, in agreement with a participle expressed or understood, as the ablative is used in Latin and the genitive in Greek. Also used as lerininus ad que min. Vocabulary III. faata Verbs, á-class: fra sic (siñcati) drip, drop: 87 iş (iccháti) wish, desire. moisten. aq krs (krşáti) plough. posrj (srjáti) let go; create, faq kşip (kşipáti) hurl, cast, (sprcáti) touch; (in certain throw. connections) wash. feu diç (dicáti) show, point out. a-class: " a prach (prccháti) ask, ask about. Je guh (gúhati, § 101) hide,conceal. fan viç (viçáti) enter. E sad (sidati, § 101) sit. Subst. Masc.: at kata mat. ga kunta spear. ata bāla child, boy. Arvi märga road, way, street. ha megha cloud. IT çara arrow. a hasta band. Nent.: toksetra field. ya dhana money, riches. | लाङ्गले taigala plough. fag vişa poison. Duckis Je sukha fortune' luck, HAPPNAS. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 32 Lesson III. IV. Exercise III. धनानि गृहेषु गृहन्ति।१। कुन्तान हस्ताभ्यां क्षिपामः।२। नृपाय नरौ मार्ग दिशतः । ३। मार्गेण” ग्रामं गच्छावः । ४ । सुखेनेह गृहे तिष्ठति पुत्रः । ५। जलं सिञ्चति मेघः । ६। धनेन सुखमिच्छन्ति नराः । ७। ह- स्तयोः फले तिष्ठतः।८। जलं हस्तेन स्पृशसि।९। नरौ केटे सीदतः । १०। क्षेत्राणि लाङ्गलैः कृषन्ति ।११। नगरं नृपौ विशतः । १२ । नरः पुत्रेण मार्गे गच्छति । १३ । नरान्सृजति देवः ॥१४॥ 15. The boy asks the men' about the road (acc.). 16. The clouds' drop water on the fields (loc.). 17. The two men' got by two roads (instr.) into the city? 18. The king gives the two rmen' money. 19. The man's sons sit' on mats. 20. The gods give the water of the clouds'. 21. We wash (use स्पृश्) both hands with water?. 22. Both men' lead their sons (dual) home (गृह). 23. The too boys point out the road to the city' (gen.). Lesson IV. 113. Masculines in gi. *fa agni, 'fire'. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. 19# agnis 47 agnā er agnayas A. अग्निम् agnim अग्नीन् again 1. #fat agninā ufJth agnibhyam WurHH agnibhis D. que agnaye fam# agnibhyas A5 agnes (i. , अग्न्योस् ag!j08 Fatih agnīnām L. अग्नौ agnau ufay agnişu* V. असे agne | h२१।। 7 See note to § 102. " ** The dental nasal 7 n, when immediately followed by a rowel, or by q n or Ħm or 9 y or a 2, is turned into the lingual un if preceded in the same word by the lingual sibilant or semi- or vowi abols - i. 5. by s 5, र ?, ऋ , or ऋ : and this, not OWEL Univ Catif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson IV. 33 y (rson 114. Neuters in Ti. qift vāri, “water'. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. anff väri afrut vāriņā aritu vārīņi A. m m. 1. aTfTu vāriņāt aftasta väribhyām aftfuta väribhis D. aftî vāriņe aftara väribhyas Ab. वारिणम् drinas G. afTuth vārinos TTTUTH vārīņām L. वारिणि curint • • वारिषु varisa V. arī vāre or aft väri 115. Masculine and neuter adjectives in Ti are declined like ¿nadlje the substantives above. But neuter adjectives (never substantives) may, in the dat., abl., gen., and loc. sing., and the gen. and loc. dual, substitute the corresponding forms of masculines. 116. Euphonic changes of Ħs and I r. These two sounds stand to each other in the practical relation, in external combination, of corresponding surd and sonant: in countless cases # s becomes Ir in situations requiring or favoring the occurrence of a sonant; and, less often, Tr becomes # $ where a surd is required. In internal combination the two are far less interchangeable. The s is extremely common as an etymological final, the r not common. 117. A. Final FI s. 1. Before a sonant, either vowel or conso- 51 nant (except Ir — see below), Ħs is changed to the sonant To -- unless, indeed, it be preceded by 1 a or Tā; thus, for only if the altering letter stands immediately before the nasal, but at whatever distance before the latter it may be found: unless, in- deed, there intervene a palatal (except ay), a lingual, or a dental. Thus, F1TU nagareụa, ATTU mārgena, graffu puspāņi.

  • See preceding note. óch ; ih i

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. E to, o con ojo 3 i in c il n l Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 34 Lesson IV. VO en O agnis atra becomes ufate agnir atra; ufah Fafa agnis dahati becomes ufusefa agnir dahati. See also $ 95. os to 118. 2. Final TA as, before any sonant consonant or before ər50 initial short a, is changed to 0 – and the initial y a is dropped ; thus, 747 frafa n;pas jayati becomes quaufa nȚpo jugati; नृपस् अत्र nrpus atra = नृपो ऽच nrp० ‘tra. 119. It is the practice in our system of transliteration to render the sign s, which denotes this dropping of an initial 7 a, by an inverted comma. 75+4 120. 3. Before any initial vowel other than short y a, final arta 7 as loses its # 8, becoming simple y a; and the hiatus thus occasioned remains; thus, T44 Trofa nipas icchati becomes 79 इच्छति nrpa icchutt; ततस् उदकम् tutas udakam = तत उदकम् tata udakam. ās nā 121. 4. Final TF as before any sonant, whether vowel or 22 consonant, loses its #, becoming simply #Tā; and the hiatus thus occasioned remains ; thus, 7418 fanspās icchanti = 741 ofan nȚpā icchanti ; 7978 gefa nipās jayanti = qui seran ngpā jayanti. 122. B. Final Jr. 1. Final Tr in general shows the same form which Ħ s would exhibit under the same conditions: thus Ti punar standing at the end of a sentence becomes yo: punaḥ; | "sAya गीर gir, गीः gah. But original final र ?, after अ a or आ a, maintains itself before vowels and sonant consonants; thus, YOTE punar atra, yogura punar jayati. 123. 2. A double T r is nowhere admitted: if such would occur, either by retention of an original yr or by conversion of 8 to Tr, the first T : is omitted, and the preceding vowei, if short, is made long by compensation; thus, gate TTA: punar rāmaḥ Ś पुना रामः puna rannah; अग्निस् रोचते ngnis rocate = अनी रोचते agna rocate ; धेनुस रोचते dhenus rocute = धन रोचते dhenu roccte. an. not Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson IV. 35 २ । Vocabulary IV. Verbs: TE ruh (róhati) grow. a krt (kȚntáti) cut, cut off. ferq lip (limpáti) smear. o muc (muñcáti) free, deliver, q lup (lumpáti) break to pieces, release. devastate, plunder. Subst.: fa agni, m., fire; (as proper afu pāņi, m., hand. name) Agni, the god of fire. utu pāpa, 11., sin. yft ari, m., enemy. TTA rāma, m., nom. pr., name of ufh asi, m., sword. a hero. ऋषि rsi, m., Beer. qə vşkşa, m., tree. ara kavi, m., poet. fara çiva, m., nom. pr. name of foft giri, m., mountain. a god. 79 jana, m., man; (pl.) people. Het satya, n., truth, righteousness. ya duḥkha, n., misery, mis- ft hari, m., nom. pr., name of fortune. coelha donar la god. Exercise IV. . सदा देवा जनावमुञ्चन्ति पापात् । १। नृपस्थ पुत्री क्व वसतः ।२। ऋषिदुःखात्पुत्रं रक्षति । ३। नृपो ऽसिनारेः* पाणी कन्तति । ४। कवयो हरिं शंसन्ति । ५। अरयो जनानां धनं लुम्पन्ति ।६। जलं गिरेः (abl.) पतति । ७। शरान्विषेण लिम्पथ।८। वृक्षा गिरौ रोहन्ति ।९। ऋष्योः पुत्रौ तत्र मार्गे तिष्ठतः । १० । हरिः कविभ्यां दानानि यच्छति । ११ । ऋषिभी (5 123) रामो वसति । १२ । असिनारीणां गृहाणि नृपा दहन्ति । १३ । हरिं क्षीरेण यजतः ॥ १४ ॥ 15. Qiva' dwells in the mountains. 16. Both enemies' burl spears at the king (dlat.) 17. Rāmal touches4 his two sons with his hands. 18. Fire' burns the trees. 19. Seers' speak the truth. 20. Through righteousness' happiness arises (भू) for inan-

  • Modifiers generally precede the word wbich is modified.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 36 Lesson IV. V. kind (577, gen. pl.). 21. The seer’s? two hands' touch* waters. 22. Fruits' are: (use PTT) on the trees? 23. People' remember3 Hari? 24. Rāmal hurls4 the sword from his handº (abl.). Lesson V. 124. Verbs. Unaccented ya-class. Roots of this class form their present-stem by adding y ya to the root, which bears the accent. Thus from 78 nah is made the present-stem 7€ náhya; from लुभ !ubh, लुभ्य tibhga. 125. The inflection of stems of this class follows the model of वद् cud. 126. Certain #1 ā-roots, because of their peculiar exchanges with g i and & -forms, especially in the formation of the present- stem, are given by the Hiadu grammarians as ending in te or gãi or (cf. § 132), and by them assigned to the a bhū, or a-class. Thus y dhā, “suck' (Hindu Ê dhe), forms Eafa dháyati; the root z hű or hvā (Hindu Ñ hve) forms gufa hváyati; JT gā (Hindu gãi) makes tufa gáyati. 127. For the root en drç, 'see', is substituted in the present- system another root qa paç, which makes urfa páçyati. 128. Masculines in 3 u. 777 bhānu, “sun”. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. भानुस bhanmaus भानू bhani@ । HTorah bhānavas A. HTTh bhānum " , HTTa bhônün 1. H ot bhānunā HTTAITH bhānubhyām Higfaat bhānubhis D. भानवे bhande HTTIJ bhānubhyas Ab. HTTTTH bhānos G. o Hath bhānvos HTTTTH bhānūnām L. भानौ blhdnau HTG9 bhānuşu v. भानो Bhano Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson V. 37 Mascoline adjectives in zu are similarly declined. 129. Euphonic Changes of # s, contd. 1. Final # s, the dental sibilant, whether original or representing final Tr, before the palatal surd mutes ( c, ach), is assimilated, becoming palatal T f. Thus नरम् चरति naras carati becomes नरवरति nurag curati; नरस para naras chalena becomes o ta naraç chalena. 2. Before Sos a lingual surd mute [t, & th), in like manner, it would become lingual u ș, but the case almost never occurs. 3. Before the dental s tay surd mutes lat, 4 th), since it is already of the same class with them, it of course remains unchanged; thus, TTHH farfa rāmas tişthati. es 130. The preposition T á is sometimes used with the ablative (much less often with the accusative), in the sense of “hither from', all the way from'; but far more usually to signify all the way to', ‘until'. As a prefix to rerbs, vt means “to', “unto', 'at'. Vocabulary V. TE ruh (róhati) rise, spring up, Verbs: grow. Na W as (ásyati) throw, hurl. + W ā (āróhati) climb, mount, 574 kup (kúpyati – w. gen. or ascead. dat.) be angry. ferę lich (likháti) scratch; write. u krudh (kridhyati — w. gen. lubh (lúbhyati – w. dat, or or dat.) be angry. | loc.) desire, covet. TA gam + utā (āgácchati) come. To çuş (çúsyati) dry up. - tự (tdrati) erose over. fer snih (snihyati — w. gen. or 111 naç (náçyati) perish. loc.) feel inclined to, love. uit paç (págyati) see. Thű or ky hvă (hváyati) call. qat Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 38 Lesson V. Sabst. : 17 bhānu, m., sun. a anna, n., food, fodder. Afu mani, m., jewel. Da açva, m., horse. Ta ratna, n., jewel. of& udadhi, m., oceai. Tru rāçi, m., beap. गुरु guru, m., teacher. वायु ०dyu, m., wind. पत्र pattra, n., leaf, letter. faan vişnu, m., nom. pr. name of परशु paragu, m., axe. a god. पाद pada, m., foot; quarter; शत्रु (atru, m., enemy. ray, beam. शिखर cikhurd, m., suinmit. ang bāhu, m., arm. free çisya, m., pupil, scholar. farz bindu, mn., drop सूक्त Sukta, n., Vedic hymn. Exercise V. कवयो धने लुभ्यन्ति । १। ऋषिः सूक्तानि पश्यति” ।२। गुरू शि- ध्ययोः क्रुध्यतः।३। नृपा अरिभ्यः कुप्यन्ति। ४। अग्निरुदधौ तिष्ठति ।५। परशुना वृक्षान्कृन्तथ । ६। जलस्य बिन्दवो गिरेः पतन्ति।७। विष्णमू- षिर्यजति नृपाय। ८। नृपो ऽश्वमारोहति।९। क्षेत्रेषु जलं शुष्यति । १० । गुरवः शिष्याणां स्निह्यन्ति ।११। नृपाणां शवो ऽसिना नश्यन्ति । १२ । बालो गुरवे पत्त्रं लिखति । १३ जना मणीनां राशीनिच्छन्ति ।१४। आ गिरेवुक्षा रोहन्ति ।१५। बाहुभ्यां जलं नस्तरन्ति ।१६। बाली गृहे हुयति नरः।१७। कवेः पुत्री ग्रामस्य मार्गे गजं पश्यतः ॥ १८ ॥ 19. Now the sun's' rays climb the mountains. 20. A drop of water falls4 down from the cloud?. 21. Of men', we seet the city. 22. Both kings' love poets (gen. or loc.). 23. The wind' blows* (as) from the summits3 of the mountains”. 24. The king hurls4 spears at his enemies? (dat. or loc.). 25. The scholar' bow's3 before his teacher? (acc.). 26. Two men comes with their sons” (instr.). 27. The two kings' desire the poet's jewelsø (dat. or loc.). 28. O seer, we sacrificet to Vişņu (acc.). 29. The two

  • Orthodox Hindus maintain that the Vedic hymns, etc., were

revealed to their reputed authors, who thus 'saw' them. MP SO --- ere Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson V. VI. 39. cook food' with fire?. 30. The seers' praise Vişnu2 with hymns". 31. In the city' the king calls his enemies. e so fois qivel Lesson V1. 131. Verbs. ya-class, contd. The roots of this class which end in 7A am lengthen their #a in forming their present-stem; thus, NA tam, are fa támyati; WA bhram, utrifa bhrámyati — but this last makes some forms with short xa. The root h? mad has the same lengthening: Aafa madyati. 132. Certain ā-roots (five — by the Hindus written with final o) make present-stems with an accented ya; thus, 7 dā, afa dyáti. - eut; p.52 133. The root ay ryadh is abbreviated to fay vidh in the present-system: faufa vidhyati. 134. The root of krom, said by the natives to form its present-stem according to this class, really forms it only according to the a-class, and the root-vowel is lengthened in the active voice, but not in the middle; thus, atafa krāmati, but middle krámate. 135. The root TA cam, used only with the preposition wa, forms Totafa ācámati. 136. Nenters in 3 . Y madhu, 'honey'. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. मधु madhu मधुनी naadhuni Hufa madhūni A. I. AUT madhunā AYNITA madhubhyām Aufha madhubhis D. Ayâ madhune HERTH madhubhyas · Ab. Ayah madhunas , G. . . YTTE madhunos YTA madhúnām L. मधुन nuadruri p + । Ayg madhusu V. or Het Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson VI. 137. Neuter adjectives (but not substantives) in Bu may take the forms proper to the masculine in the dat., abl.-gen., loc. sing., and gen.-loc. dual. NAH 138. Changes of final 7 n. Before initial a j and fe an becomes a ñ; thus, ara 79 tân janān becomes - Tata tāñ janān; ATT TT tân catrūn = arrin tāñ çatrūn. In te last case, however, a ch is almost always substituted for the initial &; thus, M12 tāñ chatrūn. n sind 139. Final a n, before an initial a l, is assimilated and becomes nasalized I, which is written a ñl, or (what is the same thing) . ; thus ata 1979 tān lokān becomes aros ata tääl lokān or ni atata tān lokān. nyric 140. Before the surd palatal, lingual, and dental mutes there is inserted after final q na sibilant of each of those classes re- spectively, before which a n becomes anusvāra; thus for ata o tân ca we find aig tanç ca; for ata qu tân tathā, ara tāns tathā.* Vocabulary VI. Verbs: A cam + vt ā (ācāmati) sip, ? (rccháti — $ 109) go to; fall| drink, rinse the mouth. to one's lot, fall upon. tam (támyati) be sad. in kram + ut ā (ākråmati) tuş (túsyati) rejoice, take stride up to, attack. pleasure in (w. instr.). l a dīv (divyali) play.

  • This rule really involves an historic survival, the large ma-

jority of cases of final on in the language being for original ns. Practically, the rule applies only to a n before y c and at, since cases involving the other initials are excessively rare. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson VI. 4] A bhram (bhrámyati — § 131)| TA çram (çrámyati) become wander about. | weary. H3 mad (mádyati) get drunk. Ihr (hárati) take away, steal, aly cyadh (vidhyati) hit, pierce. its plunder. TA çam (çamyati) become quiet, be extinguished, go out, cease. । Subst.: afere ksatriya, m., warrior, man अन्न aksa, m., die, dice. of the second caste. अधर्म adharmd, m., injustice,नृपति nrpati, m., king. । wrong. नेत्र netra, p., eye. ufa ali, m., bee. मधु nadhu, n., honey. अश्रु agru, n., tear. मुख mukcha, n., mouth, face. ऋक्ष rkesa, m., bear. Ag mityu, m., death. , कोप kopa, m., anger. ay vasu, n., wealth, money. 17 Exercise VI. ऋक्षा मधुने लुभ्यन्ति ।१। ऋषिरधुना पाणिनी जलमाचामति ।२। नृपा अरैस्तत्र दीव्यन्ति। ३। अलिर्मधुना माद्यति ।४। नरा विषेणासीं लिम्पन्ति । ५। रामः क्षत्रियान्परशुनाकामति ।६। गुरू शिष्यांचे शं- सामः । ७। अरयो जनानां वसूनि हरन्ति । ८। नरौ मृत्युमृच्छतः ।९। बालस्य नेत्राभ्यामश्रूणि पतन्ति । १०। जलेनाग्निः शाम्यति ।११। ऋषे- रश्वी श्राम्यतः । १२। गुरुः शिष्यस्य पापात्ताम्यति।१३। गजा नगरे भा- म्यन्ति। १४ । मधुना क्षीरेण च तुष्यन्ति बालाः ॥ १५॥ 16. The warriors' play for money? (instr.). 17. The king’së horses become weary on the road to-day'. 18. The warrior pierces his enemy with the spear. 19. Bees' are fond of (तुष् ) honey? 20. The water of his tears' moistensa (fa) his feet. 21. There bees? are fitting about (HA). 22. Two men are cook- ing honey and fruits. 23. When the teacher's anger ceases, then the scholars' rejoices. 24. Tears' stand n the warriors Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson VI. VII. eyes” 25. The enemies' overwhelm* (at) the king with arrows'. 26. A quarter of the injustice' falls upon* (*) the king (acc.). Lesson VII. 417 Ca 141. Causative Verbs (native cur-class”). The Hindu gram- marians describe a certain present-system which they assign to a 80-called “cur-class”. This is, however, in fact no present-class at all, but a causative or secondary conjugation, which is not con- fined to the present-systen. But many formations of this sort have no causative value; and it is chiefly these that are grouped by the Hindus in their cur-class, which also includes some denominative- stems in áya, with causative accent. For practical purposes it is well enough to consider these verbs here. 142. The causative-stem is formed by adding yg dya to the root, which is usually strengthened; and the strengthening process is in the main as follows: 143. 1. Medial or initial Ti, 3u, and I have the guna- strengthening, if capable of it; thus, 7 cur, itafa coráyati ; faz vid, a cefa vedáyati; but ote pīd, otsufa pīdayati. 144. 2. A final vowel has the erddhi-strengthening; thus, y dlr, gitafa dhăráyati. Before 74 aya, Wõi and it au become pie āy and yta av respectively; thus, aft bhā, herafa bhāyáyati; भू bhu, भावयति bhdodjati. 145. 3. Medial or initial ya in a metrically light syllable is sometimes lengthened, and sometimes remains unchanged; thus, ya kşal, caus. ataera kşāláyati; but 9 jan, caus. grafa janáyati. 146. The inflection is the usual one of a-stems. 147. Rules of euphonic combination. In external combination an initial sonant of whatever class (even a vowel or semivowel or nasal) requires the conversion of a preceding final surd to a sonant. 2 . nd: 1 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson VII. 43 SO COL 148. Final a t. 1. Final a t becomes 7 d, before any initial t d sonant, except the palatals, the nasals, and a l: thus, Heta 77 meghāt atra becomes atzz meghād atra; UTOTO Tafa pāpāt rakṣati or HTRTÍa bhramyati or oturura gopāyati becomes arot- safa pāpād rakṣati or Togterfa pāpād bhrāmyati or TTUTTAT- afa pāpād gopāyati. 149. 2. Final a t is assimilated to an initial palatal, lingual, t-sassi or al in the next word; thus it becomes mc before wc and eech, J j before a j, and a l before a lie.go, hata a meghāt ca becomes मेघाच्च neglhic ca; मेघात् जलम् meghat jalam becomes ETA meghāj jalam; gtata atata pāpāt lokāt becomes O tetata pāpāl lokāt. 150. 3. Before initial TI , final at becomes C, and the the tac açuch ¢ then becomes a ch; thus, qua Ty: nfpāt çatruḥ becomes 2 5 . nšpāc chatruḥ. 151. 4. Before initial nasals a t becomes an: thus, Teta tín rafa gļhāt nayati becomes agtaafa gļhân nuyati. But the change into ąd is also permitted, though hardly used; thus, yetgafa grhād nayati. =ech PI Vocabulary VII. Verbs: ga tul (toláyati) weigh. a kathaya (denom. stem - y dandaya (denom. – da- katháyati) relate, tell. ndáyati) punish. Ta kşal (kşāláyati) wash. aft + nā tā (ānáyati) bring. . arry ganaya (denom. — gañáyati) Vis pīd (pidárjati) torment, vex. number, count. a3 pāj (pūjáyati) bonor. tevils 7 cur (cordyati) steal. ap? (pāráyati) overcome; prevail. ng tad (tādáyati) strike, beat. 10N. X Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson VII. VIII. Subst.: | पक rupaka, n., gold-piece. वनक.junaka, m., father. लोक loka, m., world, people zug daņda,m., stick; punishment. (sing. and pl.). ge punya, n., merit. ary sādhu, m., boly man, saint. पल phala, n., fruit; reward. aof suvarna, n., gold. Tratu rāmāyaṇa, n., a noted a sūta, m., driver, charioteer. poem. स्तन stena, m., thief. Adverb: ga iva as, like (postpos.). Exercise VII. स्तेनः सुवर्ण नृपस्य गृहाच्चोरयति।१। गुरुर्दण्डेन शिष्यांस्वाडयति॥२॥ सूतो ऽश्वान्पीडयति। ३। ऋषिर्जलेन पाणी ज्ञालयति।४। ग्रामाज्जना- नगरं नयन्ति । ५। नरौ रूपकाणि गण्यतः ।६। नृपाच्छणां दण्डो भवति।७। रामस्य पुत्रौ जनेभ्यो रामायणं कथयतः ।८। सुवर्ण पाणि- भ्यां तोलयामः । ९ । जनकः पुत्रान्कोपाहण्डयति । १० । गृहाल्लोका आगच्छन्ति । ११ । पुण्येन साधुदुःखानि पारयति । १२ । देवानिव नृपतीं लोकः पूजयति ॥ १३॥ 14. Thieves' steals the people's money. 15. The two boys wash their mouths. 16. The father' tells his sons (dat.) the reward of sins. 17. The scholars' honor and reverence their teacher. 18. Ye both bring fruits in your hands and count them. 19. Meritprotectsfrom misfortune? (abl.). 20. The char- ioteers' strike the horses with sticks. 21. In anger' (abt.) the king pierces the thief: with a spear*. Lesson VIII. 152. Verbs, a-conjugation. Present Indicative Middle. The present indicative middle of verbs whose stems end in a is inflected as follows: Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson VIII. 45 Son Singular. Dual. Plural. 1. वदे ०dde Utos vádāvahe वदामहे ०ddanRahe 2. À vádase वर्दथे ०ddethe aga vadadhve 3. a vádate of a rádete वदन्ते addonte 153. The ending of the 3rd pl. is properly on ante (cf. fari nti for ofan anti in the act.); before the Q e of the 1st sing. the stem-final is dropped. v ethe and pa ete are hard to explain. 154. With verbs inflected in both voices, the chief force of the middle is this, that the action is performed for the benefit of the actor himself; thus, yrfa yájati ‘be sacrifices' (for some one else); yga yájate be sacrifices for himself. But many verbs are conjugated only in the middle, like the Latin and Greek deponents. 155. The verb A m?, 'die', makes foga mriyáte in the pres- ent; and jan, 'give birth', substitutes as present mid. Etteä jáyate, “be born'. 156. Combination of final and initial vowels. Two simple i ti si vowels, either or both of them short or long, coalesce and forml+14 74 the corresponding long vowel. For the a-vowels, sce above, $ 105. Thus: 1. Ti or 7 + Fi or fi= $i; e. g. Tra fa gacchati iti becomes a enfa gacchati 'ti. 2. B u or 37 û + B u or Biū = 3r ú; e. g. FTY 374 sõdhu uktam becomes FTTH sādhū 'ktam*. 157. The i-vowels, the u-vowels, and ?, before a dissimilar ***ạy vowel or diphthong, are regularly converted each into its own + * > V

corresponding semivowel, a y or a v or yr. Thus, fagfa 3 tişthati atra becomes frere tişthaty atra (four syllables); a nadī atra becomes 007 nady atra; HY 7 madhu atra becomes मध्व madhe atra; कर्त रह karty tha becomes कर्चिह kartr ha. O

  • And theoretically 3. R! +

uo occurrence. ?= Rp. but probably this bas Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 46 Lesson VIII. 158. Final ve and to remain unchanged before an initial short a, but the pa disappears. Thus, a v vane atra be- comes aa sa vane 'tra; HTTT 29 bhāno atra becomes HTTT SE bhāno "tra. By far the commonest case of final o is where it internal com represents final as (see § 118). rice +*→ ay 159. The final gi or 3 u-element of a diphthong is changed to its corresponding semivowel g y or a before any vowel or

    • SAV

diphthong, except when the rule of $ 158 would apply. Thus, Te becomes अय् ag, and ऐ di, आय् 09; ओ ० becomes अव ७०, and Hāu, wrę āv. Thus, in internal combination, a-7 ne-a becomes ae naya ; 776-bho-a becomes a bhava; so h- yra nāi-aya yields aprera näy-aya, and HT-a bhāu-aya yields H e bhāv-aya. af comt. 160. In external combination, the resulting semivowel is in gen- Episari eral dropped; and the resulting hiatus remains. Thus, tā gra Peti rane iti becomes 29 fa rana iti (through the intermediate stage garefa vanay iti); Tat gia thāno iti becomes HT afa bhāna iti (through wafafa bhānar iti). The case of final Te is by far the more frequent. See also $ 164. Crew Stay 161. Certain final vowels maintain themselves unchanged be- fore any following vowel. Such are 1. &T, , and qe as dual endings, both of declension and of conjugation; thus, font TE giri nha, HTV7 sẵdhũ atra; là đã phale atra. 9. The final, or only, vowel of an interjection: thus, ho he indra, zwa he agne. m 2 Vocabulary VIII. Verbs (deponents): spring up (mother in loc.). ez arthaya (denom. - arthú- byta bhās (bháşate) speak. ba) yate) ask for (w. two accus.). Amr (mriyate) die. ša īks (iksate) see, behold. zq yat(yatate) strive for(w. dat.). 214 kamp (kámpate) tremble. U yudh (yúdhyate) fight (w. 379 jan (jáyate) be born, arise, instr. of accompaniment). Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson VIII. 47 Ta rabh + ā (ārábhate) take a vand (vandate) greet, honor. hold on, begin. | शिक्ष् ciks (ciksate) learn. T ruc(rócate) please (dat., gen.). #7 sah (sáhate) endure. ph labh (lábhate) receive, take. a sev (sérate) serve, honor. Subst.: Hore manusya, in., man (homo). apo anartha, m., misfortune. 251 yajña, m., sacrifice. 3at, udyoga, m., diligence. 99 vana, n., woods, forest. ACTU kalyāna, n., advantage; fatet vinaya, m., obedience. salvation. atfa vāci, m., wave. तरु taru, m., tree. शास्त्र ¢dstru,n., science; text-book. fao dvija, m., Aryan. शूद्र cudra, m., man of the fourth f tfa dvijāti, m., Aryan. caste. ya dharma, m., right; law; virtue. fea hita, n., advantage. Ore dhāirya, n., steadfastness. og paçu, 11., beast. Adverb: a na, not. बल bala, n., strength, might. [follows word it modifier Exercise VIII. वायोर्बलेन तरवः कम्पन्ते । १। असिनाद्यारयो म्रियन्त इत्यत्र नृपो भाषते । २। वसूनां राशीनृपतीन्कवयो ऽर्थयन्ते । ३। शास्त्रे (8 161) अधुना शिक्षामह इति पत्वे हरिर्लिखति । ४। पापाहुःखं जायते । ५। शिष्याणां विनय उद्योगश्च गुरुभ्यो रोचते । ६। अधर्मीय न धर्मीय यतेथे। ७। विष्णोः (abl.) सूक्ते ऋषी लभेते।८। अत्रर्षिभानुं वन्दते।९।- अग्नी ईक्षते बालः । १०। धनेन पशू लमध्ये यज्ञाय।११। सदा गुरोः पादौ बालाः सेवन्ते । १२ । फले अत्र मनुष्यस्य पाण्योस्तिष्ठतः । १३ । सहेते अनर्थ साधू । १४ । वनेष्विहक्षा वसन्ति ।१५। क्षत्रिया ऋषी सेवन्ते ॥१६॥ 17. The two housest yonder' tremble by the powers (instr.)

  • इति, thus', is very cominonly used as a particle of quotation,

following the words quoted. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 48 Lesson VIII, IX. of the ocean's waves?. 18. The father beholde* bis son's face.” 19. “We strive after the advantage of the scholars';” thus (fa) speake the teachers”. 20. The children ask their father for food (accus.). 21. In the forest' yonder? elephants are fightings with bears*. 22. The two Çūdrasº serve the two Aryans? here’. 23. Fruits' please the children”. 24. Wbencedo ye received money?? 25. Now? the two seers begin the sacrifices. Lesson IX. 162. Feminines in | ā, declined like a senā, 'army.' Singular. Dual. Plural. N. सेना sena Ha sene (ā + ) GATH senās A. ATA senām n I. सेनया senaga सेनाभ्याम् senabhiyap सेनाभिस senabhis D. Bare senāyāi सेनाभ्यस senabhyas Ab. Haperta senāyās , n G. ॐ ॐ सेनयोस् senaJos सेनानाम् sendnam L. TUTA senāyām सेनासु sendsu V. a sene 163. Adjectives in a are declined in the masc. like ga, in the fem. like hat, in the neuter like 47. But often the fem. stem ends in & 7, and is declined like oeit in Less. XI). 164. Final û ài and it āu, according $ 159, become yra ay Eurâus à and a āv respectively before any following vowel or diphthong. The y or a may then be dropped, leaving a hiatus. The y is in fact always dropped, but the a not often. Thus, are becomes, through the medium of सेनायाय अच, सेनाया अच; Cat 7 becomes 97a7. chech 165. Initial , after short vowels, the preposition 7, and the n Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson IX. Lesson IX. 49 prohibitive particle #T, becomes : thus, T ore becomes 7 छाया; आ + शदयति = आच्छादयति. 166. An initial 7 of a root generally becomes after a noņ verbal prefix containing J, either original or representing F; such as AIT ‘between', fare, qTT, etc. Thus, puera, fauefa. 167. The following prefixes are often used before verbs: ya Terbar after, along, toward'; va ‘dowo, off'; 87 up, up forth or out'; ani- AVA- 39 'to, toward'; fa 'down; in, ipto'; fork out, fortb’; OTT 'to a distance, away'; off round about, around”; D 'forward, fortb’; HH along with, completely.' AC - LDA - nis- para sari pra - Sam - Vocabulary IX. consecrate, lauad Active Verbs: f6047 (parājáyate) be con- TH+ va (avagácchati) under- quered (rarely w. act. sense: stand. conquer). + ta (avatárati) descend. 45+ (prapádyate) flee for re- + 39 (upanayati) introduce, fuge (acc.) to (acc. of person). fore(bhikṣate) beg, get by begging. tuft (parinayati) lead about; air (denom. — mrgáyate) hunt marry. for, seek. 07 + 8€ (utpátati) fly up. ga (vártate) exist, subsist, be, E +99 (avarohati) descend, become. (çóbhate) be brilliant, shine; Deponents: be eminent. TA + HH (saingácchate) come together, meet. (w.hiofree! dismount Sabst.: Ty m., arrow. işil RT f., daughter, maiden. Perry, Banskrit Primor. J7 TiT gañgā f., n. pr., the Ganges. e m., householder, head of | family. grhastha Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 50 Lesson IX. छाया f., shade. शरण n., protection, प्रयाग m., nom. p., Prayaga (a) संध्या f., twilight. SAMAJ city, Allahābād). स्वर्ग m., heaven. भय n., fear. Ege n., heart. hidaya HTT f., wife, woman. k Adj.: भाषा f., speech, language. कृष्ण, f. आ, black. भिक्षा f., alms. पाप, f. आ, bad, wicked. यमुना f., 7. pr., Yamuna (a river, प्रभूत, f. "आ, much, abundant; the Jumna). pl. many. रण m., n., battle. Adv.: रथ्यो f., street. सह together with (postpo6. , . विद्या f., knowledge, learning. instr.). fagy m., bird. सहसा suddenly, quickly. व्याध in., hunter. Exercise X. रत्नं रत्नेन संगच्छते*।१॥ यदा विहगा व्याधं पश्यन्ति तदा सहसो- त्पतन्ति ।२। सत्यं हृदयेषु मृगयन्त ऋषयः । ३। हरेः कन्यां रामः परि- णयति ।४। विष्णोर्हरेश भार्ये कन्याभिः सहागच्छतः । ५। रामो वि- ष्णुश्च देवाशरणं प्रपद्यते । ६। भिक्षया रामस्य शिष्यौ वर्तते । ७। यदा जना गङ्गायां म्रियन्ते तदा स्वर्ग लभन्ते । ८। कन्याया (8164) अन्नं यच्छत्वृषभायी।९। वन ऋक्षेष्विषन्मुञ्चन्ति व्याधाः कृष्णौ च म्रियेते।१०। द्विजातीनां भाषां शूद्रा नावगच्छन्ति । ११। हे शिष्या नगरस्य रयासु साधूनां भायीभ्यो ऽद्य भिक्षां लभध्ये।१२। अत्र छायायां प्रभूता विह- गास्तिष्ठन्ति ।१३। क्षत्रियस्य बालावषिरुपनयति ॥ १४ ॥ 15. The two scholarsa begø muchº alms from the wivesó of the householders. 16. At Prayaga' the Ganges unites with the Yamuna. 17. Bad men do not reach' (लभ) heaven. 18. ) Vişnu', to-day? Çiva’ marries" Gangã, Hari's daughter. 19. In the battle' the kings fight with arrows and conquer' their enemies.

  • “Birds of a feather flock together”.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson IX. X. 51 20. Here in the street the two kings' dismount from their back* horses”. 21. The seer’sº two sons are eminent* in learning' (instr.). 22. From fear of the wicked' hunters? (abl.) two birds* fly up". 23. At twilight' (loc. du.) the seers ($ 13, 3) reverence* the gods”. 24. In the street of the village' the teacber and the scholar meet6. 25. We two sacrifice? to the gods for ourselves; we do not* sacri- fices for Hari?. rey Is Lesson X. 168. Verbs. Passive Inflection. A certain form of present- stem, inflected with middle endings, is used only with a passive meaning, and is formed from all roots for which there is occasion to make a passive conjugation. Its sign is an accented y ya added to the root, without any reference to the classes according to which 17 the active and middle forms are made. The inflection is precisely like that of other a-stems. Thus, na tanyé, Nazê tanyáse, para tanyáte, etc. 169. Outside the present-system middle forms may be used in a passive sense; but there is a special form for the aor. pass. in the 3rd sing. 170. The form of root to which the passive-sign is appended is usually a weak one. Thus a penultimate nasal is dropped; and certain abbreviations which are made in the weak forms of the perfect, or in the past passive participle, are found also in the passive present-system. E. g. from 77, pass. Esta; from qat, awa. Roots in pres. vat 171. In the roots 77. go, gą, qx, 96, and €9, tbe a va becomes 3 u in the pres.; thus, gera, gua, gora (see note to 5102), सुप्यते. Similarly, यज makes इज्यते, and ग्रह and प्रछ rnake ya १ . Tga and Tantâ; Tih makes frea. graag saçi III pra>p! Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 52 Lesson X. Boot changes for passive conj. iz 172. Final and 3 of roots are generally lengthened; thus, is fa, sua; , Fua. turi 173. Final is in general changed to ft; thus, a, farina; Esir but if preceded by two consonants it takes guna; thus, H, wea. The roots in "variable ?”, which the natives write with ?, change to fg, or, if a labial letter precede, to G7T; thus, J, teta; a 'strew', altera; but q, geta ĀLE 174. Final # of roots is usually changed to &; thus, T, atera; m, vterq; UT, tea. But VTT makes urea; and so some other roots in T. anaaput, place. Chya dhyāyate 175. The roots ata and usually form their passives from parallel roots in ; thus, तायते. But तन्यते and खन्यते occur. 176. Verbs of causative inflection, and denominatives in va, form their passive by adding y to the causative or denominative stem after has been dropped; thus, a “is stolen '; Tera is counted'. 177. The personal passive construction, with the logical subject in the instrumental, is particularly common with transitive verbs ; and not less so the impersonal passive construction, both with transitive and intransitive verbs. Thus, Tiu Forf a Heaven is reached by the man'; आगम्यते ‘one comes hither'; सुप्यते ‘one sleeps'; Tua 'it is beard', i. e. they say'. The predicate to the instrumental subject of such a construction is of course also in- strumental; thus, Taufu saa Rāma lives as a seer'. Vocabulary X. Verbs, with passives: ug (p.grhyáte) take, receive, seize. 9 (p. kriyáte) make, do, perform. T (dáçati; p. daçyáte) bite. (khánati; p. khāyáte, khanyáte) 277 (dyati; p. dãyáte) cut. dig. eta (divyati; p. dīvyúte) play. TT (gåyati; p. gãyáte) sing. 19T (p. dhāyate) put, place. 22 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson X. 53 28T (dhayati ; p. dhīyáte) suck. 199 (vápati; p.upyáte) sow, scatter. ETT (dhyayati; p. dhyāyáte) think, Ite (p. çiçyáte) rule; punish. ponder. श्रु (p. gragdte) hear. 1पा (p. ptodte) drink. स्तु (p. stagdte) praise. 19 (Hindu q; p. pūryáte) fill. Ena (p. supyáte) sleep. qal (p.badhyáte) bind; entangle; 1ET (p. hiyáte) abandon, give up; catch. neglect. 1मा (p. maydte) measure. K or ET (hváyati; p. hūyáte) call. वच् (p. ucydte) speak. + T call, summon. Subst. : TOT f., command. ajira आशा f., hope. 8 n., fagot; wood. kasi'a ita n., song. घट m., pot, vessel. ga n., melted butter; ghee. YTR n., grain. पाश m., noose, cord, snare. 977 m., burden. thara fatge m., beggar, ascetic. भृत्य m., servant. AT&T f., garland. राज्य n., kingdom. शिशु m., child. सर्प m., snake. | Adj.: |विधेय, f. आ, obedient. 30 Exercise X रामेण पुत्रावद्योपनीयते इति श्रूयते । ऋषिपेण धर्म पृच्छयते ।२। घटौ घृतेन पूर्यंते ।३। विहगाः पाशैर्बध्यन्ते । ४। जनैर्नगरं गम्यते ।५। है शिष्या गुरुणाहयध्वे । ६। नरैः केटाः क्रियन्ते ।७। कविभिनृपाः सदा स्तूयन्ते ।८। प्रभूता भिक्षा गृहस्थस्य भार्यया भिक्षुभ्यो दीयते।९। कन्याभ्यां गीतं गीयते । १० । स्तेनैलॊकानां वसु चोर्यते ।११। इषुभी रणे रियो नृपतिना जीयन्ते । १२ । हे देवौ साधुभिः सदा स्मयें थे। १३ । दण्डेन बालाः शिष्यन्ते । १४ । प्रभूतः काष्ठानां भारी नरेणोह्यते । १५ । अश्वेन जलं पीयते । १६। धर्मेण राज्यं शिष्यते नृपेण । १७। सर्पण दश्येते नरौ । १८ । सूतेनाश्वस्ताड्यते ॥ १९ ॥ Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 54 Lesson X. XI. (Use passive constructions throughout.) 20. Grain is scattered for the birds'. 21. Garlands' are twi- ned? (use qal) by the maidens? 22. Again? Hari' is praised by Rāma? 23. Vişņudrinks* water from his hand? 24. ‘Pleas- antly (paa) one sleeps in the shade?"; 804 says the people". 25. Both seers' sacrifice? 26. The father sets' hopes on his child: (loc.). 27. The scholar neglects the teachers' command? 28. The two scholars' think about their text-book (nom.). 29. Grain is sown in the fields". 30. They play? with dice? (impers. pass.). 31. The kingºscommands are received by the obedient servants*. 32. The man' digs in the field?. Little = Lesson XI. 178. Verbs. Imperfect Active, a-conjugation. The imperfect is formed from the present-stem by prefixing the augment #, and adding a set of secondary endings. 179. If the present-stem begin with a vowel, the augment unites - with it to form always the erddhi-vowel, not the guna: thus +7 'or or Q = t; ++ 3 or vi = ; H+ = TT. 180. If a preposition be prefixed, the augment comes between preposition and verb, as in Greek; thus, from 39-, impf.-stem 39792, i. e. 39 + 7 + 721; fa-ot, inipf.-stem qaz. (159! 181. The infection in the active is as follows: Sing. Dual. Plural. 1. अवदम् deudai | अवदाव devacha अवदाम doodhma | 2. अवदस doors अवदतम् inaughtalk अवदत doudhta 3. अवदत् deatut, अवदताम् deadataan अवदन doodhm_ 182. The inperfect is the tense of narration ; it expresses past time simply, without any further implication. 183. Polysyllabic Feminines in fi, declined like ateit, “river.' 11 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Polusyllabic Feminines Lesson XI. za 'river: 55 in ŽŽ Sing. Dual. Plural. N. opet nad got nadyāu Tak nadyas A. TETA nadīm aeta nadīs 1. TET nalyā APTTH nadibhyāmı AfrH nadībhis te nadyāi atetara nadabhyas Ab. नद्यास् nadjds G. नद्योस् nadiyos ortata nadīnām L. नद्याम् nagma geta nadīsu V. afz nadi 184. Final nasals. The nasals Ç: U, and 7, occurring as finals ñ ññ MYNN after a short vowel, are doubled before any initial vowel: thus, 7 Inn तिष्ठन् अत्र becomes अतिष्ठन्नत्र. Vocabulary XI. Verbs: fax + (pravicáti) enter. ana + 9 (avakịntáti) cut off or + 39 seat oneself. + (āhárati, -te) fetch, bring. us (pathati) recite, read. down. Subst. : at f., wife, consort. wem., purpose; meaning; wealth. geit f., daughter. m., nom. pr., the god Indra. ra n., book (manuscript). Tut f., nom. pr., the goddess 97 m., flood, high water. Indrāņi. oferat f., earth; ground. ata n., poen. ATEU m., priest, Brāhman. ya m., literary work, book. मत्स्य m., fish. S70 f., mother. aut f., cistern. TE f., female slave, servant. H1 f., council, meeting. at f., goddess, queen. 9 f., army. नगरी f., city. ta n., song of praise. art f., woman, wife. za fi river WO13 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 56 Lesson XI. XII. Heech Exercise XI. नृपतिर्नगरी सेनयोजयत् । १। कवयः सभायां काव्यान्यपठन् ।२। दास्यो ऽन्नमनियम् । ३। देवीर्देवांश हरिरपूजयेत् । ४ । साधोः पत्न्या भिक्षवे रूपकाणि दीयन्ते । ५। नदीषु मत्स्यानपश्याम । ६। पुस्तकं पुन्या अयच्छद्विष्णुः । ७ । नगर्या रथासु गजावभ्राम्यताम् । ८ । पृथिव्याः प्रभूता विहगा उदपतन्।९। गृहं नद्याः पूरेणोह्यते। १० । पत्नीभिर्नरा नगर आगच्छन् । ११। यदा शिवो विष्णुश ग्रन्थमपठतां तदार्थ नावा- गच्छाव । १२ । शिष्या गुरागृहं प्राविशनुपाविशंश्च कटयोः पृथि- व्याम् ॥ १३॥ 14. When ye besought (प्रपद) the king for protection (acc.), then ye were' (स्था) in misfortunes. 15. In the two rivers' Ganga and* Yamunā” it is (aña) high-water". 16. The two women’ sang a song of praise about Rama (gen.). 17. 0' seers, why do ye both sacrifice° to the goddesses with melted butter? 18. Thequeen's women-servants brought jewels and precious stones. 19. In anger? (abl.) the teacher struck4 the scholar with his hand?. 20. The two servants' brought water from the cisternå in potsa. 21. Ye cut off4 (impf.) wood from the trees with the axe? 22. The seer' praised Indrani, Indra's consort, with hymns. Lesson XII. 185. Feminine Snbstantives in Ğ i and Eu are declined as in the paradigms on the next page. The two series of forms exhibit complete parallelism: where the one shows i, y, e, or ay, the other shows respectively u, v, o, or ar; cf. $$ 50, 51. In the D., Ab.- G., and L. sing., these stems sometimes follow ott; thus matyāi, -yās, -yām; dhenrāi, -vās, -vām. 186. Feminines in 7 i and 3u: afa 'opinion'; ETC cow'. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XII. 57 N. A. 1. Sing. Dual. Afah matis at mati मतिम् nctim » » । RT matya HALUTA matibhyām Hatê mataye (matyāi), và mates - YÃa ) , , ॐ ॐ • मत्योस् natiyos Ant matāu yam), Hã mate Plural. मतयेस् tatayus मतीस natis ४ Afafuri matibhis faz matibhyas मतीनाम् matindan ufag matiņu N. धेनुस् dhenus धेनू ahenia Each dhenavas | धेनुम् dhenump धेनूस् dhenus / 1. Wat dhenvā ^ E TA dhenubhyām Ergfah dhenubhis D. gra dhenave lovãilm TpJF dhenubhyas Ab. Eith dhenos (-vās), , ॐ ॐ " धेन्वोस् dhen206 धेननाम् dheminant L. got dhenõu (vām, धेनुषु dhemastu V. et dheno 187. Adjectires in g i and 3 u are often inflected in the fe- minine like Afa and irg. But adjectives in 3 u preceded by one consonant often form a derivative feminine stem by adding & i. Thus, 75 much’, N. masc. Fr, f. akt, n. 25; TE “heavy', m. T98, f. rat, n. TT. This fem. is then declined like a Vocabulary XII. Verbs: fag + 34 (upadiçáti) teach, in- (kálpate) be in order; tend ! struct. or conduce to (w. dat.). |2faz (rindáti, vindáte) acquire. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XII. व ह ॥), quarrel. Bucah CUCA NI -- Subst. : मक्षिका f., Ay, gnat. aa.ks.ka. fa I., salvation, deliverance. काव्य n., poem. oft f., stick, staff. Yun si कीर्ति f., glory. TscH m., ray; rein. गोप m., cowherd, shepherd; रात्रि f., night. guardian. au m., wound. Vrana जाति f., birth; caste; kind. शान्ति f., repose. धृति f., decision of character; श्रुति f., hearing; holy writ. courage. afa f., tradition; law. book. urfera m., prince. स्वप्न m., sleep; dream. afa f., prudence, intelligence. हनु f., jaw. ufa f., devotion, honor. | Adj.: । HTU m., part, piece. नीच, f. "आ, low. ufa f., prosperity, blessing. मुख्य°f. ०आ, principal, first.mukhua भूमि f., earth, ground, land. | लघु m., f., n., or f. ०वी, light.* aq f, cow Taf opinion Exercise XII. मक्षिका व्रणमिच्छन्ति धनमिच्छन्ति पार्थिवाः। नीचाः कलहमिच्छन्ति शान्तिमिच्छन्ति साधवः ॥ १॥ शान्त्यर्षय इह शोभन्ते । १। श्रुतौ बहीषु स्मृतिषु च धर्म उपदि । श्यते । २ । राज्यां स्वप्नं न लभामहे । ३। बहीं कीर्ति धृत्याविन्दनृप- तिः । ४। पुण्येन मुक्तिं लभध्वे । ५। बहूनिघून्रणे ऽरिष्वक्षिपन्नृपतिः । ६। हवामश्वां लघु यध्याताडयम् । ७। नृपतेर्बया क्षत्रियाणां कलहो ऽशाम्यत् । ८। शूद्राणां जातयो नीचा गण्यन्ते ।९। द्विजातीनां जातिषु ब्राह्मणी मुख्याः ।१०। धर्मो भूत्यै कल्पते ।११। जात्या क्षत्रियौ वर्तथ।१२। भूमेभीगं ब्राह्मणायायच्छत्पार्थिवः । १३ । अश्वा अश्राम्यन्भूमावप- तंश्च ॥ १४ ॥ 15. Vişņuº rejoices at the devotion (instr.) of the pious' (pl.), and gives? deliverance”. 16. Mens of many castegdwelt in the city'. 17. The birds' see the hunter, and fy up° from the ground. 18. By the power of intelligence' we overcame advers- Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XII. XIII. 59 ity: 19. The cowherd' guards' the cows in the wood? 20. By intelligence and diligence? ye acquire® much* glory21. The poem' tends to the poet's glory3 (two datives). 22. For prosperity? we bow before® Çiva? (acc.). 23. The reins' are being fastened (aal) to the horses jaws» (loc.). 24. In the night' we both reads (impf.) holy writ? Lesson XIII. É the Sing. Dual. 188. Verbs, a-conjugation. Imperfect Middle. The imperfect middle of verbs in a is as follows: he impr.paes, is similarly inflec abh Ciabhatel receive, take, get Dual. Plural. in l. Por álabhe (a + i) oHtafe álabhavahi Hraf álabhāmahi 1. Us 2. VOTOTA álabhathās ata álabhethām A álabhadhvam at 3. Tarta álabhata HATA dlabhetām un slabhanta. With एथाम् and एताम् of the dual, cf. एथे and एते of the pres. ind. mid, o i Monosyllabie, all genders) 189. Root-words in Ğ i are declined as follows: Chi understandin Sing. Dual. Plural. N. V. xtr dhīs ferait dhiyau forura dhiyas A. ferern dhiyam 1. ferent dhiya EATH dhābhyām wfora dhābhis D. fire dhiye (-yăi EZE dhābhyas Abl. eh dhiyas -y&5) , n. G. uyas ferita dhiyos ferath dhiyām L. fufe dhiyi (vam o wita dhīşu In the D., Ab. - Gen., and L. sing., and G. pl., these stems sometimes follow otet; thus, dhiyāi, dhiyās, dhiyām, dhīnām. Cf. § 185. Observe that where the case-ending begins with a vowel the stem-final i is split into žy. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 60 Lesson XIII. terbal 190. The following additional prefixes are used with verbs: pue fixes : adria ufg'over, above, on’; vfq'unto, close upon)*; #fito, unto', alemin against' (often with implied violence); fa 'down, into, in’; ufa pratin back to, against, in return’; fq'apart, away, out'. 191. Both in verbal forms and in derivatives, the final 7 or 3 07 initial : S >$ of a prefix ordinarily lingualizes the initial Ħ of a root to which it is prefixed; and, in a few cases, the remains even after an interposed of augment or reduplication; thus, from FT + fa, fautefa; et + fa, pres. pass. fugtua, impf. pass. 42- Lefixes: Stera. Final 57. 192. The final # of prefixes in # and GF becomes a be- fore initial a, a, q, ; thus, from 03 + fart, formara. 5- 0.49 k, sh, P. Ph Vocabulary XIII. Verbs: | 25ą tufa (pratibháşate) answer A + #fa (atikrámati, -krámate)| (w. acc. of pers.). pass beyond or by, transgress. H+ 9 arise; rule.be ohavetö) eta + 33 (ujjáyate) be born, Te (racáyati) arrange, compose arise from (abl.). (a literary work). + 9 arise, come into existence. Fytofa (pratiședati) hold back; T + afg cover, keep shut. forbid. 7 + fa (vinácyati) disappear, hq +fa (nişévate) dwell; devote perish. oneself to; attend. 78 + HA (samnáhyati) gird; PT + yfy mount, stand above equip. or over; rule, govern. og + far (nispádyate) grow; +afa hinder; injure; offend. arise from (abl.). Histnati

  • Sometimes, with the verbs 78 and y, abbreviated to fa;

but in classical Skt. most commonly used as a conjunction : 'also”, 'too? Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Meer pharya 21. 1 , Marice 11 Lesson XIII. 61 Subst.: 495 f., permission. anujñā ईश्वर m., god; lord. auta m., dove. कर्ण m., ear. काम m., love, desire. कारण n., reason, cause. क्रोध m., anger. जाल n., net. धी f., understanding, insight. नाश m., destruction. पद्म m., n., lotus. पुरुष m., man (homo). HETTTT m., great king. ufa m., sage; ascetic. मेखला f., girdle. मोह m., infatuation. To m., wagon; chariot 7727 m., desire, avarice. वसति f., dwelling. ft f., luck, fortune, riches; as nom. pr., goddess of fortune. समुद्र m., ocean. सृष्टि f., creation. et f., modesty, bashfulness. Adj.: कृत्स्न, f. °, whole. चारु, f. °, beautiful. धीर, f. ०आ, steadfast, brave. श्वेत, f. ०आ, white. Exercise XIII. लोभात्क्रोधः प्रभवति लोभाकामः प्रजायते । लोभामोहश्च नाशश लोभः पापस्य कारणम् ॥ २ ॥ नृपतिर्ऋषिणा पापात्प्रत्यषिध्यत। १। हरेभीर्यायां चारवः पुत्रा अ- जायन्त । २। धीरं पुरुषं श्रियः सदा निषेवन्ते । ३। पार्थिवस्याज्ञां शत्रु अत्यक्रमेताम् । ४। पनं श्रिया (gent.) वसतिः । ५। धियो बलेन पुरुषा दुःखानि पारयन्ति । ६। रथो ऽध्यष्ठीयत रामेण । ७। कवर्गहं श्रिया- शोभत । ८। शिशू आहूयेथां जनन्या । ९ । भानुमैक्षतर्षिः । १० । गु- रोरनुज्ञया कटे शिष्याधुपाविशताम् । ११ । मुनिरीश्वरस्य सृष्टिं ध्या- यति । १२ । क्षेत्रेषु धान्यं निष्पद्यते । १३ । गुरवो ग्रन्थान्चयन्ति शि- घ्याश्च पुस्तकानि लिखन्ति ॥ १४ ॥ 15. *The goddess of fortune was born from the ocean. 16. Why did ye bold your ears shut? (pass. constr.) 17. “The Çūdras spoke

  • As the principal euphonic rules have now been stated and

८ Sentence Syntax: Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 62 Lesson XIII. XIV. ans the language of the Aryans”: thus answered (impers. pass.) the Brāhmans. 18. By its cleverness' the dove was freed" from the net.? 19. The teacher’girded+both boys with the girdle. 20. When' the scholar's modesty disappeared, then the law was offended against. 21. W bence' did ye get*(TH) the white "cows? 22. The whole earth was ruled by the grearking 23. for prosperity '(dat.) we took refuge with the king (9-43). 24. Two'law-books were com- posed by Vişņu. 25. The milk' of the black cow’is drunk by both ez children of Lesson XIV. 193. Verbs, a-conjugation. Present Imperative Active. The inflection of this mode is as follows: Sing. Dual. Plural. 1. ta vádāni ata vádāva TOTA vádāma 2. a7 ráda | वदतम् :ddatan वदत ०ddata 3. वदतु 'ddotu वदताम् ०ddatam वदन्तु ०ddantu 194. The three first persons are properly subjunctive forms, aud accordingly often express a wish or future action. 195. The second and third persons of the imperative express oftenest a command; sometimes a wish or future action. The negative used with the imv. is HT. MĄ 196. A rare imv. form, either 2nd or 3rd pers. sing. (or plur.), is made with the ending ata; thus, Haaia. Its value is that of a posterior or future imv. (like the Latin forms in to and tote). 197. Root-words in giù, inflected like y f., earth'. exemplified in the exercises, no further indication need be made, except in special instances, of the position of the words in the Sanskrit. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Semesi 63 Mionosyllabie feminino Lesson XIV. NOS Sing. Dual. Plural. NV. 2 bhūs a bhuvāu yTh bhuras A. भुवम् bhu00॥ १ ) 1. a bhuvā TTTA bhūbhyām भूभिस् !.abhis D. là bhuabe bh VẪi - 9 aza bhūbhyas Hap bhuras o bhuvås ॐ ॐ ॥ भुवोस् bhaudoos bhurām bhūnām L. ufa bhuvi bhuvam , e bhūsu In the D., Ab.-G., and L. sing., and G. pl., these stems some- times follow otet; thus, bhurãi, bhuvās, bhurām, bhūnām. Cf. $$ 185, 189. 198. Polysyllabic Feminines in 3 ủ, inflected like a f., woman'. N. I. Sing. Dual. Plural. वधूस adhis वधौ padhavat 06# vadhvas TT vadhūm Typ radhūs 75T vadhvã TETH radhūbhyām qufara radhūbhis and vadhvāi | वधूभ्यस् २adlabhayas वध्वास् ७०dhods o Cath vadhvos वधूनाम् adhimant a bata radhvām que vadhūșu Ty radhu L. V. Vocabulary XIV. Verbs: ET in pass. (drçyáte) seen, look. V + f (abhyásyati) repeat, ax +fa (nivásati) inhabit; dwell. study, learn. 99 + (pravártate) get a-going, +(pråayati) throw forward or break out, arise. · into. ya (cócati) sorrow, grieve. FET + T (ādiçáti) command. #E+fa (nișidati) seat oneself. Wy Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 64 Lesson XIV. Subst.: स्तुति f., song of praise; praise. अतिथि m., guest. तुषा f., daughter-in-law. अमृत n., untruth. Adj.: अभ्यास m., study; recitation. अपर, f. °आ, lower; other. आदेश m., command, prescription. पर, f. °आ, highest; other. आसन n., seat, chair. वक़, f. “आ, crooked, bent. जुहू f., spoon, esp. sacrificial सुन्दर, f. ई, beautiful. spoon. Adv.: पाठ m., lecture, lesson. अधस्तात् under, underneath (gen.). प्रजा f., creature; subject. चिरम् long (of time). भू f., earth, ground. दीर्घम् far, afar. भूषण n., ornainent. AT prohibitive particle, like Greek धू f., eyebrow. MA, Latin ne. वध f., woman, wife. वा (postpo8.) or. वेदि f., altar. हुस्वम् near by. अश्रू f., mother-in-law. 10 Exercise XIV. धर्म चरत माधर्म सत्यं वदत मानृतम् । दीर्घ पश्यत मा ह्रस्वं परं पश्यत मापरम् ॥ ३॥ जयतु महाराजश्चिरं च कृत्स्ना भुवमधितिष्ठतु।१। प्रयागं गच्छतं सु- खेन च तत्र निवसतम् । २ । सुन्दर्या (gen.) भुवी वक्रे दृश्येते । ३। गुरव आसने निषीदन्तु भुवि शिष्याः । ४। तुषाभिः सह श्वश्रूणां कलहः प्रवर्तत । ५। है क्षत्रियाः कुन्तान्क्षिपतेषन्मुञ्चत पापाशवृन्दण्डयतेति क्रोधान्नृपतिरभाषत । ६। अतिथिं पृच्छतु रात्रौ कुत्र व्यवस इति । ७। श्वव्याः कोपाच्छोचतः सुषे । ८। वध्वाः स्निह्य त्यृषिः ।९। पाठस्याभ्या- साय शिष्यावागच्छतामिति गुरोराज्ञा । १० । जुहामी घृतं प्रास्या- नि । ११ । हे वधु वाण्या जलमानय । १२ । जुहां घृतं तिष्ठति । १३ । भुवोरधस्तावेचे वर्तते ॥ १४ ॥ 15. The women sing the praises (singular) of Indrāņi (pass. constr.). 16. “Study ye holy writ and the sciences, speak the D Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XIV. XV. 65 othe truth, honor your teachers”: thus' is the prescription of the text-bookgº for scholars4 (gen.). 17. Let kings protect their sub- jects and punish the wicked: thus is the law not offended (ET pass.). 18. O women, reverence your mothers-in-law. 19. Let not the coachman strike or torment the horses. 20. “Bring the jewels”; thus the two maid-servants were commanded by the queen. 21. Let us with two spoons drop water on the altar. 22. “Let us play with dice for money” (instr.): thus spoke the two warriors (pass.). 23. “To-day let me initiate (imv.) my two sons”: thus says the Brābman. 24. Let the men dig a cistern. Sing. Lesson XV. 199. Verbs, a-conjugation. Present Imperative Middle. The present imperative middle is inflected thus: Dual. Plural. deceive, takas 1. a lábhāi era lúbhāvahāi Ta lábhāmahāi 2. लभस्व ldbhasa लभैथाम् udbhetham लभध्वम् !dbhadhram 3. लभताम् ldbhatam लभेताम् ldbhetam लभन्ताम् ldbhantarma 200. The first persons are really subjunctive forms. The in- flection of the passive imv. is precisely similar; thus, fae, fete, faerah, etc. 201. Nouns in ?. These stems, like many belonging to the consonant-declension, exhibit in their inflection a difference of stem-form: strong, middle, and weak. (For the cases called strong, etc., see Introd., § 87). In the weak cases (except loc. sing.) the stem-final is m?, which in the weakest cases is changed naturally to įr. But as regards the strong cases, the stems of this declension fall into two classes: in the one – which is much the larger, comprising all the nomina agentis, and a few others – the is vriddhied, becoming IT ār; while in the other class, containing Perry, Sanskrit Primer. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 66 Lesson XV. most noups of relationship, the x is gunated, becoming T ur. In both classes, the loc. sing. has y ur as stem-final. The abl.- gen. sing. is of peculiar formation; and the final T r is dropped in the nominative singular. 202. Nomina agentis in @!, like m., 'doer'. but Sing. Dual. Plural. N. Adit kartā कतारी kartarau कतारम् kartanus 3. कर्तारम् kartrait , कर्तृन् kartrn । I. कत्री kartra कर्तृभ्याम् trbhgdate कर्तृभिस kartrbhis D. कर्वे kartre a aqrar kartſbhyas Ab. agt kartur (or -us) G. क स् kartros kartros कर्तृणाम् kartindian kartiņām L. कर्तरि kartart a m a g kartęşu V. कर्तर् kartar 203. Two nouns of relationship, f., “sister”, and ag m., 'grandson', follow this declension: but Fmakes the acc. pl. स्वसूस seast-8. 204. The nouns of agency are sometimes used participially, or with adjective value. The corresponding feminine-stem is made in ई , and declined like नदी; thus, कत्र kartri. 205. The grammarians prescribe a complete neuter declension also for bases in q, precisely analogous with that of arft or #y, but such forms are rare. Vocabulary XV. Verbs: ag+fa (rivádate) dispute, argue. JTA + 39 (anugacchati) follow. f7 + 7 (āçráyate) go for pro- T+HA-TT(samācárati)commit, tection to, take refuge with perform, do. (acc.). Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Loc Absol Lesson XV. 4 , Subst.: पद n., step. आचार्य m., teacher. grufaa n., penance, expiation.prāya. tette ad m., doer, maker. author: as a m., supporter, preserver; lord, Bharti adj., doing, making. husband; master. काल m., time. रक्षित m., protector. out f., graciousness, pity. Ko pa aqETT m., trial, law-suit. Vitavahāra gta m., giver; as adj., generous. Tem., punisher, governor. gästr cota m., scamp, rogue. dürjand m., creator. Srastra द्रष्ट्र m., seer, author (of Vedic | नमस् n., honor, glory (often as books); as adj., seeing. I indecl., w. follºg dut.. Erg m., creator. Ahāts Adj.: fare m., decision, certai/ty. aftg, f. oT, poor. daridra äg m., leader. metr वर, f. ०आ, best, most excellent : @/ ufuca m., learned man; panditát better sw. foll’g abl.). Exercise XV. दुर्जनस्य च सर्पस्य वरं सर्पो न दुर्जनः ।। सर्पो दशति कालेन दुर्जनस्तु पदे पदे ॥ ४ ॥ आचार्य लभस्व प्रायश्चित्तं समाचरेति पापं द्विजातय आदिशन्ति।१॥ काव्यानि रचयाम कीर्ति विन्दाम नृपतीनाश्रयामहै श्रियं लभामहा इति कवयो वदन्ति । २ । स्वर्गहे कन्ये व्यवसताम् । ३। नृपे रक्षि- तरि** सुखेन प्रजा वसन्ति । ४ । धर्मीय देवान्यजीवहा अर्थाय कीर्तये च सभासु पण्डितैः सह विवदावहा इति ब्राह्मणस्य पुत्रयोर्निश्चयः । ५। मुक्तय (dat.) ईश्वरः सृष्टेः कर्ता मनुष्यैर्भक्त्या सेव्यताम् । ६। नृपतयः प्रजानां रक्षितारो दुर्जनानां च शास्तारो दर्तन्ताम् । ७ । शास्त्रस्य कर्वे पाणिनये नमः । ८। लोकस्य स्रष्टभ्यो वसूनां दातृभ्यो देवेभ्यो नमो नमः ॥९॥ tabit

  • Words are often repeated, to give an intensive, a distributive,

or a repetitional meaning. So here: “at every step”. The po- sition of च is very unusual; it would naturally follow सर्पस्य.

    • Loc. absol. – supply “being”.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 68 Lesson XV. XVI. 10. Let the wife love her husband. 11. Let the warriors follow their leaders and fight with the enemy (pl.). 12. At the river the boy is to meet his two sisters (instr.). 13. The world was created by the creator. 14. In the houses of pious givers alms is given to ascetics. 15. King Bhoja was (pada) generous toward the author (loc.) of the eulogies. 16. Let servants always be useful to (a) their masters (acc.). 17. For protection* (acc.) betake yourselves to the gods”, the protectors of the pious?. 18. Men live by the graciousness of the creator. 19. O generous one, the poor bend before thee! 20. The man leads his sisters to the city (pass. constr.). mai Lesson XVI. MI 206. Verbs, a-conjugation. Present Optative Active. The present optative is formed from the general present-stem by the addition of a mode-sign, after which are used secondary end- ings (in 3rd pl. act. Of us, in 1st sing. mid. 7 a, in 3rd pl. mid. Ta ran). After an a-stem, this mode-sign, in all voices, is fi, unaccented, which blends with the final a to T e (accented, or not, according to the accent of the a): aud the Q is maintained unchanged before a vowel-ending (WA, GA, TETA, TATA) by means of an interposed euphonic U y. The inflection in the active voice is as follows: Sing Dual. Plural. 1. वदेयम् ०ddegam | aga vádeva aĝA vádema 2. aga vádes aan vadetam वदेत uddeta 3. aaa vádet वदेताम् addetton | वदेयुस videgus v Similarly, fagea viçéyam, TUA náhyeyam, itteet coráyeyam, etc. i ai a Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XVI. 69 co 207. The optative expresses: 1. wish or desire; 2. request or entreaty; 3. what is desirable or proper; 4. what may or might, can or could be. It is also largely used in conditional sentences. The subject is often indefinite and unexpressed. The negative used with the opt. is a na. Both the prescriptive and the prohibitive optative are rery common. 208. The nouns of relationship in (except FA and ag - see $ 203) gunate in the strong cases ; thus, fug m., 'father', ATE f., “mother', declined as follows: Sing.. Dual. Plural. N. पिता माता पितर मातरी। पितरस मातरम् A. FONTH ATTA पितृन् मातृस् I. पित्रा मात्रा पितृभ्याम् मातृभ्याम् पितृभिस् मातृभिर् etc. etc. etc. V. fort HTAT A D 209. The stem m., f., 'bull' or cow', is declined thus : Sing. Dual. Plural. NV. Ita gāus da gārāu Taf gāvas A. TA gām TIF gās I. Tat gavā TUTA gobhyam fita gobhis D. Te gave गोभ्यस् gobhiyos Ab. गोस् gos G. गवोस् 90008 गवाम् gavam L. Tfa gavi गोषु 90614 Vocabulary XVI. Verbs: (smårati; p. smaryate) re- HOT (mányate) think, suppose. member; think of; teach, esp. in

  • (módate) rejoice.

pass. “it is taught, i. e. “tra- TE (cáňsati) proclaim (see also ditional'. in Vocab. I.). Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 70 Lesson XVI. - arra Subst.: meal and gifts to the Brāh- गो m., f., bull, steer, cow; f., mans. speech. | Adj.: गोत्व n., ox-nature; stupidity. | अधिक, f. “आ, more, greatel, घास m., fodder, hay. yreatest. जामातृ m., Son-in-law. कामदुघ, f.०, granting wishes; दुहितु f., daughter. | as f., SC, धेनु, the fabulous Won- २८.६० पङ्क n., mud, bog. der-cow. । पितृ m., father; du., parents; pl., दुष्प्रयुक्त, f. °आ, badly arranged manes. or used. geita m., user, arranger. | प्रयुक्त. f. °, arranged, used. qum., wise man, sage. श्रेष्ठ, f. आ, best. भ्रातृ m., brother. Pron.: मातृ f., mother. सा f., she, it. मास m., month. Adv. and Conj.: युग्म n., pair. चेत् if. रक्षण n., protection, नित्यम् always, daily. श्राद्ध n., an oblation to the 2ndates, यदि if. accomplanied by a sacrificial Farah well, properly. - - - Exercise XVI. गौगः कामदुधा सम्यक् प्रयुक्ता मर्यंते बुधैः । दुष्प्रयुक्ता पुनर्गोत्वं प्रयोक्तुः सैव शंसति ॥ ५॥ . भर्तारं भर्तश्च पितरं मातरं च पत्नी देवानिव पूजयेत्।१गा रक्षेद्ग- वां रक्षणेन पुण्यं भवतीति द्विजातयो मन्यन्ते । २। यदा प्रयाग आग- च्छेव तदा पित्रे पत्त्रं लिखेव । ३। पितृभ्यो मासे मारो श्राद्धं यच्छेयः । ४। ग्राममद्य गच्छेतमिति मातरौ पुत्रावभाषेताम् । ५। गोः क्षीरेण शि- शवो मोदन्ताम् । ६। गामतिथ्ये पचेमेत्वृषिभायमवदत् । ७ । दुहि- • Predicate. Play upon words throughout the verse. - - Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XVI. XVII. SON- I . तरं पितरौ रक्षेत स्वसारं भ्रातरो मातृः पुत्राय रक्षेयुः । ८। यदि शास्त्रमभ्यस्येयं तदा गुरवस्तुष्येयुः । ९ । हे स्वसः पित्रोर्गहे तिष्ठः । १० । athugi et aña 1991 ê fyra: fuqaab argui fa- ga il 92 11 13. By Rşabhadatta, son-in-law of Nabapāna, many cattle and villages and much money were given to the Brāhmans. 14. Thou shalt give the mother's jewels to the sisters (opt. or imv.). 15. Let the coachman bring (1-T) fodder for the horses ; let him not tor- ment the horses. 16. Of the father's property a greater part is to be given (imv.) to the eldest of the brothers. 17. “Children, bring wood and water into the house daily”; thus was the father's com- mand. 18. Let the cows graze in the forest. 19. Let both live on the milk (instr.) of the black cow. 20. The wagon is drawn by two steers. 21. The seer rejoices over the pair (instr.) of white steers. 22. Hari and Çiva marry two sisters, the daughters of Rāma. Lesson XVII. 210. Verbs, a-conjugation. Present Optative Middle. The optative middle (and passive) of a-stems, formed as shown in the preceding lesson, is inflected as follows: Sing. Dual. Plural. 1. capire lábheya hafa lábhevahi AfE lábhemahi 2. T lábhethās apie ETA leibheyāthām par to lábhedhvam 3. लभेत १dbheta लभेयाताम् tibhejatam लभैरन् ldbheran Similarly atera coryėya, H RT sangaccheya, etc. 211. Declension. The sten i f., “ship, boat', is entirely reg- ular, taking throughout the normal endings, as given in § 90. Thus: TH, OH, atat, etc.; atat, T TA, etc.; OTTH, fara, etc. nor naud navam Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XVII. 212. The stems ending in long vowels (*, &, 57) fall into two well-marked classes : A. root-stems – mostly monosyllabic — and their compounds, with a comparatively small number of others inflected like them; B. derivative feminine stems in T and with a few in 37, inflected like TT, et and qu. The stems of class A take the normal eadings throughout, with optional ex- ceptions in dat., abl.-gen., and loc. sing. fem., and with 7 inserted before ITH of the geri. pl. The simple words are as nouns with few exceptions fem.; as adjectives (rare), and in adjective com- pounds, they coincide in masc. and fem. forms. The declension of the simple words in & and 37 has been given (in $$ 189, 197); those in my are so rare that it is not possible to make up a whole scheme of forms in actual use. 213. When any root in IT or Šor 3 is found as final member of a compound word, these root - finals are treated as follows: 1. Roots in I lose that vowel before vowel-endings, except in the strong cases and in the acc. pl., which is like the nominative. Thus, fazy-07 m., f., 'all-protecting": Plural. faut -pās Sing. Dual. N.V. fajtĘ -pās faut -pāu A. विश्वपाम् -pam विश्वपाभ्याम् 1. विश्वपा rtcuup-a विश्वपोस ८tcuup-08 विश्वपाभिस् etc. 214. 2. Roots in and Jo change their final vowel, before vowel-endings, into ą and , if but one consonant precede the final vowel; but if two or more consonants precede, the change is into 77 and 3q. Thus, ya-mt m., f., “corn-buying’: nom.-voc. ga- H, acc. gafaelf; 99-9 m., f., “street-sweeper': nom. sing. Oh, acc. CCA. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XVII 73 Vocabulary XVII.

Verbs :

ईच्+ प्रति (pratiksate) expect. रम् (ramate) amuse oneself. + वि (viramati) cease from (abl.); cease. नन्द् + अभि (abhinandati , poet) rejoice in, greet with joy (acc.). स्था+अनु (anutisthati) follow out, accomplish.


मित्र n., friend. उद्यान n., garden. युद्ध n., battle. कृषि f., agriculture वाणिज्य n., trade. जीवित n, life. विधि m., rule; fate. निदेश m, command. श्वशुर m., father-in-law. पाशुपाल्य n., cattle-raising. पुरोहित m., domestic priest, chaplain. भक्षण n., eating. भृतक m., servant. मरण n., death.


भद्र, f., good, pleasant, dear; as n, subst., fortune • संदिग्ध, f., doubtful; unsteady.

Exercise XVII.

नाभिनन्देत मरणं नाभिनन्देत जीवितम् । कालमेव प्रतीचेत निदेशं भृतको यथा* ॥ ६ ॥ भ्रातरि स्तेनाः शरानमुञ्चन्।१। यदि नरः श्रुतेः स्मृतेश्च विधीननुतिष्ठे- युस्तदा साधुभिः शस्येरन् । २। वैश्याः कृष्वा वाणिज्येन पाशुपाल्येन वा वर्तेरन् ।३। संदिग्धां नावं नारोहेत् ।४। यदि गङ्गाया वारिणि म्रि येध्वं तदा स्वर्गं लभेध्वम् ।५। जामातरः श्वशुरान्नुषाः श्वशुर्दुहितरश्च पुचाश्च पितरौ सेवेरन् । ६। ब्राह्मणैर्नवोदधिर्न तीयेत । ७ । शत्रुभिर्न पराजयेथा इति नृपतिं प्रजा वदन्ति । ८ । नृपती अरिभिर्युध्येया- ताम् ।९। नौषु युद्धमभवत् ।१० । बालावुद्याने रमेयाताम् ॥ ११॥

  • Rule for an ascetic. who is to put aside all earthly desires

and passions. 74


12. Let fodder be brought (अ-हृ) (opt., inv.) by the brother for the horses of the all-protecting king. 13. May we see good fortune (pl.); may ye acquire (लभ्) glory. 14. The king with his warriors crossed the sea in a ship. 15. Tell (opt., inv..) where our friends may meet with their brothers. 16. You may amuse yourselves in the garden, but cease eating (abl. of भक्षण) the fruits (gen.). 17. Mayest thou be saved by the all-protector from thy misfortune. 18. To-day let the king's two sons be consecrated (opt. , imv.) by the house - priest. 19. Ye both shall greet (opt. , an१०.) your parents. 20. If we two should speak untruth, then we should be punished by the king. 21. May I conquer the enemies with my brave warriors: thus is the king's wish (ase इष् pass.). 22. May we receive the reward of virtue.

Lesson XVIII.

215. Causative. The chief points to be noticed in the formation of causative- stems have been given already (in Less. VII); some additional ones follow .

216. Most roots in अ and ऋ add प् before the conjugation sign; thus, दापयति from lदा; धापयति; गापयति; अर्पयति from ऋ . श्रा makes श्रपयति; ज्ञा and स्त्रा, sometimes ज्ञापयति, etc., sometimes ज्ञपयति, etc. 1पा, ‘ drink', makes पाययति (as though from पी). A few roots in इ and ई take the same प् with various irregularities; thus. अध्यापयति from अधि-इ.

217. Medial or initial अ in a light syllable is commonly lengthened, but sometimes remains unchanged. Thus, पत्, पातयति; कम्, कामयते; चम्, चामयति. But most roots in अम्, and जन्, त्वर्, प्रथ , व्यथ , with other rarer ones, generally keep the अ short; thus, गम्, गमयति Lesson XVIII. 75 accu 218. Final vowels take १rddha before अय; thus, भू, भावयति; का, कारयति । 219. Sonie verbs of causative ineaning are by formation de- nominatives; thus पालयति, 'protect', called causative to 2पाः प्री- णयति, to प्री; भीषयति, to भी; घातयति, to हन् । 220. For the passive of causatives, see Less. X. 5 221. The causatives of intransitive verbs are transitive. The causatives of transitive verbs are construed sometimes (a) with two accusatives, sometimes (6) with an acc. of the object and an in- strumental of the agent. Thus, “he causes the birds to eat the cakes may be rendered either (०) : विहगान् पिण्डान् खादयति, or (6) विहंगैः पि० खा. 222. Participles. The general participial endings are a (weak form wa) for the active, and yta for the middle. But after a tense - stem in the active suffix is virtually a, one of the two अ's being lost; and the middle suffix is मान (ex- cept आन sometimes in causative forms). Thus, भवन्त् bhdcant, aza tudánt, tan divyant, altera coráyant ; Haata bháva- māna, etc. For the declension of the participles in a see below, Less. XXIII. 223. Pronoun of the First Person. The pronominal declension exhibits some striking peculiarities which are not easily explained. The pronoun of the first person is declined thus: | Sing. Dual. | Plural. N. अहम् आवाम्। वयम् A. माम्, मा आवाम्, नौ । अस्मान्, नस् I. मया । आवाभ्याम् । अस्माभिस् D. मह्यम्, मे । , नौ अस्मभ्यम्, नस् Ab. मत् अस्मत्. G. मम, मे आवयोस्, नौ अस्माकम्, नस् L. मयि असामु Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 76 Lesson XVIII. 224. The forms HT, À, fi, 7 are enclitic, and are never used at the beginning of a sentence, or before the particles 7, Va, at 225. In pronouns of the first and second persons the plural is often used for the singular. Pronouns (and other words as well) show in Sanskrit a curious tendency to agree in form with the predicate rather than with the subject to which they refer. OUT Vocabulary XVIII. Verbs, with causatives: die; caus. (māráyati) kill. y eat; caus. (āçảyati) make us sacrifice; caus. (yājáyati) eat; give to eat. make to sacrifice; offer sacrifice 8 + afy study, read; caus. (a- for (acc.*). dhyāpáyati) teach. az+ ufu in caus. (abhivādayati) any in caus. (kalpáyati, -te) make; greet. ordain, appoint. faz know; caus. (vedáyati) in- Fa in caus. (janáyati) beget. form (dat.). T + 7 in caus. (ājñāpåyati)| + fit in caus. inform (dat.). command. qy (várdhate) grow; caus. (var- 177 give; caus. (dāpayati) make dhayati, -te) make grow;bring up. give or pay. au in caus. (cyatháyati) torment. see; in caus. (darçayati) show. hear; in caus. (çrācáyati) make 19T + oft, in caus. (-dhāpayati) hear, i. e. recite, proclaim (acc. Thake put on, clothe in (two acc.). / of pers.). of + ga lead away (caus. apa- & stand; in caus. (sthāpåyati). nāyáyati). put, place; appoint; stop. ya in caus. (prathayati) spread, + 9 (pratisthate) start off; in proclaim. caus. (prasthāpåyati) send.

  • The priest who performs sacrifice for the benefit of another

person is said to "make that person sacrifice”, as thougb the latter (who is called THATT) were celebrating the sacrifice for himself, Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XVIII. | 77 Subst.: दास m., slave, groom. अमृत n., nectar. दूत m., messenger, envoy. उपनयन n., initiation, investiture. पाटलिपुत्र n., nom. pr., the city कर m., hand; trunk (of ele of Patna. phant); ray; toll, tax. मनोरथ m., wish. कालिदास m., nom. pr., a noted वस्त्र n., garment. poet. fafy m., Brahman (the deity). ayant f., nom. pr., the city of qa m., wolf. Benares. वेद m., science, knowledge; esp. गुण m., quality; excellent quality, sacred knowledge, holy writ. excellence. दशरथ m., nom. pr. (Rama's नवीन, f. ० , new. father). स्व, f. ०आ, own, one's own. Adj.: Exercise XVIII. सूत । अधुना स्थापय रथम् । १। यथाज्ञापयति देवः ॥२॥ दश- रथञ्चारून्पुत्रानजनयत् । ३। कालिदासस्य काव्यं मां श्रावयेः । ४। वै- श्यान्करान्दापयेनृपः । ५। उपनयने बालान्नवीनानि वस्त्राणि परिधा- पयेयुः । ६। भातरो ऽस्मान्नगरं प्रास्थापयन् । ७। स्वसार आगच्छन्ती- ति मह्यं न्यवेद्यत । ८ । वायोर्बलेन तरवो ऽपात्यन्त । ९ । क्षत्रिया युद्धे रीन्मारयन्ति । १० । कवयो ऽस्माकं गुणान्प्रथयेयुः कीर्ति च वर्धयेयु- रिति पार्थिवैरिष्यते । ११। अहं प्रयागे निवसामि रामः काश्यां तिष्ठ- ति । १२ । ग्रन्थो ऽस्माभी रयते पुस्तकं रामेण लेख्यामः ॥ १३ ॥ 14. I cause a mat to be made (caus. pass.). 15. Show me (dat.) the books. 16. Let Brāhmans teach us both and offer sacrifice for us. 17. The king determined (ordained) the taxes in his kingdom. 18. I have my field ploughed by slaves. 19. Give me water and food. 20. They had the boy taken (led) away from me (abl.). 21. The kings sent envoys to Pāšaliputra. 22. Thieves stole our (gen.) cows, and wolves killed our* focks. 23. The king made the

  • The expression of possession, etc., on the part of pronouns

Univ Calif - Digitized-by Microsoft ® Lesson XVIII, XIX. poet recite (use areefa) a eulogy of Vişņu. 24. We torment our hearts with wishes. 25. Both scholars greet the teacher. Lesson XIX. 226. Pronoun of the Second Persou. This pronoun (for which the natives assume त्वद aud युष्मद as bases) is declined thus: Singular. Dual. Plural. त्वम् । युवाम् यूयम् । त्वाम्, त्वा । युवाम्, वाम् । युष्मान्, वस् त्वया । युवाभ्याम् । युष्माभिस् तुभ्यम्, ते | " , वाम् । युष्मभ्यम्, वस् त्वत् युष्मत् G. तव, ते युवयोस्, वाम् युष्माकम्, वस् L. त्वयि युष्मासु 227. The forms त्वा, ते, वाम, वस् are enclitics, subject to the same rules as मा, मे, etc. (६ 224). 228. The Pronoun of the Third Person (for which the natives assume as base — the base is really a) is declined as follows (note nom. sing., m. and f.): Masculine: Feminine: | Sing. Dual Plural. Sing. Dual. Plural N. सस तौ ते सा ते तास A. तम् तान् ताम् । I. तेन ताभ्याम् तैस तथा ताभ्याम् ताभिस् D. तस्मै तेभ्यस् तस्यै , ताभ्यस Ab. तस्मात् | तस्यास G. तस्य तयोस् तेषाम् । तयोस्। तासाम् L. तस्मिन् । तेषु तस्याम् ५ ५ तासु is made almost entirely by the genitive case, not by a derivative possessive adjective. But often the unemphatic possessive pronoun of the English is omitted in Sanskrit. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XIX. 79 Neuter: Dual. Sing. TE Plural. तानि N. A. 1. äta ताभ्याम् QĦ etc., as in the masculine. D0000 229. The nom. sing. masc. HE, and its compound Vora, lose their final # before any consonant; before vowels, and at the end of a sentence, they follow the usual euphonic rules. Thus, a 9- mra, a fagfa; ofa; # sefa; rofa Fi. 230. The third personal pronoun is used oftenest as a weak or indefinite demonstrative, especially as antecedent to a relative; and often like the English - definite article.” 231. Like ñ are declined: (a) ga, this', formed by prefixing Q to the forms of a, throughout; thus, nom. sing. m. PTÆ, f. VAT, n. Daz; (b) the relative pronoun (and adj.) y, wbich, who'; (c) comparatives and superlatives from pronominal roots, such as wat, which (of the two)?' and 27a wbich (of the many)?' So यतर and यतम; एकतम ‘one of many'; अन्य ‘other', with its comparative palat; and at different '. — Yet other words are so inflected, but with WA instead of u in nom.-acc.-voc. sing. neut: as, Fa, fat, 'all’; van 'one', in pl. “some’; 37727, f. ozit (only sing. and pl.), “both’. 232. The interrogative pronoun ā (for which the Hindus give the base as fa) follows precisely the declension of q, except nom.-acc. sing. neut. faft; nom. sing. m. 7, f. 27. 233. A number of words follow the pronominal declension in some of their significations, or optionally; but in other senses, or without known rule, lapse into the adjective infection. Such are comparatives and superlatives from prepositional stems, as TYT flower', अधम ‘lowest'; पर chief', पूर्व ‘earlier', उत्तर ‘upper', Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 80 Lesson XIX. 'northern', ufau southern', etc. Occasional forms of the pro- Dominal declension are met with from numeral adjectives, and from other words baring somewhat of a numeral character, as you 'few', balf, etc. 234. Peculiarities in the use of relative prononns, etc. The Sanskrit often puts the relative clause before the antecedent clause, and inserts the substantive to wbich the relative refers into the same clause with the relative, instead of leaving it in the antecedent clause. In translating into Sanskrit, a relative clause is to be placed either before or after the whole antecedent clause; but not inserted into the antecedent clause, as is done in English. Thus, “the mountain wbich we saw yesterday is very high would be in Sanskrit either: यं पर्वतं वयं ह्यो ऽपश्याम सो sata yfi, or: # weat sata ast i TT SERTA; but not H gent j ai u SARITH, etc., according to the English idiom. 235. The relative word may stand anywhere in its clause; tbus, feta fugiã aat: “the gods whose chief is Çiva”. Sometimes relative or demonstrative adverbs are used as equivalents of certain case-fornis of relative or demonstrative pronouns; thus, यच वने = यस्मिन्वने. 236. The repetition of the relative gires an indefinite meaning: 'whosoever, whatever'. The same result is much more commonly attained by adding to the relative the interrogative pronoun, with (or, less usually, without) one of the particles 7, 99, faz, ufq, at. Sometimes the interrogative alone is used with these particles in a similar sense. Thus; aut agafa "whatever this woman relates”; 1 e 2: RITA “whatever any one's disposition may be'; यस्मै कस्मै चिद्यच्छति “he gives to some one or other'; यात्क- enfua antã “be takes from no one whatever”. ACO Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XIX. 81 Vocabulary XIX. Verbs: qə say, speak; name; in caus. AT sit; in caus. (āsáyati) place. (vācáyati) make (a written leaf) in drink; in caus. (pāyáyati) speak, i. e. read. give to drink, water. HE (sáhate) endure. 291 protect; in caus. (pālåyati) fev (sidhyati) succeed; in caus. protect. (sādháyati) perform, acquire. o rejoice; in caus. (prīņiyati) 67 kill; caus. (ghātáyati) have make rejoice, please. killed. af fear; in caus. (bhīşayate, bhāya- T call; in caus. (hrāyáyati) have yate) terrify, frighten. called Subst.: FETY m., companion, helper. are n., business, concern. Adj.: quu m., n. pr., a god. अन्य other. about f., n. pr. इतर other. fa f., gait; refuge. faz all (Vedic). U m., n., foot, leg. सर्व all. e te n., umbrella. स्वादु sweet. que n., milk. Indecl.: Zaait f., n. pr., Krşņa's mother. #fo also, eren. qeat f., earth. fast without (w. instr. or acc.; . it, as prefix to proper names, often postpos.). has the meaning "famous', 'ho- norable'. Exercise XIX. सहायेन विना नैव कार्य किमपि सिध्यति । एकेन चरणेनापि गतिः कस्य प्रवर्तते ॥ ७ ॥ मयि त्वयि च पितरौ स्निह्यतः । १। यः पृथिवीं पालयति स पा- र्थिव उच्यते ।२। कस्यै देव्यै स्तोत्रं रचयेम । ३। गुरुयुष्मानाङ्काययत् ॥४॥ Perry, Sanskrit Primor. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XIX. XX. या अस्मान्दुग्धं पाययन्ति ता धेनूमा घातयत। ५। युष्मन्मम दुःखं भ- वति । ६। साधवः पुण्यैः सह स्वर्ग लभन्ते न वितरे जनाः । ७। वयमेत- त्पुस्तकं नेच्छामस्तदन्यस्मै कस्मैचिद्दीयताम् । ८। त्वदन्यो न को ऽप्य- माभिः शस्यते । ९ । या देवकी वसुदेवस्य पत्न्यभवत्तस्यां कृष्णो ऽजा- थत । १० । तव पित्रा सह नगी आगच्छाम । ११ । यूयं पितृश्रादैः प्रणयथ वयं जलेन । १२ । विश्वे देवास्त्वा पालयन्तु । १३ । अन्येषां का- बैरेष कविः कीर्तिमसाधयत् ॥ १४ ॥ 15. The husband of that (gen.) Kāusalyā? (loc.), of wbom? (loc. fem.) Rāmawas born“, is called Daçaratha? 16. The teacher rejoices at thy diligence (abt.). 17. Why (कस्मात्) speakest thou 80? 18. Others than we could not endure this suffering. 19. The teacher teaches** us holy-writ and the law-books. 20. May all! those' kings who' protect their subjects' according to (अनु, post- pos.) the laws (acc.) be victorious”. 21. The fruits of all these trees are sweet. 22. May the glory of all women, who honor their husbands, increase (imv.). 23. In this kingdom the king's punishment terrifies the wicked. 24. Which of the two fruits do ye wish? 25. My father had gold given to me, cows to thee, to the other brother nothing. E Lesson XX. Conso 237. Declension of Stems in Consonants. All noun - stems in consonants may well be classed together, since the peculiarities shown by some concern only the stems themselves, and not the endings. Masculines and feminines of the same final are inflected precisely alike; and neuters are peculiar (as usually in the other

  • *Other than thou. With अन्य, as with comparatives, the

ablative is used.

    • • Makes us read" (अधि-९, caus.).

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XX. NOT ICE 1 declensions) only in the nom.-acc.-voc. of all numbers. But the majority of consonantal stems form a special feminine stem by adding & (nerer #T) to the weak form of the masculine. 238. Variations, as between stronger and weaker forms, are very general in consonantal stems: either of strong and weak stems, or of strong, middle, and weakest. The endings are throughout the normal ones (Introd., § 90). 239. The general law concerning final consonants is as follows: 1. The more usual etymological finals are H, T, A, T, a qi, q, &; sporadic are G, H, UL as finals. 2. In general, only one consonant, of whatever kind, is allow- ed to stand at the end of a word; if two or more would etymo- logically occur there, the last is dropped, and again the last, until but one remains. 3. Of the non-nasal mutes, only the first in each series, the non-aspirate surd, is allowed as final; the others — surd asp., and both sonants — are regularly converted into this, wherever they would etymologically occur. 4. A final palatal, or E, becomes either a, or (less often) Z; but & in a very few cases (where it represents original y) be- comes a. 240. According to 239. 2, the # of the nom. sing., m. and f., is always lost; and irregularities of treatment of the stem-final, in this case, are not infrequent. 241. Before the pada-endings, 7TH, HH, 77# and #, a stem- Linal is treated as in external combination. 242. An aspirate mute is changed to its corresponding non- aspirate before another 1109 - nasal mute or a sibilant; it stands unaltered only before a vowel or semivowel or nasal. Hence such a mute is doubled by prefixing its own corresponding non-aspirate. 243. Consonant-stems of one form in a , u and H. Be- HION- 01

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 84 Lesson XX fore suffixalभ , both त and ध as stenm-finals become e; भ as stem-final becomes ब . Examples: मरुत् m., "wind'; आपदु f. 'misfortune'; जगत् n.. ° the world '. Sing. Plural N.V. मरुत् । आपत् । जगत् ॥ मरुतस । आपदस । जगन्ति ॥ A. मरुतम् । अपदम् । जगत् ॥ , 1. मरुता। आपदा। जगता । मरुलिस । आपद्भिस । जगन्निस् ॥ D. मरुते । आपदे। जगते ॥ मरुद्दस । आपद्मस् । जगद्मस् ॥ Ab. मरुतस । आपदस्। जगतस ॥ , मरुताम् । अपदाम् । जगताम् ॥ L. मरुति । आपदि। जगति । मरुत्सु । आपत्सु । जगत्सु ॥ Dual. N.A.V. मरुतौ। आपदौ। जगती । 1.D.Ab. मरुद्याम् । आपद्मम् । जगद्माम् ॥ । G.L. मरुतोस । आपदोस् । जगतोस् ॥ For the inserted in nom.-acc. pl neuter, cf. phalant, ma. dhun, etc. 244. In a few roots, when a final sonant aspirate (घ , ध्, भूः also ह, representing खु) loses its aspiration according to 68239. B, 242, the initial sonant consonant (ग्र , दू, or ब्) becomes aspirate: thus, बुध, non.-voc. sing. भूत्; भुइस, भुत्सु 245. Agreement of adjectives. If the same adjective qualify two or more substantives, it will be used in their combined number; if the substantives are masculine and feminine, the adj. will be masc; but in a combination of mase. or fem. subjects with neuter, the adjective will be neuter. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® ०६५n XX. 85 vocabulary . Yerbs , in caus. (lambhagat*) make grow; caus. (rohdgati or ro I receive or take; give. phyati) make rise or grow; plant. Subst. : | शत n. , a hundred. f, name of certain Vedic| शरद f., autumn; year. writings. समिध् f, fagot. उपवीत n, sacred cord (worn by सरित् f., river. the three higher castes ). m., friend. , तडित् f., lightning. Adj दृषद f., stone. कुशल, f£ °आ, skilledlearned. निर्युति, contentment, happiness.|त्रिवृत् m., f., n, threefold, triple . पोषक m., supporter, maintainer. f. ०अ, hard to find or भूभृत् m. , king ; mountain. reach; difficult. मरुत् m. wind; as pl., 2. pr., भक्त, f. ०आ, devoted, true. the Storm-gods. Indecl.: वात m., wind. अपि also; even. विश्वास m., trust, confidence. पश्चात् behind (ae. gen.). वत्र nm., n. pr. , a demon, Vrtra. Exercise XX. ते पुत्रा ये पितुर्भक्ताः स पिता यस्तु पोषकः।

  • तन्मित्रं यत्र विश्वासः सा भार्य यत्र निर्वतिः ॥ ८ ॥

हे शिष्य समिधो वनादाहर।१। उपनिषत्सु मुक्मीर्ग उपदि धते । २ । आपदि सुहृदो ऽस्मान्पालयेयुः । विश्वस्य भुजि पाया If a nasal is ever taken in any of the strong forms of a rootit usually appears in the causal.

    • See 8 225; यत्र = यस्मिन् and यस्याम्see end.
& 235.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 86 Lesson XX.XXI.

भूभृद्भिर्दण्ड्यन्ताम् । ४ । समिद्भिरग्नि यजेत । ५ । पुण्येन जगती जयेः । ६ । त्वं जीव शरदः शतम् । ७ । भूभृतः (gen) शिखरं वय मारोहाम यूयमधस्तादतिष्ठत ।। ८ । काश्चित्सरितः समुद्रेण काश्चिद- न्याभिः सरिद्भिः संगच्छन्ते । ९ । रात्रौ तडिददृश्यत । १० । भक्ताः सुहृदो ऽस्मान्सुखं लम्भयन्ति । ११ । अशुभिनीयो बालाश्च मनोरथा- न्साधयन्ति । १२ । शरदि कासुचित्सरित्सु पद्मानि दृश्यन्ते । १३ । 14. Indra, with the Maruts as his companions, killed Vytra. 15. Without a companion no one can perform a difficult business. 16. One (pre88 in pl.) should plant trees on all the roads, for the sake of the shade. 17. Those friends who are true in misfortune are hard to find in the three worlds. 18. The girule and the sacred cord of Aryans are to be made threefold (neut. dhul). 19. Put ( स्था coas. ) this stone behind the fire. 20. The ocean is called by the poets the husband of rivers. 21. All subjects must be protected (im®.) by their kings. 22. Some of these Brahman8 are learned in the Upanisads, others in the law-books. Lesson XXI 246. Declemsion of womsonant-stems, omtd. Stems im pala. tals, etc 1. Final च् of a stem reverts to the original guttural when it conves to stand as word-final, and before the padca-endings becoming when final, and before, सु, and w before भ् . 2. Final ज् is oftenest treated exactly like for cases of other treat ment. see below. 8. In the roots * दिश, दृश and स्पृश , the श is treated in the same way. 4. The स of सु becomes © after ; In classical Sanskrit not many root-stems are used as inde pendent substantives; but they are frequently employed, with adjective or (present) participial value, as final element of a conm- pound word Lesson XXI. 87 thus. "तु. E. g. वाच् f., “speech, word'; रज f., illness'; दिए f., ‘direction, point of the compass': । Sing. Plural. N.V. वाक् । रुक् । दिक् ॥ वाचस् । रुजस् । दिशम् ॥ A. वाचम् । रुजम् । दिशम् ॥ I. वाचा। रुजी । दिशा॥ वाग्भिस । रुग्भिस् । दिग्भिस् ॥ L. वाचि । इजि । दिशि ॥ वाचु । रुनु । दिक्षु ॥ | Dual. वाची। रुजौ । दिशौ ॥ वाग्भ्याम् । रुग्भ्याम् । दिग्भ्याम् ॥ वाचोस । रुजोस् । दिशोस् ॥ 247. 1. Final श of a stem regularly becomes the lingual mute (ङ or ) before + and सु, and when word-final. For exceptions, see 5 246, 3. 2. The final 7 of the root-stems राज, ‘rule', यज,

  • sacrifice', and सज, with others; and 3. the final g of a number

of roots, are treated like श above. Thus, द्विम् m., ‘enemy; famy m. pl., “people’, the · Vāiçya-caste’; faz m., f., (adj.) •licking'. Plural. N.V. द्विट् । लिट् ॥ विषम् । विशम् ।। लिहस ॥ A. विषम् । लिहम् ॥ ॐ ॐ ॐ I. द्विषा। लिहा ॥ द्विभिम् । विभिस् । लिभिस् ॥ L. विषि । लिहि ॥ दिसु । विट्स । लिटसु ॥ Dual. विषौ। लिही ॥ विड्भ्याम् । लिड्भ्याम् ॥ द्विषोस । लिहोस् । 248. But we m., priest", though containing the root ya, Sing. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 88 Lesson XXI. makes area etc.; and 9 f., 'garland”, though containing मृज् , makes स्रक् etc. 249. 1. Nouns having the roots 7, 'burn', and ye, “milk', "be hostile', with others, as final element, and also Efaut f. (name of a certain metre), change the final into an and q. Thus, 278CE, “wood - burning', makes nom. - voc. sing. agua; OTHER f., 'granting wishes', nom.-voc. sing. GT , acc. "ZEA, loc. pl. oyg; HET 'friend-betraying,' nom.-voc.-sing. 787- ya etc. 2. In words with a£, “bind,' as final element, where a represents original y, the becomes and a; thus, 34TE f., “shoe, sandal,' nom.-voc. sing. gurata, acc. 7EH, instr. du. 077&ITA, loc. pl. ore. Vocabulary XXI. Verbs: 79 + 37 (utssjáti) let loose or ZA in caus. (damåyati) tame; out; raise (the voice). compel. FFF +uft (parişvájate*) embrace. FF (druhyati) be hostile; offend. T+ (prahárati) strike out; Yin caus. (dhāráyati) bear. | smite. 2 (bhárati, -te) bear, support (lit. and fig.). Subst.: TT f., look, glance; eye. att m. pl., n. pr., a people in faq m., enemy. India. ato m., tears.

  1. f., verse of the Rigveda; in ufak m., bee.

pl., the Rigveda. aty n., sweetness. Tay n., medicine. 7 f., sickness, disease. aitäta m., nom. pr.

  1. at m., great king, emperor.
  • FH and a few other roots, whose nasal is not constant

throughout their inflection, lose it in the present-system. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXI. 89 Surro1 HTAT m., vassal. नीरुज् (i. e. निस-ज् ) m. f. n., स्नातक n., one who has taken a healthy, well. certain ceremonial bath. पथ्य, f. “आ, wholesome (gen.). स्वाध्याय m., private recitation (of बलिष्ठ, f. आ, strongest. sacred texts). रुद्ध, f. ० (pass. part. of रुध), besieged, surrounded; suffused. Adj.: विद्विष्ट, f. ० (pass. part. of आक्रान्त, f. ० (pass. part. of विष् + वि), hated, detested. । क्रम् + आ), attacked, smitten. वृद्ध, f. °आ (part. of वृध्), old. ईश्वर, f. "आ, rich. व्याधित, f. आ, sick, ill. कामदुह् m. f. n., granting wishes; समेत, f. आ. provided with. as f. subst., the Wonder-cow. | Adv.: । दक्षिण,f.०,right hand; southern. कदाचन, कदाचित् , कदापि, ever. Exercise XXI. दरिद्रान्भर कौन्तेय मा प्रयच्छेश्वरे धनम्।। व्याधितस्यौषधं पथ्यं नीरुजस्तु किमौषधैः ॥ ९ ॥ मरुतः सर्वाभ्यो दिग्भ्यो (abl.) वहन्ति । १। सम्राजो ऽपि राज्यं दिभिर्यनाश्यते । २ । तव वाचु कालिदास माधुर्यं वर्तते । ३। यदा दिशो दहन्ति तदा शिष्यान्नाध्यापयेत् ।४। बाप्पै रुद्धाभ्यां दृग्भ्यां पिता पत्रमैक्षत पर्यष्वजत च । ५। ऋत्विजां वाक् कामधुक सा सर्वान्नराणां मनोरथान्पूरयति । ६। सर्वसु दिक्षु द्विषो ऽदृश्यन्त । ७। परिव्राङ्काचं लोत्सृजेत् । ८। मित्रधुक् सर्वेषां विदिष्टः । ९ । स्रग्भिरुपानझां समेताः शिष्या गुरु नोपतिष्ठेरन् । १० । रुग्भिराक्रान्ता बहवो जना म्रियन्ते ।११॥ दक्षिणस्यां दिशि कृष्णो ऽन्ध्राणां सम्राडभवत् । १२ । मधुलिभिरेष बा- लो ऽदश्यत ॥ १३ ॥ 14. In the private recitation of the Veda an ascetic must

  • किम् (interrog.), with some other words expressing use or

need, takes with it an instrumental of what is used or needed, and a genitive of the user. So here: "of what use to a well man are medicines”? Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 90 Lesson XXI. XXII. ear CU raise (opt. or imv.) his voice. 15. That one among the priests is called hot?, who recites the Rigveda. 16. A snātaka must wear shoes and a garland, and carry an umbrella. 17. “ Among my friends Rāma is the strongest": thus spoke Rāvaņa. 18. Let an emperor keep his vassals in check (A caus.), and protect (UT caus.) the people in all the earth. 19. In the Rigveda occurs (FN pass.) the Uşộih. 20. The father's glance fell upon me (loc.). 21. Among the betrayers -of- friends is named (TUI pass.) Vilhisaņa. 22. The seer praises Indrāni with verses of the Rig- reda. 23. The emperor smote his enemies (acc., dat., or loc.) with the sword. 24. In the battle Kṛṣṇa was killed by his en- emies. 25. “May our enemies be tormented by diseases”: thus spoke the Brāhman in anger (abl.). Lesson XXII. S Plural. 250. Declension of Stems in T. The stems in 7 and 37 lengthen the vowel before consonant-endings, and in nom.- sing., and the Ħ of the nom. is lost. In the nom.-sing. the final T then becomes Ę (or visarga) under conditions requiring a surd as final (see $ 95. 116). Thus, fot f., 'voice'; 97 f., “city'. Singular. Dual. N.V. ott i all forotigatii FTTH ISCH 11 A. FITTA ITALIA forcii garll as TH I CZTA II oftfahrufata si forft I gft il fotTE I OTTA II no i og 251. Stens in 59 [and in fan and fat]. These are masc. and neut. only; the corresponding feminine is made by adding &; thus, ufan.* They lose their final 7 before consonant-endings; 1. 0 Almost any noun iu may form a possessive derivative with Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXII. 91 L and also in the nom. sing., where the masc. lengthens the in compensation. Thus, y ra m., 11., 'rich'. Masculine. Neuter. Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. धनी धनिनौ धनिनस् धनि धनिनी धनीनि A. धनिनम् । I. धनना धनिभ्याम् धनिभिस् as in the masculine L. धनिनि धनिनोस धनिषु १. धनिन्। 252. Derivative stems in अस्. एस्, उस्. The stems of this division are mostly neuter; but there are a few masculines aud feminines. Their infection is nearly regular (for ओ, र्, उर् be- fore H see 241; for the loc. pl., p. 27, bottom of page). Masc. (and fem.) stems in lengthen the in nom. sing.; and the nom.-acc. pl. neut. also lengthen अ or { or उ before the inserted nasal (anusvāra). Thus, #an., “mind'; fax n., oblation’; धनुस् n., ‘bow'. Singular. Dual. N.A.V.मनस । हविस् । धनुस् ॥ मनसी। हविषी। धनुषी ॥ I. मनसा। हविषा । धनुषा ॥ मनोभ्याम् । हवियाम। धनुयाम् ॥ L, मनसि । हविषि। धनुषि ॥ मनसोस् । हविषोस् । धनुषोस् ॥ Plural. N.A. मनांसि । हवींषि । धनंषि ॥ I. मनोभिस् । हविर्भिस् । धनुर्भिस् ॥ L, मनस्सु । हविष्षु । धनुष्षु ॥ | (or मजःसु । or हविःषु । or धनुःषु ॥ 253. अङ्गिरस 1. (name of certain mythical characters): nom. sing. अङ्गिरास, acc. अङ्गिरसम्, instr. अङ्गिरसा, voc. अङ्गिरस्; nom.-acc. pl. अङ्गिरसस्. the suffix न्; thus, from बल n., strength', बलिन्, ‘having strength, strong'. Stems in fua and faq are very rare. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 92 Lesson XXII. | 254. Adjective compounds having nouns of this class as final member are very common. Thus, सुमनस् ‘favorably-minded.' Singular. Dual. Plural. | m. f. n. m. f. n. m. f. n. N. सुमनास नस् सुमनसौ नसी सुमनसस् नांसि A. सुमनसम् °नस् » » » दीर्घायुस ‘long-lived : Singular. Dual. Plural. N. दीर्घायुस दीर्घायुषी "युषी दीर्घायुषस यूंषि A. दीर्घायुषम् “युस । I. दीर्घायुषा etc. दीर्घायुर्थ्याम् etc. दीर्घायुर्भिस् etc. Vocabulary XXII. Verb: for sajyáte) hang on, be fastened FE(sájati ; but often pass. : sajjüte on (as thoughts -- w. loc.). P Subst. : धनुस् n., bow. अप्सरस् f., heavenly nymph. । att f., pipe, conduit. उर्वशी f., n. pr., an Apsaras, Ur-| पयस् n., inilk. vaçi. पुर् ., city. fafirma m., king. पुरूरवस् m., 12. pr., Pururavas. fut f., voice; song. प्राणिन् m., (living) creature. चतुस् n., eye. भरतखण्ड m., ओ., pr., India. चन्द्रमस् m., moon. मनस् n., mind. चार m., spy. Haara m., minister (of state). F1 f., bowstring. यजुस् n., Sacrificial formula, text. ज्योतिस् n., light; star; heavenly| यशस् n., glory, fame. body. afuo m., merchant. तडाग m., pond. वयस् n., age. दार f., door, gate. सुमनस् f., flower. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXII. 33 सूर्य 1.. sun. | asceticism; as m. subst., ascetic. स्थान n., place, spot, locality; तेजस्विन् courageous. stead. प्रथम, f. आ, first. स्वामिन् m., possessor, lord. मृत, f. ० (part. of मृ), dead, gfaa n., oblation. fallen. | Adj.: स्थित, f. आ (part. of स्था), आकृष्ट, f. °आ (part. of कृष् + ), standing. drawn, bent (as a bow). Indecl.: aufera suffering, doing acts of â to be sure, in sooth. & sound when you sohoq inq 7, sAeAje ppps/, Exercise XXII. गन्धेन गावः पश्यन्ति वेदैः पश्यन्ति वै द्विजाः । चारैः पश्यन्ति क्षितिपाश्चचश्वामितरे जनाः ॥ १० ॥ आ कर्णमाकृष्टेन धनुषा दिनु शरान्मुञ्चन्ति क्षत्रियाः । १। सूर्यश्च =इमाञ्च जगतो ज्योतिषी ।२। धनी वणिग्द्वारि स्थितेभ्यस्तपस्विभ्यो दापयेत् । ३। यज्ञेषु य ऋत्विजो यज॑षि पठन्ति ते ऽध्वर्यव उच्च- }। विश्वस्या भुवः सम्राट् पुरूरवा उर्वशीमप्सरसं पर्यणयत्तस्यां 6. Vत्रो ऽजायत । ५। कामस्य धनुषि ज्यायाः स्थाने ऽलयः शराणां थाने सुमनसस्तिष्ठन्ति । ६। प्राणिनां मनांसि जीविते सजन्ति । ७। परि वारि तडागान्नाल्या पार्थिवो ऽनाययत् । ८। मन्त्रिणः स्वामिने क- दापि न द्रुह्येयुः । ९ । एतस्या धेन्वाः पयो बालान्पितरावपायय- ताम् । १० । 11. Raise ye the voice in praise (dat.) of Hari. 12. In the cities of India dwell rich merchants and courageous warriors. 13. The praise of Purūravas was sung by Kālidāsa. 14. The king gave orders (91-977 caus.) to have his minister called (use or, recta). 15. The minds of ascetics must not dwell (सञ्ज) on riches (श्री, oc. sing.). 16. At night the moon gives light to all creatures. 17. One should sacrifice to the gods (cf. 99 in Voc. I) flowers, fruits, and milk, not living creatures. 18. The Apsarases lead into Heaven warriors fallen in battle. 19. In age (instr.), not in knowledge, 10 ) Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 94 Lesson XXII. XXIII. Çiva is the eldest among his brothers (loc., gen.). 20. The gods live by the oblation. 21. A merchant wishes wealth (it), a warrior fame, an ascetic deliverance. 22. The woman's eyes are suffused with tears. Lesson XXIII. 255. Declension. Comparative Adjectives. Comparative ad- jectives of primary formation have a double form of stem for mas- culine and neuter: a stronger in JIH (usually tyih), in the strong cases, and a weaker in ga (usually fuf), there being no distinction of middle and weakest cases. The voc. sing. masc. ends in 97. The feminine-stem is made with $ from the weak stem-form. Thus, TETH, better': Masculine. Neuter. Sing Dual. Plural. Sing. Dual. Plural. N. But it hath N.V. Turn Territ Seifa A. STEHA श्रेयसस 1. श्रेयसा श्रेयोभ्याम् श्रेयोभिस like the masculine. L. fa a Teren, oz:R V. stena Fem. stem श्रेयसी, declined like नदी. 256. Stems in you (or W7) fall into two divisions: A. those made with the suffix *(*), being, with few exceptions, active participles, present and future; and B. those made with the pos- 8essive suffixes मन्त (or मत्) and वन्त् (or वत्). They are masc. and neuter' only, the fem. being formed with f. 257. A. Participles in (or #W). E. g. staan m., A., living.' е Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXIII. 95 0 WE- Masculine. Neuter. Sing. Daal. Plural. Sing Dual. Plural. N.V.जीवन जीवन्ती जीवन्तस जीवत् जीवन्ती जोवन्ति A. and all state in I. जीवता जीवद्याम् जीवद्भिस as in masculine. L. stafa bitarth gata 258. The strong form of these participles is obtained, me- chanically, by cutting off the final from the 3rd. pl. pres. (or fut.) ind. act.; thus, fafat gives strong form of pres. act. part. 79, weak ana; fagfm, fa8a and faga ; – qefa, Telan and नह्यत् ; - दण्डयन्ति, दण्डयन्त् and दण्डयत्; - भविष्यन्ति (fut.), hava and afgun. 259. But those verbs which in the 3rd. pl. act. lose the 7 of the usual fan (as e. g. the verbs following the reduplicating class in the present-system), lose it also in the present participle, and have no distinction of strong and weak stem. Thus, from 13, 3rd pl. pres. ind. act. ggfa, part. (only stem-form) g n: nom.- voc. sing. masc. J . acc. JgH; nom.-voc.-acc. du. gent, pl. J&TH ; nom.-voc.-acc. sing. neut. J&T, du. J at, pl. Jgfa.* 260. Only the present participles of verbs of the a-class, the ya-class, and causatives, invariably insert q in nom.-voc.-acc. du. neut. Present participles of the å-class, of the root-class when the root ends in , and all future participles, may either take or reject it; thus, neut. -sing. fama, du. fazat or faitait; after (fut.), du, करिष्यती or करिष्यन्ती; यात् (pres. part. from या, ‘go'), du. atat or eat. Participles of all other verbs, and all other stems in a, leave out the 7 in the du. neut.; thus, 757 (72 seat', root-class), du. H ati 261. The adj. HET, 'great', takes in strong cases the steni-

  • The grammarians, however, allow these verbs to insert the

t in the nom.-voc.-acc. pl. neuter of the present participle. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 96 Lesson XXIII. form HET9: nom.-sing. masc. HETTI (see $ 239, 2), acc. HETTA, voc. महन्; dn. neut. महती, pl. महान्ति . Otherwise the inflection is like that of participles. 262. The feminine of participles and adjectives in a (or 9) is always made with &, and the form is always identical with the nom. dual neuter. Vocabulary XXII. Verbs; 12+ Yu (apasirati) go away; in faa (nindati) blame. caus. (apasāráyati) drive away. To (rájate) shine; rule. 11. Nouns (subst. and adj.): anh m., calf. fra m., sun. ir better, best; as neut. subst., Uiæ (comp.) very honorable. salvation. 369 (pr. part. of T) giving. * (neut. #T) being, existing; Jatfir, f.aft, bright, glistening; as masc. subst., good man; as (act.) illuminating. fem. (Hint), faithful wife. * 279, f. 07T; become (past. pass. Adv.: part. of 7); as neut. subst., 2A to-morrow. being, creature. fe surely, indeed. Exercise XXIII. सन्तोऽपि** न हि राजन्ते दरिद्रस्येतरे गुणाः । अदित्य इव भूतानां श्रीगुणानां प्रकाशिनी ॥ ११ ॥ तिष्ठन्तं गुरु शिष्यो ऽनुतिष्ठेद्गच्छन्तमनुगच्छेद्धावन्तमनुधावेत् *** ॥१॥ गरीयसः (acc. pl.) श्रेयसे पूजयेत् । २ । धनिनस्तपस्विभ्यो धनं ददतः

  • Especially a widow who immolates herself on the funeral-

pile of her husband; whence Anglo-Indian suttee.

    • “Even though they exist ”.
      • a in composition often conveys the idea of imitation.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXIII. XXIV. | 97 शस्वन्ते । ३। स्निह्यन्तीं भाय त्यजन्निन्द्यते । ४। जीवतः पुत्रस्य मुखं पश्यन्तौ पितरी तुष्यतः । ५। भत्रिो (gen. du.) रामो यशसा गरी यान् । ६। एतेषां वणिजां धनानि महान्ति वर्तन्ते । ७। कुप्यते मा कृप्यत। ८ । उद्याने पतयो विहगेभ्यो धान्यं किरतीः कन्या अपश्यम् ।९। पित्रोर्जीवतोभीतरः स्वसारश्च तयोर्धनस्य स्वामिनो न भवेयुः । १० । धेनुं धयन्तं वत्सं मापसारय । ११ । गुरुषु पिताचार्यों माता च गरी- यांसः । १२ । त्वयि जीवति सुखेन वयं जीवामः ॥ १३ ॥ 14. We blame the driver who strikes (part.) the horses. 15. The king who punishes (part.) the bad and gives (part.) food to the good is praised. 16. The warrior who conquers (part.) in battle attains great fame. 17. Among the heavenly bodies the sun and moon are the two great ones. 18. In the field I saw birds flying. 19. He who lives (part.) to-day is dead to-morrow. 20. The word of the good must be followed (done). 21. Dwell among good men. 22. A maiden, making (Ha) garlands, sits on a stone. 23. A hus- band shall punish a wife who steals (part.) his property. 24. The child (gen.) was afraid (use subst., no copula) of the bees (abl.) flying about (HA) in the house. Lesson XXIV. 263. Declension. Stems in अन्त् (or अत्), contd. B. Stems in मन्त् (मत्) and वन्त (वत्). Adjectives formed with these suffixes are possessives. They are declined precisely alike*; and differ in inflection from the participles in you only by lengthening the 7 in the nom. sing. masc. The feminine is made in f; thus, vit- मती. In the dual neut. न् is never inserted. Thus, श्रीमन्त्, ‘rich', 'celebrated :: | * The two adjectives यन्त्, ‘30 great', “30 many', and कि यन्त्, ‘how great?' 'how many?' are similarly declined. Perry, Sanskrit Primer. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 98 Lesson XXIV. mas noun Masculine. Neuter. Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. Tag ithat NATH NV. TAG ftat afa A. TATA TAAH I. श्रीमती श्रीमझाम् श्रीमद्भिस् as in the masculine L. Tafa ANTH THE V. itha 264. A stem भवन्त* (to be carefully distinguished from भवन्त, pres. part. act. of 2) is frequently used in respectful address as a substitute for the pronoun of the second person. It is con- strued with the verb in the third person. Its nom. sing. masc. is भवान् (fem. भवती); and भोस्, the contracted form of its older voc. Hah, is a common exclamation of address: “ you, sir!”, “ho, there!”; and is often doubled. ** 265. Derivative stems in 9. These are made by the suffixes , H, and art, and are, with one or two exceptions, masc. and neut. only. The stem has a triple form. In the strong cases of the masc. the vowel of the suffix is lengthened to yt, in the weakest cases it is in general dropped; in the middle cases the final 9 is dropped, and it is also lost in the nom. sing. of all genders. In the neuter, the nom.-acc. pl., as being strong cases, lengthen the vowel of the suffix; the same cases in the dual (as weakest cases) lose 7 – but this only optionally. After the # or व् of मन् and वन्, when these are preceded by a consonant, the y is retained in all the weakest cases, to avoid too great an accumulation of consonants. Examples: 775 m., 'king’; ITHA n., 'name'; Wicha m., “soul, self'; e n., "devotion '.

  • Probably contracted from a blessed'.
    • TH loses its final # before all vowels and all sonant con-

sonants; thus, it . Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXIV. 99 Masculine. Nenter. ॐ Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. A. राजा राजानौ राजानम् नाम नामनी नामानि or नाम्री A. राजानम् , राजस् ) I. राज्ञा” राजभ्याम् राजभिस् नाम्ना नामभ्याम् नामभिस L. राजनि राज्ञोस् राजसु नामनि नाम्रोस् नामसु or राज्ञि or नास्त्रि v. राजन् नामन् or नाम N. आत्मा आत्मानौ आत्मानम् ब्रह्म ब्रह्मणी ब्रह्माणि A. आत्मानम् , अात्मनस् । I. आत्मना आत्मभ्याम् आत्मभिस ब्रह्मणा ब्रह्मभ्याम् ब्रह्मभिस् v. आत्मन् ब्रह्मन् or ब्रह्म D 266. Euphonic rnles. Final ai, į and q remain unaltered be- fore initial surd consonants; before sonants, whether vowel or con- sonant, they become respectively 7, 3, a. Before nasals they may be still further assimilated, becoming the nasals G, u, R. Thus, परिवार न becomes either परिव्राई or परिव्राण; सम्यक् न becomes सम्यग्न or सम्यङ. The latter method is much more usual. 267. Before initial है a final mute is made sonant; and then the & may either remain unchanged, or be converted into the so- nant aspirate corresponding to the preceding letter; thus, either सम्यग्हस्तः or सम्यग्घस्तः; either तस्माद् हस्तात् or तस्माद्धस्तात्. In practice the latter method is almost invariably followed.

  • When a dental mute comes in contact with a lingual or pa-

latal mute or sibilant, the dental is usually assimilated, becoming lingual or palatal respectively. Thus, tisthati from ti-stha-ti; rājñā instead of rājnā. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 100 Lesson XXIV. Vocabulary XXIV. Verbs: anda (denom. – varnáyati) de- fata cut off. scribe, portray. H3 in caus. (mārjáyati) rub, rub faq +? in caus. (udvejáyati) off, polish. i terrify. Subst.: taq f., border, boundary; out- TCA77 m., soul, self; often as sim- skirts. ple reflexive pronoun; in geni- m., slayer, killer. tive, bis, etc.; one's own. I Adj.: change n., deed; ceremony; fate. Han long-lived (often used erita n., hide, skin; leather. I in respectful address). FH n., birth. em so great, so much (263). as n., bank, shore. fagra how great? how much? fagm f., name of a metre. out, f. OTT, poor; niggardly. 7 n., day. atga so much, so many. a n., temple. ferita, f. 71, second. नरक m., hell. प्रियकर्मन् kind. ofaa m., bird. furata saying pleasant things, OT7 n., pot, vessel. sociable. (brahman) n., devotion; aga strong, mighty. sacred word of God); sacred H792,f.amit, honorable; blessed. knowledge; the world-spirit. HTET shining, brilliant. SET (brahmán – a personifi- of shrewd, prudent. cation of the preceding) m., the staa how much, as many. supreme All-Soul, the creator. O, f. 071, barsh, rough. HET n., asbes. fara, f. 5t, pervading, far- ufa m., ascetic. reaching; omnipresent; mighty. TTT m., king. ga, f. 7 (pass. part. of 0) लोमन् n., hair. killed. ao n., year. Adv.: HATTA M., meeting, encounter. utero commonly. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXIV. 101 Exercise XXIV. नोवैजयेज्जगदाचा रुक्षया प्रियवाग्भवेत् ।। प्रायेण प्रियकर्मा यः कृपणो ऽपि हि सेव्यते ॥ १२ ॥ यावन्ति हतस्य पशोर्मणि लोमानि विद्यन्ते तावन्ति वर्षाणि हन्ता नरके वसेत् । १। भृत्या बलवन्तं राजानमायुष्मन्निति वदन्तु । २ । भा- स्वन्तं सूर्य दिने दिने द्विजातयः पूजयन्तु ।३। कियतो मासान्भवान्का- शां न्यवसत् । ४। के चिद्यतयो भस्मना शरीरं मार्जयन्ति । ५। कर्म बलवदिति मतिमतो दरिद्रान्पश्यतो (gen.) मे मतिः।६। त्वयि राज्ञि तिष्ठत्यस्माकं सर्वसां च प्रजानां सुखं न विनश्येत् । ७। एकस्मिञ्जन्मनि ये शूद्रा अजायन्त त आत्मनां धर्मान्सम्यगनुतिष्ठन्तो द्वितीये जन्मनि विजातयो भवेयुः । ८। ग्रामे परिव्राणू तिष्ठेने परिभमन्ब्रह्म ध्या- येत् । ९ । एतस्यां पुरि श्रीमतो राज्ञोः समागमो ऽजायत । १० । ब्रह्मा जगतः स्रष्टा वेदेषु श्रूयते । ११ । यान्पक्षिणो वनस्य सीमनि वृक्षादुत्य- ततो ऽपश्यत ते सर्वे मया भ्रात्रा च पाशैर्जीवन्त एवाबध्यन्त मात्रा चाम- भ्यभपच्यन्त ॥ १२ ॥ 13. Brāhmans have their shoes made (use în caus.) of leather (instr.) or wood. 14. A temple of blessed Visņu stands in the outskirts of this village, on the bank of the river. 15. Let him rub off the vessels diligently with ashes (pl.). 16. The servants announced to the king that the two celebrated poets were coming (use or, recta with gra). 17. O children (du.), tell mne your (179, gen. du.) names. 18. The world-spirit is described in many Upanişads. 19. It is said by the seers that the world- spirit is omnipresent (use or recta). 20. That part of the world-spirit, which is encompassed by the body, is called the soul of man (cf. $ 234). 21. Candragupta was the mighty emperor of the whole earth. 22. All the mighty warriors who fought in Krsna's army were killed in battle by the enemy. 23. In the Rigveda (2a pl.) occurs (faz pass.) also the Triştubh. 24. The king of Pāțaliputra is by birth a Cūdra; let him not marry the beautiful daughter of the ascetic Mitrātithi. varTV Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 102 Lesson XXV. Lesson XXV. OM More 268. Declension. Perfect Active Participles active participles of the perfect tense-system are quite peculiar as regards the modifications of the stem. In the strong cases the suffix is ait, which becomes ata in the non. sing. masc., and is shortened to an in the voc. sing. In the weakest cases the suffix is contracted into 3q; and in the middle cases it is changed to 9. A union-vowel , if present in the strong and middle cases, disappears before 39 in the weakest. Radical and f, if preceded by one consonant, become a before 39, but if preceded by more than one consonant, become yo; whereas radical 3 always be- comes 39 before 39, and radical 7, T. Thus, fantaia, fat- 29; iÆ, egy; again, 299. The feminine stem is formed with $ from the weakest stem - form; thus, faara. Examples: 1. fa&iĦ “knowing': Masculipe. Neater. Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. faeta facient faginu N.V. faga fagut faeife A. fagiya facut I. विदुषी विद्याम् विद्वद्भिस as in the masculine. L. विदुषि विदुषोस् विद्वत्सु V. faça 2. Aftaqią having gone'*:

  • Another form of perf. part. of this verb (A) makes the

strong and middle stems path and tan; the weakest form is ab above, जग्मुः Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® . Lesson XXV. 103 Masculine. Neuter. Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. N. जग्मिवान् जग्मिवांसी 'वांसस् जग्मिवत् जग्मुषी जग्मिवासि A. जग्मिवांसम् जग्मुषस I. जग्मुषा वयाम् वद्भिस् as in the masculine L. जग्मुषि जग्मुषोस् जग्मिवत्सु V. जग्मिवन् 269. Stems श्वन, यवन्. The stems श्वन् m., ‘dog', and युवन् m., n., young, have as weakest stems शुन् and यून्; in the strong and middle cases they follow राजन् ; voc. श्वन, युवन. Fem. शुनी and युवति. | 270. The stem मघवन् m., ‘generous' (in the later language almost exclusively a name of Indra), has as strong stem मघवान्, mid. ०व, weakest मघोन्. Nom. sing. मघव, v0C. °वन्. Fem. मघोनी. 27. The stem अहम् n., ‘day', is used only in the strong and weakest cases, the middle, with the nom. sing., coming from अहर or अहस्. Thus : | Singular. Dual. Plural. N.A.V. अहर् (स) अहनी or अही अहानि 1. अहा। अहोभ्याम् अहोभिस L. अहनि or अहूि अहोस् अहस्सु or अहःसु 272. Compounds with }अच् or अञ्च . The adjectives formed from this root with prepositions and other words are quite irregular. Some of them have only two sten-forms: a strong in and a weak in अच्; while others distinguish from the middle in अच् a weakest stem in 7, before which the is contracted with a pre- ceding १ (य) or उ (१) into ई or ऊ. The fem. is made with १ from the weakest (or weak) stem; thus, faget. The principal stems of this sort are as follows : Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 104 Lesson XXV. Strong. प्राशु •forward', ‘eastward' प्राञ्च । अवाञ्च ‘downward' अवाच् । उच्च ‘northward' उच्च प्रत्यञ्च backward','westward' प्रत्यञ्च । न्यच्च ‘low' न्य अन्वञ्च ‘following अन्वङ् तिर्यक् ‘going horizontally' तिर्यञ्च Middle. Weak (weakest). प्राच् अवाच् उद उदीच्* प्रत्यच् प्रतीच न्यच नीच्। अन्वच् तिर्य अनच तिरथ ** Vocabulary XXV. Verbs: + उद् (udgdcchatt) rise. गम् + अस्तम् (astaringdcchati) go स्पृह (sprhdgati) desire (dat.). down, set (lit’ly “go home” – used of the heavenly bodies). । Sabst.: श्रम m., pains, trouble. गौरव n., weight; dignity. सिंह m., lion. जगत् n., that which lives. स्नान n., bathing, bath. तक्षशिलाf., १0. Dr., a city (Taxila) हरिण m., gazelle. in India. । Adj.: far m., n., anitnal. अधीत, f., ०, learned, studied. त्वष्ट्र m., n, pr., a god, Tvastar. । afegir having stood; as n. परिषद् f., 488embly. subst., the immovable. भृगुकच्छ n., Baroch (a holy placeचिशीर्षन् three-headed. in India). दष्ट, f. ०, (part. of दंश ) bitten. मघवन् m., Indra. | वनवासिन् forest-dwelling. युवन् m., n., young; f. युवति | विद्वांस knowing, wise, learned. fagram., ripening; recompense.

  • T inserted, irregularly, in weakest forms only.
    • irregular (तिरस् + अच्).

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXV. XXVI. | 105 Exercise XXV. विद्वान्प्रशखते लोके विद्वान्गच्छति गौरवम् । विद्यया लभ्यते सर्व विद्या सर्वत्र पूज्यते ॥१३॥ प्राच्यां दिशि ज्योतीष्युद्गच्छन्ति प्रतीच्यामस्तंगच्छन्ति ।१। विवद्भि- रेव विदुषां श्रमो ज्ञायते ।२। त्वष्टुस्त्रिशीर्षणं पुत्रं मघवामारयत् ।३। अहनी एवं क्षत्रियावयुध्येताम् । ४ । ना दष्टो द्विजातिः स्नानमा- चरेत् । ५। काश्या आजग्मुषो भ्रातृनपश्याम ।६। येन वेदा अधीतास्तं युवानमपि गुरु गणयन्ति । ७। पापाः कर्मणां विपाकेन द्वितीये जन्म- नि तिर्यतु जायन्त इति स्मृतिः । ८। विद्वांसो विद्वद्भिः सह समागमाय स्पृहयन्ति । ९ । कियद्भिरहोभिः काश्याः प्रयागमगच्छत । १०। प्राचा देशे पाटलिपुत्रं नाम महन्नगरं विद्यत उदीचां तक्षशिला प्रतीचा भृग- कच्छम् ॥ ११ ॥ 12. Vộtra was killed (69, caus. pass.) by Maghavan and the Maruts. 13. Young women sang a song. 14. Two learned Brāhmans dispute. 15. Saramā is called in the Rigveda the dog (f.) of the gods. 16. Great forests are found in the west (expr. as pred., nom. pl.). 17. In the assembly let the best among the learned teach (उप-दिश) the law. 18. Those who have committed evil deeds must stand by day (acc.) and sit by night. 19. Glory was attained by the young warrior. 20. Turned toward the east (nom. sing.) let one reverence the gods; the east (प्राची) is the quarter (दिश) of the gods. 21. Day by day one must worship (प) the sun. 22. The gazelle has been killed by dogs. 23. The lion is king of forest- dwelling animals. Lesson XXVI. Some Irregular Substantives. 273. अम्बा f., ‘mother': voc. sing. अम्व. 274. 1. सखि m., ‘friend: sing. notn. सखा, acc. सखोयम्, inst. सख्या, dat. सख्ये, abl.-gen. सयस, loc. सख्यौ, voc. सखे; du. सखायी, Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 106 Lesson XXVI. S । सखिभ्याम्, सख्खयोस् ; pl. nom. सखायस्, acc. सखीन्, instr. सखिभिस; the rest like अपि. - 2. पति m., is declined regularly (like अपि) in composition, and when meaning lord, master'; when meaning ‘husband', it follows सखि in the following forms: inst. sing. पत्या, dat. पत्ये, abl.-gen. पत्युस्, loc. पत्यी. 275. The neuterstems अक्षन् ‘eye', अस्थन् ‘bone', दधन् ‘curds', सक्थ न् ‘thigh', form only the weakest cases; thus, अक्षणा, दन्नस, सक्थनि or सक्थुि , etc.; the rest of the inflection is made from cor- responding stems in t; thus, noin. sing. vfa etc. 276. 1. लक्ष्मी f., ‘goddess of fortune', makes nom. sing. लक्ष्मीस्: – 2. Fant f., 'woman', follows a mixed declension; thus, nom. sing. स्त्री, acc. स्त्रियम् or स्त्रीम, instr. स्त्रिया, dat. स्तियै, abl.-gen. स्त्रियास, loc. स्त्रियाम् ; du. स्त्रियो, स्त्रीभ्याम् , स्त्रियोस; pl. nom. स्त्रियम्, acc. स्त्रियस् or स्त्रोस्, instr. स्त्रीभिस्, etc.; gen. स्त्रीणाम् 277. 1. 79 f., 'water', only pl.; its final is changed to be- fore ; thus, nom. आपस, ace. अपस्, instr. अद्भिस, dat.-abl. अझस्, gen. अपाम्, loc. अप्स. - 2. दिव f.,* * sky', makes nom. sing. द्यौस , du. द्यावी, pl. (sometimes) द्याव; the endings are the normal ones, but the root becomes a before consonant-endings: thus, acc. sing. दिवम्, nom.-acc. pl. दिवस् , instr. चुभिस्. Not all the cases are found in use. - 3. Stem m. (rarely f.), 'wealth’: sing. रास, रायम् , राया etc.; lu. रायौ, राभ्याम्, रायोस्; pl. रायस् (notn, and acc.), राभिस् etc. | 278. 1. अनइहे or अनह m., (from अनस् + वह 'cart-drawing', i. e.) ‘ox': strong stem अनाह, mid. अनडु, weakest अनडुह; notil, sing. अनड्रान्, voc. अनडुन. - 2. The stem पन्थन् m., ‘road, makes all the strong cases, with irregular nom. sing. पन्थास्; the corresponding middle cases are made from ofa, and the weakest from पथ् ; thus, acc. sing. पन्थानम्, dat. पथे, acc. pl. पथस्, | |

  • In the older language oftener masculine.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXVI. 107 dat. पथिभ्यस. [The stems मन्थन् m., ‘stirring-stick', and ऋभुक्षन् m., an epithet of Indra, are said to follow yoga.) 279. The stem ýh m., “man ’, is very irregular. The strong stem is पुमांस, mid. पुम्, weakest पुस्. Thus, sing. पुमान्, पुमांसम्, ght, etc., voc. yma; du. Gaiht, OFTA, QHTH; pl. TAIFH, CH#, ufarh etc., gą. 280. For the stem f., •age', may be substituted in the cases with vowel - endings forms from th f.; thus, te or TAT 281. n., 'heart', does not make nom.-voc.-acc. of any number (except in composition), these being supplied from an. 282. The stem uz m., 'foot?, becomes UTZ in strong cases ; and, in compounds, in the middle cases also; thus, nom. sing. UTE, acc. पादम्, instr. पदा, etc. From विपद् ‘biped', acc. sing. दि- पादम्, pl. द्विपदस्, instr. pl. द्विपाद्भिस्. [The stem पाद m., ‘foot, has the complete declension of a-stems.] 283. The root 87 'slay', as final member of a compound, becomes at in nom. sing., and loses its a in the middle cases and its in the weakest cases (but only optionally ia loc. sing.). Further, when 7 is lost, zin contact with a reverts to its original

thus, a m., killing a Brāhman', makes nom. sing. SETET,

acc. हणम्”, instr. ब्रह्मघ्ना, etc., loc. ब्रह्मच्चिन or °हणि, voc. °हन्; du. SEEUT, ITA etc.; pl. nom. OZUĦ, acc. 94. 284. The stems a m., n. pr., and reina m., n. pr. (both personifications of the sun), make the nom. sing. in , but otherwise do not lengthen the 77; thus, nom. Qgt, acc. qux, instr. qault O

  • In compound words, an altering cause in one member some-

times lingualizes a ū of the next following member. But a guttural or labial in direct combination with a sometimes prevents the combination, as in the instr. ZEM. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 108 Lesson XXVI. Vocabulary XXVI. Verbs: तृप् (trpigati) be pleased or satis- move; in caus. (arpayati) send; tied, satisfy or satiate oneself. put; hand over, give. | लप् + वि (०ilapat) complain. TE (gåhati) in caus. (gūháyati) hide away, conceal. Subst.: HT77 m., man (homo). अक्षन् (अक्षि) n., eye. व्रत n., vow, obligation, duty. अद्रोह m., faithfulness. | Adj.: असुर m., demon, काण f., , one-eyed. चित्त n., notice, thought, mind. चतुष्पद् four-footed, quadruped. देवता f., divinity, deity. । विपद् m., biped. दयञ्च (weakest °धीच्) m., 7. pr., नियत, f. ० (part. of नि-यम्), a Vedic saint. ordained, fixed, permanent. । पद् m., foot. | शिव, f. ०आ, beneficent, gracious, TOG n., protection. blessed. Exercise XXVI. पत्यौ भक्तिव्रतं स्त्रीणामद्रोहो मन्त्रिणां व्रतम् । प्रजानां पालनं चैव नियतं भूभृतां व्रतम् ॥ १४ ॥ बलवन्तावनाही लाङ्गलं वहेताम् । १। शिवास्ते पन्थानस । २ । लक्ष्मीर्विष्णोभायी।३। हृद्येष पुमान्परं ब्रह्म ध्यायति।४। बाहुभ्यां भूभ- त्कृत्स्नं जगञ्जयत् । ५। केन पथा भवान्सख्या सहागच्छत् ।६। पदा मामस्पृशत्सखा। ७। पुभिः सह स्त्रीरोगमयद्राजा । ८। हे युवन्यन्यानं में दर्शय । ९ । अद्भिः पादौ क्षालयत्येष परिव्राट् । १० । स्त्री पत्थे रूपकायर्पयति । ११ । एकेनाक्ष्णा यो न किंचित्पश्यति ते काणं वद- न्ति । १२ । यौः पिता पृथिवी च माता वो रक्षताम् । १३ । एते पुमांसो हृदयेषु पापं गृहयन्ति । १४ । ब्रह्मन्ना ने संभाषेत न च तमध्यापयेद्या- जयेद्वा। १५ । असुरेभ्यो भयाद्यानवा देवताः पालनं प्रार्थयन्त ताभिश शिवाभिः पापा असुरा अघात्यन्त । १६ । महानुदीचां राजा दरिद्रः पथि तिष्ठद्भिः शिष्यैः संभाषमाणस्तेभ्यो भिक्षां यच्छति ॥ १७ ॥ Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXVI. XXVII. | 109 18. The meeting of the men and women took place on the road. 19. In the Veda they call the sun Pūşan, Mitra (m.), Aryaman, and Savitar. 20. Water also is named (गण्य, pass.) among the deities in the Rik (use a) and in the sacrificial formulas. 21. Be gracious, O Çiva, to biped and quadruped. 22. The seers’ view is, that fire is to be found in the water (use go, and make a direct statement with gfa). 23. The Asura was slain by Maghavan with a bone of Dadhyañc. 24. Who knows the wind's path (pass.)? 25. Mother, satisfy (my caus.) the child with curds. 26. Have food brought (use 21-01, caus., pl.) from our friend's house. 27. The Maruts are Maghavan's friends. se Lesson XXVII. 285. Demonstrative Prononns. Two demonstrative-declensions are made up with particular irregularity: they are those of the pronouns अयम् and असौ (for which the natives give the stem-forms as इदम् and अदस respectively). The first is a more indefinite de- monstrative: “this' or 'that'; the other signifies especially the re- moter relation. 286. अयम् (इदम्): Masculine. Feminine. | Sing. Dual. Plural. Sing. Dual Plural. N. अयम् इम इमे इयम् इमे माप्त A. इमम् । इमान् इमाम् । I. अनेन आभ्याम् एभिस अनया आभ्याम् आभिस D. अस्मै एभ्यस् । अस्यै अभ्यस् Ab. अस्मात् अस्यास् G. अस्य अनयोस् एषाम् अनयोस् आसाम् L. अस्मिन् एषु अस्याम् आसु Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 110 Lesson XXVII. Neuter: Nom..ace. sing. इदम्, du. रमे, pl. इमानि; the rest is like the masculine. 287. असौ (अदम्): Masculine. Feminine. | Sing. Dual Plural. Sing. Dual Plural. N. असौ अमू अमी असौ अमू अमूस A. अमुम् । अमून् । अमूम् । I. अमुना अमूभ्याम् अमीभिस् अमुया अभ्याम् अमूभिस् D. अमुष्मै अमीभ्यस् अमुष्यै Ab. अमुष्मात् ॐ ॐ अमुष्यास , , G. अमुष्य अमुयोस् अमीषाम् । अमुयोस् अमूषाम् । L. अमुष्मिन् अमीषु | अमुष्याम् » अमूषु Neuter: Nom.-acc. sing. अदस, du. अम्, pl. अमूनि; the rest like masc. - The final & of wat is unchangeable (cf. § 161). | 288. There is a defective pronominal stem एन, which is accentless, and hence used only in situations where no emphasis falls upon it. The only forms are the following: Sing. acc. m. एनम्, n. एनद्, f. एनीम्; instr. m., n., एनेन, f. एनया. Du, acc. m. एनौ, f., n., एने; gen.-loc. m., f., n., एनयोस्. PI. ace. m. एनान्, n. एनानि, f. एनास्: - These forrms may be used only when the person or object to which they refer has already been indicated by a form of अयम् or एष. Thus, अनेन काव्यमधीतमेनं व्याकरण- AUTOT “ this one has read the art of poetry ; teach him grammar”. 289. Past Passive Participle in ñor 7. By the suffix ñ - or, in a comparatively small number of verbs, न - is formed, di- rectly from the root of the verb, and unconnected with any tense- stem, a verbal adjective called the past passive participle. The fem. ends always in ozy. When this participle is made from transitive verbs, it qualifies something as having endured the action expressed by the verb; thus, दत्त dattd, ‘given'; उक्त uktd, spoken'. When made from an intransitive or neuter verb, the same par- Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXVII. 111 00 ticiple has no passive, but only an indefinite past, sense; thus, ta, gone', ya, 'been’; oraa, “fallen'. 290. This participle is often used as an adjective. Very com- monly, also, it supplies the place of a finite verb, when some form of FH, 'be', or H is to be supplied; thus, Ħ 19: “ he is gone”; HOT Thi fafanH “by me a letter was written”. The neuter is frequently used as a substantive; thus, TIA “a gift’; FTUA ‘milk ’; and also as nomen actionis. Sometimes it has a present significa- tion, particularly when made from neuter verbs; thus, fea (from en) often “standing'. 291. A. With suffix a [U]. The suffix 7 is taken by a number of roots. Thus: 1. Certain roots in IT, and in i and u- vowels; thus, on or पी ‘swell, be fat', पीन; हा ‘abandon', हीन; स्ना ‘wither', स्नान; क्षि destroy', क्षीण; श्वा or श्वि ‘swell', अन; लू cut', लून. 2. The roots in variable # (so-called -roots), which before the suftix becomes &T or By, as in the pres. pass.; thus, 27 (fany), ato; , nu; 19 (97) fill', qu. 3. A few roots ending in 5 (which becomes 7 before the a); thus, H3 break’, 47; 14T 'bend', y4; HET ‘sink’, H4; रज ‘be sick', रुग्न; विज • fear', विग्न. Also one or two others which exhibit a guttural before the नः लग ‘attach', लम; व्र “cut up', qau. 4. A number of roots, some of them very common, in a (which becomes 7 before a): #C, HA; (fa-&, faeu;) fara Scut', fa. * 292. Some few verbs make double forms; thus, t'hasten ’, ad or afra; faz 'acquire', fqa or far.

  • Commonest exceptions: खादित from खाद्‘eat'; मत्त from

मद; मुदित from मद ‘rejoice'; रुदित from रुद ‘weep'; उदित from वद् ‘speak'; विदित from विद ‘know'. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 112 Lesson XXVII. Vocabulary XXVII. Verbs: 77 (bhakşůyati) eat. i q +54 (upėkșate) neglect. 28 break. 2a + fa (vikiráti) scatter. 2H3 + 39 enjoy. pure + 49 (den. – avagandyati) H+ oft (paribhávati) despise. despise. A (májjati) sink. 77 +35, in caus. (uccăráyati) ya in caus. (yojáyati) yoke, pronounce, say. barness. a+ya (avatárati) descend. 79 (lågati) attach; bang, cling, +33 (uttárati) emerge, come adhere. out.

  1. (sidati) sit, settle down; be

qt or uit (pyāyate) become stout overcome, exhausted. or fat. VOI vel Subst.: faqte m., wedding, marriage. afapt m. du., nom. pr., the afa m., illness. Açvins (the Indian Aids zoûpoi). Tait m., car. IT m., “walk and con- 7211 f., bed. versation"; conduct of life, ob- m., n., plough. servance. ETT m., chain, garland. Bu n., debt. Adj.: 4TH m., n. pr. a mountain. are (part. of 287) reduced, de- Ty f., hunger. cayed; ruined. Det er n., life of boliness, i. e. fata f.om, great, strong, violent. religious studentship. पीन (part. of पो) fat. 1779 n., meal-time, meal. Egifta studying sacred know- HEU m., n. pr., a Vedic personage. ledge; as m. subst., Brābman Ayua m., sweet drink. student. at f., pearl. ata (part.) abandoned; wanting Ta m., demon. in; and so sometimes w. instr., aty m., acquisition, gain. = 'without'. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXVII. XXVIII. | 113 Exercise XXVII. वर्धमानमृणं राजन्परिभूताश्च शत्रवः । बनयन्ति भयं तीनं व्याधयशाप्युपेक्षिताः ॥ १५ ॥ यानि कर्मण्यस्मिं लोके क्रियन्ते तेषां फलं त्रीमुष्मिं लोक उप- भुज्यते। १। भो असावहम' इत्युच्चारयन्गरीयसो ऽभिवादयेत् ।२। अयं नः पिता रथादवतीर्णः सख्या सह संभाषमाणस्तिष्ठति। ३। आचारेण हीनं पुमांसं विद्वांसमप्यवगणयन्ति सन्तः । ४ । उदधी मनं म्रियमाणं भुज्युमश्विनी नावोदहरताम् । ५। एभ्यः क्षुधा सीदयो भिक्षुभ्यो ऽन्नं प्रयच्छ।६। पथ्यस्माकं रथो भग्नः । ७। युध्यमानानमूननडुहः पश्य ।८।। भवता विकीर्ण धान्यमिमे विहगा अक्षयन्ति । ९ । अभिरद्भिः पाणी प्रक्षालय । १० । इदम् ** आसनमिमा आपः स्नानायायं मधुपर्क इदं भोजनमिमानि वस्त्राणीयं शय्येति गृहस्थो ऽतिथिं गृहमागच्छन्तं व- देत् ॥ ११॥ 12. Have medicine given quickly (use pass. part. of my, in nom.) to these sick persons. 13. This is that mountain Kāilāsa, on which Civa dwells. 14. In order to attain (लाभ, dat.) this and that other world (gen.) the priest offered sacrifice for me (3 caus.). 15. The flowers in the garlands of these women are withered. 16. By that king, who was praised by us, we were delighted with these jewels. 17. The peasant yoked two fat oxen to the plough. 18. The learned Brāhman emerged (pass. part.) from the water. 19. Here comes (pass. part.) the queen. 20. A chain of pearls hung (pass. part.) on the neck of this demon. 21. What sin is not committed by persons reduced in fortune? 22. This garden is filled with men and women. Wien Lesson XXVIII. 293. Past Passive Participle, contd. B With suffix a. I. Without union-vowel इ. Much more conomonly this parti-

  • *I am 80-and-80; N. or M."
    • Translate the pronoun-forms by 'here', and cf. § 225.

Perry, Banskrit Primer. 8 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 114 Lesson XXVIII. ciple is made by adding the suffix a to the bare root; thus, yra from शा; जित from जि; क्षिप्त from क्षिप्; हत from K (or Kा); from an 294. If the root end in a consonant other than an, 7, 9, A, the ordinary rules of euphonic combination apply as follows: | 1. Final च् and ज् become क; thus, सिक्त from सिच्; युक्त from 9; aä from 2013. 2. Final a becomes q, after which, as also after radical final , a becomes ; thus, दृष्ट from दृश्ः दिष्ट from द्विष. सृष्ट and are made from Rs and 31, and gg from yf, contrary to 1. प्रकृ makes पुष्ट; and तत्, तष्टे. 3. Final y becomes 7, and H, a; and the following a be- comes ध; thus, वृद्ध froin दृ . र.ब्ध from लम् । 4. Final is treated in various ways, according to its bis- torical value. a. Sometimes a combines with a to form , before which short vowels (except ) are lengthened; thus, ut from गाह, लीढ from लिह, रूढ from रुहः मूढ from मुह; but दृढ from दृह. सह forms सोढ. b. Where g represents original घ् , the com- bination is ग्ध; thus, दग्ध from दह; दिग्ध from दि; दुग्ध from दुहु. The root मह fortuns also मुग्ध. ८. नेह, where है represents original y, makes 75. 295. The root before a usually has its weakest form, if there is any where in the verbal system a distinction of strong and weak forms. Thus: 1. A penultimate nasal is dropped; e. g., van from 13; ag from qal; Fa froin pie (or FTF); T from . 2. Roots which are abbreviated in the weak forms of the perfect suffer the same abbreviation here; e. g., ऊक्त from वच्, उप्त from वर्, सुप्त from स्वप्, ऊढ from वह इष्टfrom यज (the same form from इष); विद्ध from व्य; पृष्ट from प्र. 3. Final आ is weakened to ई in गीत from गा ‘sing', पीत from 1पा ‘drink'; to t in स्थित from स्था, हित from धा ‘put' (with धे also changed to ह), मित from UUS Om Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXVIII. 115 HT 'measure', and a few others. 4. A final H is lost after in ta, ya, ya, Ta (from TH etc.); and likewise final 7 in aa, aa, ha, 27, ga (from 7a etc.). 5. Isolated cases are fue from शास; द्युत from दी ‘play'. 296. More irregular are the following: 1. Some roots in अम् make participles in आन्त; thus, कान्त, TT, TT, ara, TT, TTT1, 117, from an etc. 2. जन्, क्षम्, and सन् make जति etc. 3. The root 1T, give', forms 7 (from the derivative form ?). The contracted form 7 is widely found in composition, especially with prepositions; thus, प्रदत्त or प्रत्त, निदत्त or नीत्त, etc. 297. II. With union-vowel . The suffix with f, or in the form 9, is regularly used with the derivative verb-stems in se- condary conjugation, also often with roots of derivative character (like fora, fex), and not infrequently with original roots. 298. When ga is added to causative and denominative verb- stems the syllables we are dropped ; thus, FT, pass. part. ifta; Tuz, ofua; 76, atfca; , caus. Hitafa, caus. pass. part. Hifta; , caus. sayfa, afaa. 299. Among the original roots taking ga may be noticed the following: un fall', ofaa; 39, orga; gæ 'dwell’, biva; 7, afha; qq 'thirst”, afua; fara, fafaa; , ffaa; a, ofga. Og makes teta; 17 'lie’ makes afga. 300. A few roots form this participle either with or without the auxiliary ; thus, मत्त and मदित from मद् 301. The grammarians reckon as participles of the na-formation a few derivative adjectives, coming from roots which do not make a regular participle; such are ath “burnt' (T); other thin', ‘hag- gard' (ang); yeh ripe' (97); siyang 'dry' (T); y en expanded (). M Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 116 Lesson XXVIII. 302. Past Active Participle in तवन्त (or नवन्त्). From the past pass. part. is made, by adding the possessire suffix am (f. ant), a secondary derivative having the meaning and construction of a perfect actire participle; thus, anem, agaan. 303. This participle is almost always used predicatively, and generally without expressed copula, i. e., with the value of a per- sonal perfect-form. Thus, i a afecara “no one has seen me”; or, with copula, Herge taarifa “thou (fem.) hast come into great misery”. This participle comes to be made even from intransitives; thus, HT That “she has gone”. Vocabulary XXVIII. Verbs: (múhyati) be confused or dazed atq in caus. (pratáráyati) de- or stupid. ceire. TH + 9 besiege. ag+ HA (samnáhyati) equip one- TE + 9 (praróhati) grow up. self. fang + (pravicáti) penetrate, 7+ fa-Tin caus. (ryāpādáyati)! enter. kill. a + q in caus. (prarartáyati) Cara * (pålāyate) flee. continue. 223 enjoy, eat. foto + remain over, survive. H + HH honor. 1 + 39 bestrew. Sobst. : T7 m., citizen. on m., end; in loc., at last. ATATE m., palace. e n., n. pr., Delhi. 999 m., Greek, barbarian. CT m., ass. pota m., jackal. JET f., cave. afara m., soldier. afta d., behavior, life. ha n., army. geattia m., nom. pr. afera m., elephant.

  • A quasi-root from t'go' + OTT away'.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXVIII. XXIX. 117 Adj.: | स्निग्ध (part. from स्त्रिह) affectio- भूयस् (comp.) more. In teut.| nate. sing. as adv.: mostly. Exercise XXVIII. श्रीमतो (abl.)राज्ञः संमतैरेभिः कविभिरिष्टानि वसूनि लब्धानि।१। कुतो भवानागत इति द्वारि स्थितः परिव्राङ्गहस्य पत्या पृष्टः । २। श्व- भिगृहीतो हरिणो व्याधैयपादितः । ३। मूढः खरः शृगालस्य स्निग्धा- भिवाग्भिः प्रतारितः सिंहस्य गुहायामागतस्तेन हतः । ४ । क्षेत्रेषु सिक्ता- भिर्मेघानामद्भिधान्यं प्ररूढम् । ५ । काश्यामुषितैर्धातृभिः शास्त्राणि सम्यगधीतानीति तेषामाचार्येण लिखितात्पत्राद्वगम्यते ॥६॥ उदीच्या दिशो (abl.) यवनेष्वागच्छत्सु पृथ्वीराज इन्द्रप्रस्थात्सैन्येन सह नि- क्रान्तः ।5। पथि संगच्छमानैर्विभिः सह महद्युद्धं संजातम् ।। तस्मिन्राजा पराजितः शरैर्विद्धो हस्तिनो भूमौ पतितो यवनैवन्नेव गृहीतः पश्चाच्चासिना घातितः ॥९॥ . (In the following render all finite verbs by participles.) 10. Many of the soldiers were killed; some who survived fled into the city. ll. The gates of the city were shut fast (दृढा अपि- feat:); the citizens equipped themselves for battle. 12. The Ya- vanas approached and besieged the city (pa88.). 13. Finally the Yavanas, proving victorious (ast act. part.), entered the city by force. 14. The young and old men were mostly murdered; the women made slaves; the great possessions of the citizens plundered, the palaces and houses burnt with fire. 15. The end of Prthviraja has been described by the Yavanas, and his previous life sung by the poet Canda. 21 P Lesson XXIX. 304. Gerund, or Absolutive. The gerund is made in classical Sanskrit by one of the suffixes त्वा and य. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 118 Lesson XXIX. 305. A. वा. To uncompounded roots is added the suffix वा. It is usually added directly to the root, but sometimes with the vowel interposed. With regard to the use of , and to the form of root before it, this formation closely agrees with that of the participle in ñ or 7. A final root-consonant is treated as before 7. Roots which make the past pass. part. in a generally reject before वा. Examples. 1. Without inserted इः ज्ञात्वा, जित्वा, नीत्वा, श्रुत्वा, भूत्वा; स्थित्वा from स्था, हित्वा from 1धा ‘place' (cf. हित) and from हा, दत्त्वा from दा (cf. दत्त), गीत्वा from गा; उत्को from वच्, युत्का from युज; गत्वा from गम्, मत्वा from मन्, वित्त्वा from 2विद

  • find'; तीख़ी from तु (cf. तीर्ण), पूवी from पृ (cf. पूर्ण); दृष्ट्वा from

दृश्, सृष्ट्वा from सृज, इष्ट्वा from यज् (cf. 8 295, 2), बुद्धा from बुध , लब्ध्वा from लभ् , दग्ध्वा from दह्. 2. With inserted T: faferat from ifazknow', gforcat from वस् ‘dwell', शयित्वा from शी (cf. शयित), गृहीत्वा from ग्रह (cf. गृहीत). 306. Some verbs make both forms; thus, from खन् either ख- नित्वा or खात्वा; from भ्रम् either धमित्वा or भ्रान्त्वा. 307. Causatives and denominatives in अय make अयित्वा; thus, चुर्, चोरयित्वा; तड़, ताडयित्वा; स्थापयति, स्थापयित्वा. | 308. B. य. Roots in composition with prepositions (or some- times with elements of other kinds, as adverbs or nouns) take the suffix y, before which Ę is never inserted. A root wbich ends in a short vowel adds a before य. Thus, परिणीय, अनुभूयः -- वि- जित्य, संस्तुत्य, अधीत्य (अधि-६) अधिकत्य. | 309. Roots in अम् and अन् whose pas8. part. ends in अत form this gerund in अत्य; thus, cात्य, हत्य. But such am-roots (not an-roots) may preserve the nasal; tbus, OJRZ. Final change- able ऋ becomes ईर or ऊर्; thus, तीर्य, पूर्य Final आ remains unaltered; thus, TETY. Some roots show a weak form before PVP 1 = Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXIX. 119 OUI this suffix; thus, JIE, HY ; (4-32) from 5-927; ay from 89-; E from fa-ae. 310. Causals and denominatives in the reject those syllables; thus, प्रचोरयति, प्रचोर्य; प्रताड्य; प्रस्थाप्य; अवघात्य; आनाययति (आ-नी), आनाय्य. But if the root ends in a single consonant and encloses short wbich is not lengthened in the causative, then the gerund of the caus. ends in 72, to distinguish it from the gerund of the simple verb; thus, अव-गम्, ger. अवगम्य; caus. अव- thefa, ger. WTA2. 311. The gerund or absolutive is used generally as logical ad- junct to the subject of a clause. It denotes an action accompanying or (usually) preceding that which is signified by the verb of the clause. (In the later language it is not always confined to the grammatical subject of the clause as an adjunct.) It has thus vir- tually the value of an indeclinable participle, present or past, qual- ifying the actor whose action it describes. Thus, तद् आकर्ण्य छागं त्यक्त्वा स्नात्वा स्वगृहं गतः * having heard this, having abandoned the goat, having bathed, he went to his own bouse”.* 312. The gerunds of some verbs have not much more than prepositional value; thus, HIZTE . having taken’, i. e. with’, like Greek haßwv, čzwv; fit' having released', i.e. 'without', 'except'. 313. Before all gerunds may be used the privative or ; thus, अलब्ध्वा “without having received”; अनाहूय “without having summoned.” son I e mor Vocabulary XXIX. Verbs: 21q acquire, attain, reach. FH + fa (nyásyati) entrust (to 8 + 9 go forth ; die. one's care).

  • Of course the absolutives are often best rendered by relative

clauses, or even by clauses coordinate with the principal clause. Ses 100 se Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 120 Lesson XXIX. व+अधि put at the head, ap-| जय m., victory. | point as ruler over (loc.). दुर्दशा f., misfortune. चल + प्र (pracolata) move on, पक्ष m., wing; side; party. march. भेक m., frog. fama (cintayati) consider. | लङ्का f., . pr., Ceylon. (cyávate) totter, fall. शूर m., hero. दा + अ take. Cf. 8 32. साधन n., means, device. धा + सम्- lay or place on. सेतु m., bridge, dike. + fan (nirņáyati) bring to an am m., n. pr., a monkey-king. end, determine, settle. हुतभुज् (nom. "भुक्) m., fire. 8 + fa (vibhájati, -te) distribute. | Adj.: । 75+ (pravrájati) wander forth; #fea disagreeable. leave one's home to become a 18 responsible, trustworthy. wandering ascetic. उभ du., both. Subst.: क्षुद्र, f, आ, little, Small. अभिप्राय m., plan, design. नित्य, f. ०, daily, regular. आहरण n., bringing. | मर्धग on the head. कपि m., monkey. | Prep08.: । atta m., elephant. ufa (postpos., with acc.) against. Exercise XXIX. गते हि दुर्दशां लोके क्षुद्रो ऽप्यहितमाचरेत् । पङ्के निमग्ने करिणि भेको भवति मूर्धगः ॥ १६ ॥ गुरावुषित्वा वेदमधीत्य स्त्री परिणीय पुत्रं जनयित्वा नित्यानि कर्मण्यनुष्ठाय यज्ञानिष्ट्वा दानानि च दत्त्वा प्रेत्य ब्राह्मणो न यवते ब्रह्मणो लोकात् । १। भुक्का पीत्वा चैते नराः सुप्ताः । २। धीमतां म- न्त्रिणामागमनं स्वामिने निवेद्य भृत्यो निष्क्रान्तः । ३। सख्या हनुमता- न्यैश्च कपिभिः समेतो ऽपां भर्तरि सेतु बङ्खा लङ्कां प्रविश्य च रामो रा- वणं हतवान् । ४। कृत्स्नं वनं दग्ध्वा हुतभुगधुना शान्तः । ५। बल- वतो मरुत आदाय मघवा गवामाहरणाय निर्गतः । ६। शिष्यानाहूय गुरुस्तैः सम्यग्वन्दितस्तानृचो यज॑षि चाध्यापितवान् । ७। हविषेष्ट्र्व- Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXIX. XXX. 121 ग्भ्यो भूयो धनं यजमानेन दत्तम् । ८त्वां मुत्का न केनापि तादग्दुः- खं सोढम् । ९ । गढञ्चारैः शत्रूणां बलं विदित्वा कार्याणि मन्त्रिषु न्यस्य सैन्य आप्ताशूरामधिकृत्य राजा युद्धाय निर्गछेत् ॥ १० ॥ 11. After the king had conquered the cassals of the western lands be marched (pass. part.) against the eastern vassals. 12. The merchants, in joy (pass. part.), took the money and gave the jewels to the king (use ger., and pass. constr.). 13. “After adoring the gods at twilight, and placing fagots on the fire, bring water from the cistern”: thus having spoken, the teacher seated bimself (pass. part.) on the mat. 14. The hero fought (ger.) with his enemies and gained (part.) great glory by the victory over them (gen.). 15. The Brāh- man, abandoning his own (pl.), became an ascetic(-676, pass. part.). 16. When the merchant had imparted (fa-fag, caus.) bis plan to the servant, he sent him into the village. 17. The master of the house had money brought (ger.) and distributed it to the poor. 18. Let not kings decide law-suits without hearing the arguments (ata) of both sides. 19. Whoever despises powerful foes, and fights with them without considering the means to victory (gen.), perishes. 20. Whoever becomes an ascetic without having studied the Veda, attains (ger.) not salvation, but falls into hell (loc.). Lesson XXX. 314. Infinitive. The later language has a single infinitive, the ending of which is JH (or TA). The root takes guna, when possible. 315. The ending ah is added directly: 1. To almost all roots ending in vowels, except those in o and changeable . Thus, HT, OTTH; T, TOA; fa, aga; ht, aga; J, NIJA; a, aga. 2. To a number of roots ending in consonants. As root- Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 122 Lesson XXX. finals, के, त्, प् and स remain unchanged before तुम्; thus, शक, शतुम्; मन्, मन्तुम्; आए, आप्तुम्; क्षिप्, क्षेप्नुम्; लुप्, लोप्नुम्; शत्

  • curse', शप्तम्; 3वस् ‘dwell', वस्तुम्.- Other finals are changed

according to the rules given in Lesson XXVIII for the con- version of final consonants before the participial suffix 7. Thus, पच्, पतुम्; त्यज , त्यतुम्; दृश्, द्रष्टुम्; स्पृश्, प्रष्टुम्; कृष्, क्रष्टुम'; प्रछ, प्रष्टुम् ; यज, यष्टुम्; सृज, स्रष्टुम्; क्रुध, क्रोम्; लभ , लव्धुम्; राहु, रोदुम्; वहु, वोढुम्; दह, दग्धुम्; नह, नडुम्. - Final दु becomes , and final म, न्; thus, अद, अतुम्; विद् know', वेत्तुम् (also वेदितुम्); गम्, गन्तुम्. 316. The ending JA with g (in the forni TA) is taken by roots in final long Ji and the root it, with a few other vowel- roots; by the majority of roots in consonants; and by verbs of the secondary conjugations. Thus, भू, भवितुम्; शी, शयितुम्; ईक्ष , ईक्षितुम्; वन्दु, वन्दितुम् गुह, गुहितुम् (cf. 6101). | 317. Causatives and denominatives in अय have अयितुम्, the root being treated as in the present; thus, चुर, चोरयितुमः कथ, कथयितुम्; तड़, ताडयितुम्. 318. Some roots in consonants insert or reject g at pleasure; thus, मृज, मार्जितुम् or माटुंम्**. The root यह makes ग्रहीतम्। 319. The rules for the use of g in the infinitive agree closely with those governing its use in the formation of the s-future and of the nomen agentis in a 320. Uses of the infinitive. The chief use of the infinitive is as equivalent to an accusative, as the object of a verb, especially of the verbs Ta'be able', and be worthy', ‘have the right 10

  • The increments of are sometimes T and TT instead of

अर् and आर्; especially where a difficult combination of consonants is thus avoided.

    • In all the tense-systems, and in derivation, the root 73

exhibits often the vśddhi instead of the guņa-strengthening. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXX. 123 Can or power’; thus, gafasi Tantra " he is able to tell”; Thefa QATT: “ the prince ought to hear it”. is often thus used with the infinitive to express a respectful request or entreaty, as in the last example. The infinitive is also often found with verbs of notion, and with those meaning desire', 'hope', 'notice', 'know?, and the like. 321. But often the infinitive bas a case-value not accusative. Thus, a dative value: Hafa HAH “ there is food to eat” i. e. “ for eating”; a genitive value: FAYT HA “capable of going”. Even a construction as nominative is not unknown. 322. In certain connections the infinitive has a quasi-passive force. Thus, कर्तुमारब्धः “begun to be made'; श्रोतुं न युज्यते ६it is not fit to be beard.” This is especially frequent along with the passive forms of Tap; thus, Já a matra “he cannot abandon ”, but त्यतुं न शक्यते he cannot be abandoned; नरौ शक्याविहानेतुम 6 the two men can be brought hither." 323. Future Passive Participle, or Gerundive. Certain derivá ative adjectives, mostly secondary, have acquired a value quite like that of the Latin gerundive; thus, atei (from a) “to be done', fuciendus. They may be made from every verb. The ordinary suffixes are three: य, तव्य, and अनीय. 324. A. Suffix 9.* a. Before this suffix final radical IT be- comes D; thus, from 1,29; , 21. 6. Other final vowels some- times remain unchanged, sometimes have the guna or even the vrddhi-strengthening; and Ų often, and always, are treated before य as before a vowel; thus, from जि, जेय and जय्य; from भी, भैय and भय्य; from j, श्रव्य and श्राव्य; from क, कार्य; from धू, धूय; frona H, HT2. — c. In a few instances, a short rowel adds a before the suffix; thus, TI(C), 7 (), a (a). d. Medial y remains

  • The original value of this suffix is ia. Hence the conversion

of ए to अय् and of ओ to अव before it. e GO Univ. Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 124 Lesson XXX. unchanged in one class of words, and is lengthened in another class; thus, a, gra, Ha, but HTC (AZ), atau (97). e. Initial or medial i, u, and ? - vowels are sometimes unchanged, sometimes have the guna-strengthening; thus, sisa, JJ, 72; aa, योध्य, बोध्य. f. The root शास्स makes शिष्य. A form वध्य (from the defective root वध्) is assigned to हन्. आ-लभ makes आलभ्य and 1977. g. Causatives and denominatives in we are treated as in the present, but omit the syllables 77; thus, TT, atef. 325. B. Suffis gal. This is a secondary adjective derivative from the infinitival noun in 7. Hence, both as regards the form of root and the use or omission of , the rules are the same as for the formation of the infinitive; thus, 2012), gatal, a nal, uru- ga (TT). 326. C. Suffis pofter [auta). Generally radical vowels will be found gunated before this suffix; causatives and denomin- atives in va are treated as in the present-system, without the syllables ye; thus, ratu (FT), TOTO (OTT), Tauta (I), art. धनीय, चोरणीय, महनीय (गृहयति). 327. The gerundives in ga are common in the impersonal pas- sive construction described in Lesson X, and not seldom have a purely future sense; thus, aa a grant waar “with that thou shalt be bappy”. Vocabulary XXX. Verbs: JTE + 79 (avagáhate) dive under (árhati) have the right, etc. (acc.). (cf. § 320.) 09 (tápati, -te) burn (tr. and 14 + HA finish, attain. intr.); pain; in pass., suffer, + 19-277 pay. do penance. TH + ufu (abhigácchati) visit, UT + fa arrange, ordain, order. attend. ma (nrtyati) dance. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXX. 125 भू + 9 be mighty, able; alere. | पुष्ट stout, fat. वत् + अ (praudrtate) continue, प्रियवादिन् acceptably speaking. go on. फलवन्त Auitful. Snbst.: यज्ञिय destined or suitable for कृषीवल m., husbandman. sacrifice. ata n., song, singing. farea (part. of fa-47) ordained. तपस् n., heat; self-torture. समर्थ, f., आ, capable, able. नाटक n., drama, play. f-existent; as m. subst., नृत्त n., dance, dancing. epithet of Brabma. वपुस् n., body, figure. Adv.: समाज m., convention, company. अलम् enough, very; . instr., ATAQ D., Vedic melody, song; enough of, away with; w. dat., pl., the Samaveda. suitable for. Adj.: स्वैरम् at pleasure. तरुण, f. ई, young, delicate. 1 . Exercise XXX. सर्वे पौराः कालिदासेन रचितं नाटकं द्रष्टुमागच्छन् । १। सर्व- न्द्विषो बाहुभ्यां जेतुं स्वामी समर्थ इति प्रियवादिनो भृत्या राजानमु- तेवन्तः । २। पापान्यपमाटुंमपो ऽवगाह्यर्चः पठनीयाः सामानि वा गे- यानि । ३। तीव्र तपस्तप्तुं यतिर्वनाय प्रस्थितः । ४ । अश्वमारोढुमधुना मे पथि श्रान्तस्य मतिजीता । ५। पितृभ्यो दातव्यमृणमपाकर्तुं ब्राह्मणः पुत्र जनयेत् । ६। स्वर्ग लब्धं भूयसो यच्चान्यष्टुमर्हसि । ७। सर्वासु दिनु स्वैरं चरितुं यज्ञियो ऽश्वो भवद्भिक्तव्य इति राक्षादिश्यत । ८। भ- वतां भाषा नावगन्तुं शक्यते (322) ।९। पुष्टावनद्वाही शकटे योक्तं कृषीवल आदेष्टव्यः । १० । स्वयंभुवा जगत्स्रष्टुं मनः कृतम् ॥ ११ ॥ (Sentences with must may be rendered either with or with gerundives). 12. A Brahmacārin must not visit any companies to see (प्र-त) dancing or to hear singing. 13. Remembering that works will be fruitful in the other life (use “thus thinking”, after or. recta), a man must strive to perform what is ordained. mann Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 126 Lesson XXX. XXXI. rue 14. The maidens seated themselves (pass. part.) in the garden to bind wreaths. 15. True friends are able to save from misfortune. 16. The daughters caine (pass. part.) to bow before their parents. 17. How is the delicate body of this fair one capable of enduring penance? 18. You must become a scholar (use Han , and cf. $ 177). 19. You must bring a boat to cross the river. 20. Who is able to stop the mighty wind? 21. The gentlemen (use 29 a) are to read this letter. 22. Having finished the Veda, he went on to study the other sciences. Lesson XXXI. 328. Numerals. Cardinals: 0 1, 2, fa 3, 997 4, ug 5, N 6, 68 7, 4g 8, 4G 9, 10 – Park 11, đến 12, Tit7g13, apa y 14, EZT 15, TCT 16, H T 17, VETEN 18, TET 19, faufa 20. - Varaufa 21, ayfärfa 22, etc. - föra 30, artfina 40, Taina 50, oft 60, Hafa 70, 911- fa 80, gafa 90, ga 100. – fara or @ Tā 200. – HEF 1000, fe or î hê 2000, Taha or 75 100 000. 329. The numbers between the even tens are made by pre- fixing the unit - number to the ten; thus, defaufa 25. But note: VaiTy, not Tonic 11. 42, 52, 62, 72 and 92, either feat- fiya or graº, etc.; 43—73, and 93, either f7° or poyatº etc.; 48–78. and 98, either go or Fete TO etc. 96 is quafa. 330. There are other ways of expressing the numbers between the tens. Thus: 1. By the use of the adj. 37a deficient’, in com- position; e. g. varafagra -20 less 1', i. e. 19. This usage is not common except for the nines. Sometimes ta is left off, and Biafara, etc., have the same value. 2. By the adj. ufura or more’, also in composition; e. g., Fetyagafa (also wafua gafa) 98. MOO Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXI. 127 10 331. The same methods are used to form the odd numbers above 100. Thus, एकशतम् 101, अष्टाशतम् 108, पञ्चाधिकं शतम् 105, सप्तोत्तरं शतम् 107. 332. Inflection of cardinals. 1. Dan is declined like på, at § 231 (pl.: 'some', 'certain ones'). The dual does not occur. Van sometimes means 'a certain'; or even “an, a', as an indefinite article. 2. & (dual only) is quite regular; thus, nom.-acc.-voc. m., at f. n. ३; द्वाभ्याम्, इयोस्। 3. f9 is in masc. and neut. nearly regular; the fem. has the stem fad. Thus, nom. m. Pra, acc. m. 1, nom. - acc. n. वीणि; instr. त्रिभिस्, dat.-abl. त्रिभ्यस् , gen. त्रयाणाम् , loc. विषु. Fem.: nom.-acc. तिसस्, instr. तिसृभिस्, dat.-abl. तिसृभ्यस्, gen. तिसृणाम्, loc. तिसृषु. 4. चतर has चत्वार in strong cases; the fem. stem is चतस. Thus, nom. m. चत्वारम् , acc. m. चतुरस्; nom.-acc. u. चत्वारि; instr. चतुर्भिस् etc. Fel.: nom.-acc. चतस्रस्. instr., etc., चतकाभिस्, चतसभ्यस, चतसृणाम्, चतसषु. (5--19.) These numbers have no distinction of gender. They are inflected with some irregularity as plurals. Thus: 5, 7, 9, 10. पञ्च, पञ्चभिस, भ्यस्, पञ्चाचा. पञ्चसु. सप्त, नव, दश, and compounds of दश, are similarly declined. | 6. षष् as follows: षट्, घभिस्, षड्भ्यस्, पाम्, घट्स. | 8. अष्ट may follow पञ्च, or be declined thus: अष्टौ, अष्टाभिस्, ०भ्यस, अष्टानाम्, अष्टासु 20, 30, etc. विंशति, त्रिंशत्, etc., are declined regularly as fem. stems, in all numbers. 100, 1000. शत arad सहस्र are declined regularly as neut. stems, in all nuinbers. 333. Construction of numerals. 1. The words from 1 to 19 are used as adjectives, agreeiog in case (and in gender, if possible) 1 । ।। । । Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 128 Lesson XXXI. with the pouns. 2. The pumerals above 19 are usually treated as nouns, either taking the numbered noan as a dependent genitive, or standing in the sing. in apposition with it; thus, un retoria or mai ieft: “a hundred female slaves”; T T TTG “in sixty autumn8". 334. Ordinals. Jya* 'first’, fanta, gata, agů, TZA, 48, A, WH, JCA, TA, Tatet (to 19th, the same as the cardinals, but declined like देव, etc.); विंश or विंशतितम 20th; त्रिंश or विंशत्तम 30th, etc. Note also एकोनविंश or ऊनविंश, vastafayfaqa or Bianfanfana, 19th. The shorter forms(fayetc.) are by far the commoner. 335. प्रथम, द्वितीय and तृतीय make their fem. in •आ; the rest, in & Occasional forms of the pronominal declension are met with from the first three; but the usual declension of nouns is the normal one for ordipals also. 336. Numeral adverbs. 1. ggia 'once'; fetch 'twice'; FTH

  • thrice'; चतुस् ‘four times'; पञ्चकत्वस् or पञ्चवारम् ‘five times';

and so on, with a cap or o TTH. – 2. Day 'in one way’; feet or em 'in two ways'; fax or IET, aquí, ury, 761 or षड्धा , etc - 3. एकशस् ‘one by one'; शतशस ‘by hundreds', etc. Vocabulary XXXI. Verbs: 149 in caus. (bhojáyati) feed. are+ FA (sankaláyati) put to-faw + f (abhişiñcuti) anoint gether, add. as king. A+ ufa pass (of time). +87- cite, mention. q (jálpati) speak, chat. afgerito D., n. pr. a city. Sabst.: wanae m., the fourth Veda.

  • To forms no ordinal.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXI. 129 कलियुग n., the Iron Age" of शक m., Scythian. the world. शरीर n., body. चक्र n., wheel. शाखा f., branch, edition, re- Fitfaq n., astronomy; astrono- daction. mical text-book. संवत्सर m., year. दर्शन n., philosophical system. | Adv.: । नक्षत्र n., lunar mansion. अनन्तरम् (७. abt. - often po8t- uruga m., n. pr., descendant of pos.) after, immediately after. Pandu. mirea sometimes (in altern.). पुराण n., one of a class of works| तद्यथा namely, to wit. on the creation of the world. FTARINA at present. विक्रमादित्य m., n. pr., a famous king. Exercise XXXI. सकज्जल्पन्ति राजानः सकज्जल्पन्ति साधवः । सकृत्कन्याः 'प्रदीयन्ते वीण्येतानि सतां कृत् ॥ १७ ॥ सप्तानामृषीणां शरीराणि दिवि राजमानानि दृश्यन्ते* ॥ १ ॥ चत्वारो वेदा विद्यन्ते ऽष्टादश पुराणानि षटत्रिंशत्स्मृतयः षड् दर्शना- नीति विदुषां मतम् । २ । चतुर्णा वेदानां तु बहवः शाखा वर्तन्ते । ३ । तद्यथा। ऋग्वेदस्य पञ्च शाखा यजुर्वेदस्य षडशीतिः सामवेदस्य सप्ता- थर्ववेदस्य नवेति ।४। सर्वाः संकलव्य सप्तोत्तरं शतं शाखानां श्रूयते ॥ ५॥ साम्प्रतं चत्वारि सहस्राणि नव शतानि च्यशोतिश्च कलियुगस्य वर्ष- ण्यतिक्रान्तानि । ६। श्रीविक्रमादित्यादनन्तरं पञ्चपञ्चाशाधिके शततमे संवत्सरे शकानां राजाभिषिक्तः । ७। अधुना त्वष्टादश शतानि चत्वारि च शकानां राज्ञो वर्षाणि गतानि ॥ ८ ॥ त्रीणि लक्षाणि गवां षोडश ग्रामाश्र्षभदत्तेन ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दत्तानि । ९ । स एव वर्षे वर्षे शतसहस्रं ब्राह्मणानामभोजयत् ॥ १० ॥ | 11. The wagon of the Agvins is fitted (युज , part. pa88.) with three wheels. 12. The Açvins are praised by the seer with four

  • i. e., in the seven stars of the Great Bear.

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 130 Lesson XXXI. XXXII. 02 በ Rik-verses. 13. Krşņa is the eldest of six brothers. 14. Arjuna is the third among the five Pāņdaras. 15. Some think there are eight sorts of marriage (pl.); others, six (model after 2nd sentence in Sanskrit above). 16. Twenty-seren or twenty-eight lunar mansions are mentioned in astronomy. 17. One should consecrate a Brābman in his eighth year, a Kşatriya in his eleventh, a Vāiçya in his twelfth. 18. Two great lights shine in the sky. 19. The teacher, having taught the fifth Rik - verse, recited the sixth. 20. Çākyamuni Buddha died in the eightieth year of his age (life). 21. Sometimes 33 gods are reckoned in the Veda, sometimes 3333. Lesson XXXII. - a acca 337. Comparison of Adjectives. Derivative adjectives baving comparative and superlative meaning -- or often, and more origin- ally, a merely intensive value — are made either (A.) directly from roots (by primary derivation), or (B.) from other derivative or com- pound stems (by secondary derivation). 338. A. The suffixes of primary derivation are up for the comparative, and 38 for the superlative. The root before them is accented, and usually strengthened by guna (if capable of it), or sometimes by nasalization or prolongation. – In classical Sanskrit few such formations are in use; and these attach themselves in meaning mostly to other adjectives from the same root, which seem to be their corresponding positives. In part, however, they are connected with words unrelated to them in derivation. 339. Thus auth and afag (1 faq) attach themselves to क्षिप्र ‘quick'; वरीयस् and वरिष्ठ (1| ‘encompass'), to उरु 'broad'; qtutor and arfag: 'worse' and 'worst’, to the subst. ara; Teth and of28, to UE skilful’; Astor and afer to OTT are Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXII. | 131 OTT महन्त्; बलीयस and बलिष्ठ, to बलिन् or बलवन्त्; साधीयस and साधिष्ठ to साधु. | 340. The following are examples of artificial connections: अन्तिक (near', नेदीयस, नेदिष्ठ; अल्प ‘little', कनीयस, कनिष्ठ (but also अल्पीयस्, अल्पिष्ठ); गुरु ‘heavy', गरीयस, गरिष्ठ; दीर्घ

  • long', द्रोघीयस, द्वाघिष्ठ; प्रशस्य ‘praiseworthy, ‘good', श्रेयस
  • better', श्रेष्ठ ‘best'; प्रिय ‘dear', प्रेयस, प्रेष्ठ; बहु ‘much', भूयस्,

भूयिष्ठ; युवन् ‘young', यवीयस्, यविष्ठ; वृद्ध ‘old', वर्षीयस, व- र्षिष्ठ. ज्यायस् and ज्येष्ठ correspond sometimes to प्रशस्य or साधु, sometimes to वृद्ध. 341. The stems in 17 are inflected like ordinary adjectives in 7, with the fem. in Et; those in STF have a peculiar de- clension, with a strong stem in ईयांस , and fem. ईयसी, for which see § 255. So also FOTOH and HIÆ. | 342. B. The suffixes of secondary derivation are तर and तम. They are of almost unrestricted use. That form of stem is usually taken which appears before an initial consonant of a case-ending. Stems in ## are always unchanged; final 7 and GF become 59 and 3q, after which the a of the suffix becomes [. | Thus, प्रियवाच्, प्रियवाक्तर, °क्तम; धनिन्, धनितर, तम; वि- द्वांस्, विद्वत्तर, “त्तम. | 343. Some stems which are substantives rather than adjectives are found to form derivatives of comparison; thus, मातृतम ‘most motherly', नृतम ‘most manly', गजतम ‘most like an elephant.' 344. Comparison of Adverbs. Adverbs are compared by adding the suffixes in the forms तराम् and तमाम्; thus, सु ‘well', सुत- राम्, सुतमाम्. 345. Construction. With a comparative (and sometimes with other words used in a similar way) the ablative is the regular construction; thus, पुत्रात्कन्या तय प्रेयसो “a daughter is dearer to him than a son; मतिरेव बलाद्रीयसी intellect alone is । come are rer 9॥ Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 132 Lesson XXXII. stronger than force”. After the superlative either genitive or locative may be used. The comparative often has the force of a strength- ened superlative; thus, गरोयान् ‘most honorable'. Vocabulary XXXII. Subst.: FHPT m., n. pr., the Indus. गन्धर्व m., one of a band of celes- सुराप m., drunkard. tial singers, a Gandharva. । हेमन्त m., winter. दक्ष m., n. . Adj.: धावन n., running, course. My little, small; as no subst., OTHICHT D., the world-spirit. atom. Ata m., deliverance, salvation. आशु swift. रोहिणी f., n. pr. ईदृश, f. ईदृशी, such. लोह n., metal; iron. पुराण, f. ०n and ०६, old. वायस m., crow. वर्तिन् albiding, being. acam., a system of philosophy. Indecl.: शकुन्तला f., 7. pr. च sometimes in sense of if. Exercise XXXII. ज्येष्ठो धाता पिता वापि यश्च विद्यां प्रयच्छति । जयस्ते पितरो ज्ञेया धर्मे* च पथि वर्तिनः ॥ १८॥ मोक्षाय ज्ञानं यज्ञेभ्यः साधीय इति पुराणैरुक्तम् । १। साम्प्रतं तु भक्त्या श्रेयो लब्धं द्विजातयो यतन्ते ॥ २॥ त्रयः कनीयांसो भ्रातरो रा- मस्याभवन् । ३। यवीयसीं भाय परिणयेत् । ४। यदि ज्येष्ठायां भा- यायां कनिष्ठः पुत्रो जायेत तदा स एव श्रेष्ठं धनस्य भागं लभेतेत्येके । ५। परमात्माणोरयणीयान्महतो ऽपि महीयान्वेदान्तेषु वय॑ते । ६। पञ्च- भिरेताभिर्नदीभिः सह संगतः सिन्धुर्गङ्गाया अपि वरीयान्दृश्यते । ७। या अष्टाविंशतिर्दक्षस्य दुहितरश्चन्द्रमसा परिणीतास्तासां रोहिणी भर्तः प्रेष्ठाभवत् । ८। तेनेभ्यः सुरापाः पापीयांसः स्मर्यन्ते । ९ । पा- पानां पापिष्ठास्तु ब्रह्मणः । १० । प्रथीयो यशस्त्रिषु लोकेष्वर्जुन ल- ब्धम् ॥ ११ ॥

  • Translate as though genitive.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXU. XXXIII. 133 ry m2 12. Of the three wives of Daçaratha, Kāusalyā was older and more honored (Fe, comp ) than Kāikeyi and Sumitrā. 13. In winter the nights are very long. 14. Not very inany (express as pred.) such jewels are found on earth. 15. Among those kings of the North Prthvīrāja was the mightiest. 16. The poems of Kālidāsa are sweeter than the works of Bāņa. 17. Anāthapiņdika was the richest among all the merchants in Rājagpha. 18. Iron is lighter than gold, but heavier than wood. 19. In running the horse is the swiftest of quadrupeds. 20. Çakuntalā was more beautiful than all other women of that time, and became the wife of the mightiest monarch (9 ) of the whole earth. 21. The crow is called the shrewdest of birds. 201 WVON O 0 Lesson XXXIII. (Part I.) 346. Compounds. In all periods of the language the combination of stems of declension with one another, forming compounds which are treated in accent, inflection and construction as if simple words, is one of the most striking peculiarities of the Sanskrit tongue. In the Vedic period compounds of more than two elements are rare. In the later language this moderation is abandoned; and the later the period, and especially the more elaborate the style of composition, the more unwieldy and difficult do the compounds become. To such an extent is this carried that the advantages of an inflective language are often deliberately thrown away, and a clumsy aggregation of elements replaces the due syntactical union of inflected words into sentences. 347. Sanskrit compounds fall into three principal classes : I. Copulative or Aggregative compounds, of which the members are syntactically coordinate: a joining together of words which in Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 134 Lessou XXXIII. inco On an uncompounded state would be connected by and”.* E. g. o ताकतम् ‘done and undone'; देवगन्धर्वमानुषाः ‘gods and Gal- dharvas and men’. The members of such a compound may ohri- ously be of any number, two or more. II. Determinative compounds, of which the former member is syntactically dependent on the latter, as its determining or quali- fying adjunct: being either a noun limiting it in a case-relation, or an adjective or an adverb describing it. Thus may be distin- guished two sub-classes: A. Dependent, and B. Descriptive, com- pounds; their difference is not absolute. Examples are: of dependents, WfHFÊT ‘army of enemies”; uretzat water for the feet'; grigia 'made with hands”; – of descriptives, AETTE'great king'; fuuhe ($353, 2) “dear friend'; g a 'badly done'. 348. The character of compounds of classes I. and II., as parts of speech, is determined by their final member, and they are capable of being resolved into equivalent phrases by giving the proper independent form and formal means of connection to each member. But this is not true of the third class, which accordingly is more fundamentally distinct from them than they from each other. 349. III. Secondary Adjective compounds, the value of which is not given by a simple resolution into their component parts, but which, though having as final member a noun, are themselves ad- jectives. These again are of two sub-classes : A. Possessive com- pounds, which are noun-compounds of the preceding class (II. A. or B.), with the idea of 'haring' added, turning them from nouns into adjectives; and B. compounds in which the second member is NO е 2 TUO 10 W memi

  • This class of compounds is of comparatively recent devel-

opment; only the other two are common in others of the related tongues. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIII. 135 a noun syntactically dependent on the first: namely, 1. Participial compounds (only Vedic), of a present participle with its following object; and 2. Prepositional compounds, of a preposition and fol- lowing noun. This whole sub-class B is comparatively small. Examples: वरसेन ‘possessing a hero-army'; प्रजाकाम ‘having desire of progeny”; FAHTE 'excessive'. 350. The adjective compounds are, like simple adjectives, sonic- times used, especially in the neuter, as abstract and collective nouns; and in the accusative as adverbs. Out of these uses have grown apparent classes of compounds, reckoned and named as such by the Hindu grammarians. 351. A compound may, like a simple word, become a member in another compound, and so on indefinitely. The analysis of a compound (except copulatives), of whatever length, must be made by a series of bisections. Thus the dependent compound garan a done in a previous existence', is first divisible into aia and the descriptive 4919, then this into its two elements. 352. Euphonic combination in compounds. The final of a stem is combined with the initial of another stem in composition according to the general rules for external combination. But: 1. Final इस and उस of a prior member become प् and उष् before surd gutturals, dentals, and labials; thus, outfitgia. 2. Final Wh of a prior member often remains uncbanged under similar circumstances. 3. After final 7, 3, #, an initial F often becomes lingual. 4. Pronouns generally take the stem-form of the neuter; for the personal pronouns are oftenest used H3 and in the sing., अस्मद् and युष्मद in the pl. 5. For AFP, in the prior member of descriptive and possess- ive compounds, is used HET. 6. A case-form in the prior member is not very rare. ren Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 136 Lesson XXXIII. 353. In all classes of compounds, certain changes of finals are liable to appear in the concluding member; generally they have the effect of transferring the compound as a whole to the a-declension. Thus: 1. A stem in 79 often drops the final a, as in 07, 78, OFTE, OT79. 2. An or is changed to 3), as in H#, "TT7, ogg, oqg. 3. An 7 is added after a final consonant, sometimes even after an u-vowel or a diphthong, as in 75 (160, Ta (OTT). The separate classes of compounds will now be taken up. OM. (Part II.) 354. I. Copulative compounds. Two or more nouns — much less often adjectives, and once or twice adverbs – having a co- ordinate construction, as though joined by and ', are sometimes com- bined into a compound.* 355. The noun-compounds fall, as regards their inflective form, into two classes: A. The compound has the gender and declension of its final member, and is in number a dual or plural, according to its logical value as denoting either two, or more than two, individual things. Examples are: ब्रोहियवी ‘rice and barley'; रामक- घणौ ‘Rama and Krsna'; अजावयः ‘goats and sheep'; ब्राह्मणक्षत्रि- Ja ICT: Brāhmans, Kșatriyas, Vāiçyas and Çūdras '; foargot (§ 352, 6) 'father and son'. B. The compound, without regard to the number denoted or to the gender of its constituents, becomes a neuter singular collective (so-called samāhāra-dvandva). Thus, atfUUTCH 'band and foot'; सर्पनकुलम् ‘snake and ichneumon'; छत्रोपानहम् ($ 353, 3) ‘um- brella and shoe'; EITTFA ($ 353, 2) ‘day and night'. 356. The later language preserves several dual combinations

  • This class is called by the Hindus dvandva, 'couple'; but a

doandva of adjectives they do not recognize. im Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIII. 137 are rar OL 001 0 ICC NOT of the names of divinities, etc., which retain their earlier forms; thus, द्यावापृथिव्यौ and द्यावाभूमी ‘Heaven and Earth'; मित्रा- वरुणो 'Mitra and Varuna'; अमोघोमी 'Agni and Soma'. 357. Adjective copulative compounds are made likewise, but are rare. Examples are: Yetiaan 'light and dark’; q7 ta'round and plump?;* Etargfag'bathed and anointed'. 358. Determinative compounds. A noun or adjective is often combined into a compound with a preceding determining or qual- ifying word – a noun or adjective or adverb. The two principal divisions of this class are, as indicated above, A. Dependent, and B. Descriptive, compounds. Each class falls into two subdivisions, according as the final member, and therefore the whole compound, is noun or adjective.** 359. A. Dependent compounds. 1. Noun- compounds. The case-relation of the prior to the second member may be of any kind, but is oftenest genitive, and least often accusative. Thus, angre = 7e9 ; Hellaifa hundreds of fools'; - uretaan (= u727 ECO) “water for the feet'; – faataa money (ob- tained) by science'; WHATER (= THAT ATERA) 'likeness with self’; – atraret (= 11T15TH) “fear of a thief'; – atst (= sê #to) 'sport in the water'; – 731779 (= 701 17°) 'going to the city’; angefa lord of speech', n. pr. (8 352, 6.). 360. 2. Dependent adjective compounds. Only a very small proportion of the compounds of this class bave an ordinary adjective as final member; usually the final member is a participle, or a de- rivative of agency with the value of a participle ($ 204). The

  • The Hindus reckon these as karmadhārayas (see next note).
    • The whole class of determinatives is called by the natives

tatpuruşa (the name is a specimen of the class, meaning ‘his man '); the second division, the descriptives, bears the special name karma- dhāraya, a word of obscure meaning and application. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 138 Lesson XXXIII. OT ore prior member stands in any possible case-relation. Thus, aga gone to the village '; azraz Veda-knowing'; – fuation “protected by Çiva’; tifea (= sê fea:) "good for the cow'; -- स्वर्गपतित ‘fallen from the sky'; तरङ्गचञ्चलतर ‘more mobile than waves'; — faut TTH (= f FITOTTA 37A:) 'best of Brāhmans '; - ertan 'cooked in a pot'. 361. Compounds of this sort having as final member the bare root – sometimes modified in form, and, if it end originally in a sbort vowel, generally with an added a – are very numerous : thus, acfac above (§ 360); reestanding in the wagon' (or simply “in the wagon'); go on the head'; van 'only-born’; aret ($ 352, 6) -forest-dwelling’; ufufgt ‘firm in battle’; 9- fHs 'born in the heart' (i. e. 'love'). 362. B. Descriptive compounds. In this division of tbe deter- minatives, the prior member stands to the other in no distinct case- relation, but qualifies it adjectively or adverbially, according as the final member is noun or adjective. Thus, fuerte ($ 353, 2); Fana 'well-done'; Eliona evil-doing' (adj.). The compounds of noun-value cannot well be separated in treatment from those of adjective-value. 363. The simplest case is that in which a noun as final member is preceded by a qualifying adjective as prior member. Thus, a TUTT (= quit sa:) 'black horse'; HETTTT ‘great man’. Instead of an adjective, the prior member is in a few cases a noun used appositionally or with a quasi-adjective value; thus, afo •priest- sage’; Trofa 'king-sage'. 364. Sometimes compounds of this sort express a comparison; thus, ERTH 'black as a thunder - cloud' (cf. “coal-black', etc.). Reversed, gruang man-tiger', i. e., 'a mau fierce as a tiger?;*

  • Literally, a tiger which is not a tiger after all, but a man.

Or, perbaps better, "tiger of (or among) men' (s0 Whitney). 1 V Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIII. 139 offüz 'man-lion'; OTETE ‘foot-lotus', i. e. 'a foot lovely as a lotus. 365. The adverbial words most commonly used as prior members of descriptive compounds, qualifying the other member, are the verbal prefixes (“ prepositions”), and the words of direction related to them; likewise the inseparable prefixes 79 or priva- tive, well', 'ill', etc. These are combined with nouns (in quasi-adjectival value) as well as with adjectives. Thus, ara ‘not done'; अपण्डित ‘not a scholar'; अनर्थ ‘misfortune'; अतिदेव more than a god’; fact 'exceedingly far’; ufazy 'excessive fear?; afaye 'opposing side.' Vocabulary XXXIII. Verbs: | TET + (anurájyati, -te) be 114 + HA complete. devoted to, inclined to (loc.). Ya + fa station, place, appoint. F + 9 go away (on a journey). ga + fa return home. Subst.: 07 n., step; place. att m., air, sky. 98 m., n. pr. a m., hermitage. Afgoft f., queen. are m., n. pr. Het f., chase. SHT7 m., boy, prince. UTETf., march, journey; support. Et f., game, sport. at m., race, family. facra m., ornament (often fig.). ata m., state of affairs; news. me n., bathing-place; place of Heit f., female friend. pilgrimage. Frant m., hospitality. Hoa n, oait f., the threefold Adj.: world. 7904, f. o, suitable. go m., n. pr. fga, f. 7T, adopted. far m., panther. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ®° 140 Lesson XXXIII. गान्धर्व, f. ई, in the manner of, समोप, f.०, near; as neut. subst., or suitable for, the Gandharvas. vicinity, nearness, presence. दिव्य, f. ०आ, heavenly, divine. | Adv.६ मानुष, f. ई, human. पुरा earlier, formerly. Exercise XXXIII. दुष्यन्तो नाम राजर्षिः पूरुवंशतिलकस्त्रिलोक्यां विश्रुतः कृत्स्नां पृ- थिवीमपालयत् । १। स चैकदा मन्त्रिसतसैनिकान्वितो मृगयाक्रीडा महावनं प्रविष्टः । २। तस्मिन्वने दुष्षन्तो ऽनेकान्व्याघ्रसिंहर्सदोपिनो ऽन्यांश्च वनेचरान्प्राणिनः स्वशरैवीपादयत् । ३। एकं तु हरिणं पलाय- मानं रथस्थो ऽनुसरन्स नदीतीरे दिव्याश्रमपदं दृष्टवान् । ४। कण्वस्थ ब्रह्मर्षेरयमाश्रम इति सूतमुखाच्छ्रुत्वा सैनिकान्वने संस्थाप्य र्षे जन्तुं रा- जा तत्र प्रविष्टः । ५। तदा कण्वे तीर्थयात्रार्थ प्रोषिते सति तस्य कृत्रिमा दुहिता शकुन्तला नाम सखीसमेता महाराजमतिथिसत्कारेण पूजयितु- माश्रमान्निर्गता ॥ ६॥ (Foron compounds of words joined by hyphens). 7. When he had seen her, brilliant (7756 pres. part.) with di- vine-beauty, as though (ga) more-than-human, the heart of the king-sage was inclined (pass. part.) Ioward her. 8. Thereupon, having learned that she (acc.) was the daughter-of-an-Apsaras (acc.), he married her by the gandharva-ceremony (विवाह) suitable-for- Kşatriyas. 9. Duşşanta, after dwelling very inany days-and-nights in the hermitage, abandoned Çakuntalā and returned to his-own- city. 10. Afterwards, when Kanva had finished his pilgrimage, and returned to the hermitage, learning (faz) the news4-of-bis'- daughter's-marriage, he sent her into-the-presence-of-Dussanta. 11. The royal-sage at first disowned (प्रत्या-ख्या,ger.) Cakuntala ushen. she was come-to-the-city?; but at last he put(F-yo, part. in oz ) her in-the-place-of-the-first-queen. 12. In the course of tirne 10 ere

  • “To engage in the sport of hunting”; cf. below, $ 375, 3.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIIJ. XXXIV. 141 V W3 (antena dent) a beautiful-prince, named Bharata, was born to her (loc.). Lesson XXXIV. 366. III. Secondary Adjective Compounds. A compound with a noun as final member very often wins secondarily the value of an adjective, being inflected in the three genders to agree with the noun which it qualifies, and used in all the constructions of an adjective. The two divisions of this class have been given above ($ 349). prasive (), I . I vil ta idea a trasmes wide 367. Certain changes are sometimes necessary in the stem of the final member to make possible the infection in different genders. Masc. and neut, stems in 1, and fem. in HT, generally interchange; thus, from # + comes the compound EF with excellent hands ’, nom. sing. FEAH, °FIT, OFTA ; so also (from 18+f7gT) fafa&H, °57, 28; and (from 8+ 9 n.) GUCH, IT, CH. The same holds good for masc., fem., and neut. stems in and 3, and stems in consonants. 368. But often a fem. in & is used by the side of a masc. and neut. in 7; thus, fequi two-leaved', f. faguf. 369. Very frequently the suffix 5 (attenuated into an element of indefinite value) is added to a pure possessive compound, to belp the conversion of the compounded stem into an adjective; especially to fem. stems in & and 37, and to stems in ; and in general, where the final of the stem is less usual or manageable in adjective inflection. Thus, बहुनदीक ‘rich in rivers'; मृतभर्तका f., "whose husband is dead', i. e. "widow'; HETEUA (nom. masc. and femi. OUTF) or AETATE. 370. Sometimes the possessive-making suffix 99 is added to secondary adjective compounds, without effect upon the meaning; thus, Tang (= ogre) 'having an ass's voice.' 21 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 142 Lesson XXXIV. are 1 ar > 2 re man 371. A. Possessive compounds. The possessives are determin- ative compounds to which are given both an adjective inflection (as just shown), and also an adjective meaning of a kind best defined by adding “having' to the meaning of the determinative. Thus, the dependent 2969 n., “beauty of a god’, becomes the possessive Zaeq, , m. f. n., “having che beauty of a god'; the descriptive tearg m., 'long arm', becomes the possessive toate m. f. n, 'having long arms'. * 372. Dependent compounds are, by comparison, not often thus turned into possessives. But possessively used descriptives are extremely frequent and various; and some kinds of combination which are rare in proper descriptives are very common as pos- sessives. 373. An adjective as prior member takes the masculine stem- form, even though referring to a feminine noun in the final member; thus, nagre (from HTT) possessing a beautiful wife'. 374. As prior members are found: 1. Adjectives proper; thus, yare of other form'. — 2. Parti- ciples; thus, gaataan whose mother is slain'. – 3. Numerals; thus, w e ‘four-faced'; faza three-eyed'. – 4. Nouns with quasi - adjectival value; thus, fet ETE ·gold-handed'. Es- pecially common is the use of a noun as prior member to qualify the other appositionally, or by way of equivalence. These may well be called appositional possessives. Thus, aanmaa 'having “Krşựa” as name'; attaa having men who are beroes”; चारचक्षुस् ‘using spies as eyes'; त्वात ‘having thee as mes- senger'. - 5. Adverbial elements (especially inseparable prefixes); US

  • This class of compounds is called by the natives bahuvrihi;

the name is an example of the class, meaning 'having much rice'. - The possessive may generally, in accented texts, be distinguished from the original determinatire by a difference of accent. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIV. 143 re. ir thus, para endless'; Fue childless'; gg7 'with excellent sons'; straga 'ill - savored'. The associative prefix # (less often HF) is treated like an adjective element; thus, Hell of like form '; uya or HET 'with a son', or “baving one's son along with one'; HTgae ( + aan n.) “favorable'. – 6. Ordinary verbal pre- fixes; thus, M ap of wide fame”; 275 limbless'; facere “powerless'; varje 'with uplifted face'. – 7. Ordinary adverbs; thus, feat with mind directed hitber'. 375. Certain words, very frequent in the compounds mentioned at $ 374, 4, bave in part won a peculiar application. 1. Thus with the beginning' (or the derivatives ty or mfa) are made compounds signifying the person or thing de- signated along with others - such a person or thing et cetera. Thus, alate: the gods baring Indra as first', i. e. "the gods Indra, etc. Often the qualifying noun is omitted; thus, TATTET food, drink, etc.' - 2. Words like a ( a) etc., are used in the same way, to denote accompaniment; chiefly ad- vérbially. – 3. The noun object, “purpose', is used at the end of a compound, oftenest as a neut. subst. (acc. or instr. or loc.), to signify "for the sake of', and the like; thus, FAITE 'for Damayanti's sake'; TITë 'for a bed'. (See below, $ 379). —- 4. 1997 (as neut. sulst.) often means 'other' in possessives; thus, 217717 11., “another region' (lit. “that which has a difference of region'). 376. In appositional possessives, the final member, if it de- siguate a part of the body, sometimes signifies the part to which belongs what is designated by the prior member: that on or in which it is. Thus afuata with necklace on neck'. Such con- pounds are commonest with words meaning band; thus, ofhaifu with sword in band’; 5 with club in hand'. 377. The possessives are not always used with the simple Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 144 Lesson XXXIV.

value of qualifying adjective. Often they have a pregnant sense, and become the equivalents of dependent clauses ; or the 'having' implied in them becomes about equivalent to our 'having' as a sign of past action. Thus, प्राप्तयौवन ‘possessing attained adolescence', i. e. 'having reached adolescence '; अनधिगतशास्त्र ‘with unstudied books', i. e. ‘one who has neglected study'; गतप्राण 'whose breath is gone', i. e. 'lifeless'; आसन्नमृत्यु ‘to whom death is come near'.

378. B. Compounds with govermed final member.

1. Participial compounds, exclusively Vedic.

2. Prepositional compounds. Thus may conveniently be called those compounds in which the prior member is a particle with true prepositional value, and the final member a noun governed by it. Thus अतिरात्र 'lasting over night'; अतिमात्र ‘beyond measure ', 'excessive'; अपिकर्ण 'next the ear'.

379. Adjective compounds as nouns and adverbs. Compound adjectives, like simple ones, are freely used substantively as abstracts and collectives, especially in the neuter, and less often in the feminine; and they are also much used adverbially, particularly in the acc. sing. neuter.

380. The substantively used possessive compounds having a numeral as prior member, with some of the strictly adjective compounds, are treated by the Hindus as a separate class, and called dvigu *. Examples of such numeral abstracts and collectives are: त्रियुग n., ‘the three ages'; त्रियोजन n., 'space of three leagues' Feminines of like use occur in the later language; thus त्रिलोकी (by the side of ० n.,) ‘the three worlds' .

381. Those adverbially used accusatives of secondary adjective

*The name is a sample of the class, and means 'of two cows' (said to be used in the sense of 'worth two cows'). Lesson XXXIV. 145 compounds which have an indeclinable or particle as prior member are considered by the Hindus a separate class of compounds, and called avyayābhāra*. 1. The prepositional compounds are especially frequent in this use; thus, ufactua “at evening'; FATA 'in sight'; 7 5H (= TFTH 7) Salong the Ganges’; 3979A 'on the G.'; ufaqur every year'. – 2. A large class of avyayi- bhāvas is made up of words having a relative adverb, especially 981, as prior member. Thus, yeah, got7HH, 7 EA, “as one chooses'. And, with other adverbs: yrastaa as long as one lives ’; HEATHA whither one will'. 382. Occasionally quite anomalous compounds will be met with. For such, cf. Whitney, § 1314. 10 Vocabulary XXXIV. Verbs: 129 (raráyate) choose, select. fe + fata deterinine, decide. #C+ (āsídati) approach. T + fa in caus. (vidāráyati) tear + HAT in caus. (samāsādáyati) open. meet with, encounter. ug (pâțuyati) split open. eq (hársati; hřsyati) rejoice, be भ + अभि overpower. delighted. Subst.: ato n., palate. 5 n., limb, member, body. qant f., thirst, desire.

  1. TATT m., form, figure.

T f., tootb. par m., moon. afa f., brilliancy. EFT 1., belly. qaa m., mountain. aa m., banner grave m., a tribe in India. atfe f., peak; point, tip. JETT m., stroke, shot; wound. TGT f.. top-knot, scalp. juu m., breath, life (often pl.). yra n., knowledge; insight. He n., head.

  • The word means 'conversion to an indeclinable'.

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 10 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 146 Lesson XXXIV. 0 मीन m., fish. juncture (8 375, 4.) वक्षस् n., chest, breast. पटु skilled. वराह m., boar. बाल, f. "आ, young. वेदना f., pain. Indecl.: स्नायु m., tendon; bowstring. अथ then, thereupon. | Adj.: ng (adv. acc.) therefore. अनवद्य, f. ०, blameless, fault- तावत् 90 long; often merely = less. donc, doch. अनुकल, f. ० , favorable; as | यावत् as long as, while; as soon neut. subst., favor. W917, f. 091, inner; as neut. E asseverative particle; gives to subst., the interior, middle;the present the force of an interval, difference; occasion, historical tense. 28. Exercise XXXIV. अतितृष्णा ने कर्तव्या तृष्णां नैव परित्यजेत् । अतितृष्णाभिभूतस्य चूडा भवति मस्तके ॥ १९ ॥ कस्मिंश्चिदने पुलिन्दः प्रतिवसति स्म । १। स चैकदा मृगयां कतै प्रस्थितः । २। अथ तेन प्रसर्पता (pres. part.) पर्वतशिखराकारो महा- वराहः समासादितः । ३ । तं दृष्ट्वा कर्णान्तीकृष्टशरेण स तेन समा- हतः । ४ । तेनापि वराहेण कोपाविष्टेन बालेन्दुद्युतिना दंष्ट्राग्रेण पा- टितोदरः पुलिन्दो गतप्राणो भूमावपतत् । ५। अथ व्याधं व्यापाद्य वराहो ऽपि शरप्रहारवेदनया मृतः । ६। एतस्मिन्नन्तरे कश्चिदासन्नमृत्युः शृगाल इतस्ततः परिभ्रमंस्तं देशमागतः । ७। यावद्वराहपलिन्दी पश्यति तावत्प्रहृष्टौ ऽचिन्तयत् । ६। भोः सानुकलो मे विधिः ।९। तेनैतद- चिन्तितं भोजनमुपस्थितम् ।१०। तदहं तथा भक्ष्यामि यथा बहन्यहो- नि मे प्राणयात्रा भवति । ११ । तत्तावत्प्रथमं स्नायुपाशं धनुष्कोटिगतं भक्षयामि । १२ । एवं मनसा निश्चित्य धनुष्कोटिं मुखे क्षिप्त्वा स्नायूं भचयितुमारब्धः । १३ । ततश्च कर्तिते स्नायौ तालु विदार्य धनुष्को- टिर्मस्तकमध्येन निष्क्रान्ता । १४ । सो ऽपि मृतः ॥ १५॥ 16. Those-who-hare-done-eril must do penance twelve-daye, Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIV. XXXV. 147 six-days, or three-days. 17. Purūravas, Indra's-friend, married the moon-faced“, faultless-limbed * Apsaras Urvaçi. 18. Bhrgukaccha is situated (aa) on the Narmadā. 19. There stands the lorg- armed, broad-chested king-of-the-Añgas, sword-in-hand. 20. The path-of-knowledge is better than the path-of-works. 21. In-the- opinion-of-the-ancient-seers (cpd in loc. or instr.) one-whose-hus- band-is-dead may choose a second at-pleasure. 22. Love is bodiless, and bears-a-fish-in-his-banner; so say the poets. 23. The Brālınan’s- daughter, Sītā-by-name*, is lotus-eyed.* 24. The king, although (ufa) many-wired, is childless. 25. The eloquent** pandit bas arrived with-his-scholars. 26. With-upturned-face (GTG) Cătaka prays for rain-water. Lesson XXXV. 383. First Conjugation of Verbs. Present System.*** In this conjugation the optative act., the 2nd sing. imv. act., and the 3rd pl. mid., are formed otherwise than in the a-conjugation. 384. Strong forms. The forms in which the stem assumes its strong form are these: the three persons sing. of the pres. and impf. indic. act., all first persons of the imv., act. and mid., and the 3rd sing. imv. act. All other forms of the present system are weak. 385. Endings. For the middle endings a, m, and PTITA are substituted अते, अत, and अताम; and after reduplicated stems (and a few others) #fa, , and EH are substituted for the Secondary adj. cpds., fem. in f.

    • Dep. cpd, “skilled in speech”.
      • For a comprehensive view of the ways of forming the present-

stems of verbs following this general conjugation, see Introduction, $ 78. 10* Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 148 Lesson XXXV. active endings #fa, , and 49 (impf.). The 2nd sing. inv. often takes the ending fee or f&. Otherwise the endings are the same as in the a-conjugation. 386. Optative mode-sign. The sign of the opt. act. is Ot ya, with secondary endings; but gh is the ending in the 3rd pl., and w is dropped before it; thus, oua. 387, Present participle middle. In the first conjugation this participle is made with the suffix #ta (ITU), before which the stem takes the same form as before the 3rd pl. pres. ind. The fem. is always in T. 388. Class IV. A: nu-class. The present-stem is made by adding to the root the syllable o nu [y nu], in strong forms 7 nó [Ut no]. The 3 of the class-sign may be dropped before a and Ħ of the 1st du. and 1st pl. endings, except when the root ends in a consonant; and the 3 before a vowel-ending becomes a or 39, according as it is preceded by one or by two consonants. The ending fe of the 2nd. sing. imv. is dropped if the root end in a vowel. 389. I. Roots in vowels. # press'. Indicative. Active. Middle. 1. सनोमि सुनुवस्सु नुमस सुन्वे सुनुवहे सनमहे sunómi sunuvás sunumás sunvė sunuváhe sunumdhe 2. yaitra सुनुथस् सुनुथ । सुजुर्षे सुन्वाथे सुनुध्वे sunoși sunuthás sunuthả sunusé sunvăthe sunudhvé 3. Taifa सुलुतस् सुन्वन्ति। सुनुते सुन्वाते सुन्वते sunoti sunutás sunvánti sunuté sunváte sunváte The forms aan, 7H, gaaê, ah, are alternative with those given above for 1st du. aud pl., and occur oftener. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXV. 149 actre Imperfect. mida 1. असुनवम्” असुनुव असुनुम असुन्वि असुनुवहि °नुमहि 2. असुनोस् असुनुतम् असुनुत असुनुथारु असुन्वाथाम् °नुध्वम् 3. असुनोत् असन्ताम् असुन्वन् असुनुत असुन्वाताम् न्वत । The briefer forms असुन्व, असुन्म, असुन्वहि, असुन्महि, are al lowed and more usual. Imperative. 1. सुनवानि सुनवाव सुनवाम सुनवै सुनवावहै सुनवामहै। sunávāni sunávāra sunávāma sunávãi sunárávahāi sunávāmahāi 2. सुनु सुनतम् सुनुत । मनुष्व सुन्वाथाम् सुनुध्वम् । sunú** sunutám sunutá sunuşvá sunváthām sunudhrám | 3. सुनोतु सुनुताम् सुन्वन्त । सनुताम् सुन्वाताम् सुन्वताम् । sunótu** sunutám sunvántu | sunutăm sunvátām sunvátām | 0ptative. 1. सुनुयाम् सुनुयाव याम सुन्वीय सुन्वीवहि सुन्वीमहि sunuyám sunuyáva sunuyáma suncīyá sunvīrdhi Sunvīmáhi 2. मुनुयास् सुनुयातम् यात सुन्वीथारु सुन्वीयाथाम् सुन्दीध्वम् 3. सुनुयात् सुनुयाताम् युस सुन्वीत सुन्बीयताम् सुन्वीरन् Participle. सुन्वन्त, f. सुन्वती सुन्वान, f. • 390. II. Roots in consonants. Tq acquire'. Indicative. Active. 1. आप्नोमि आप्नुवस आप्नुमस् आप्नुवे 2. आप्नोषि आप्नुथस् आप्नुथ अनुषे 3. आप्नोति अनुतस् आप्नुवन्ति आप्नुते Middle. आप्नुवहे आप्नु महे आप्नुवाथे आप्नुध्वे अप्नुिवाते आनुवते

  • The augment, without any exception in verbal conjugation,

is the accented element in the verbal form of which it makes a part.

    • The rare imv. in ata (cf. § 196) would be formed thus:

सुनुतात्. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 150 Lesson XXXV. Imperative. 1. आप्रवानि आप्तवाव आप्तवाम आप्नवै आप्तवावहै “वामहै। 2. आप्नुहि आप्नुतम् आप्नुत अनुष्व आप्नुवाथाम् ध्वम् 3. आप्नोतु आप्नुताम् आप्नुवन्तु आप्नुताम् आप्नुवाताम् वताम् Participle. आप्नुवन्त , f. अनुदतो आप्नुवान, f. आ The other fornis of this tense follow the model of H. 391. 1. The root , 'bear’, contracts to y before the class- sign, forming Tut çrnó and yu çrņu as strong and weak stem; 2nd sing. imv. act. yı; 2nd du. ind. act. yah or cara, etc. — 2. The root y shortens its vowel in the present-system. Vocabulary XXXV. Verbs: (dhunóti, dhunuté) sbake. y (açnuté) acquire, obtain. 19 (rrņoti, vrnuté)corer,surround. + समुपे obtain. + cover, etc.. 19 (āpnóti , rarely ápnuté) ac-' + UT open. quire, reach. + fą explain, manifest. + अव, प्र, or सम्, reach. + A shut. fa (cinoti, cinute) gather. Tah (çoknóti) be able. +9 or FA, gather. ($rnóti, çrnuté) hear. + fort or fafara, decide, con- (stmóti, stſnuté) scatter, strew. clude. + 39 scatter. 73 + (pracodáyati) urge on. fę (hinoti) send. ? (dundti), intr., burn, feel pain T+(pratyāhárati) bring back. or distress; tr., pain or distress (acc.) Subst.: WTETT m., food. दिवस m., day. | 91:m., doorkeeper. afum. pl., n. pr., certain demons. 0277 m., might, power. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXV. 151 ofta m., enjoyment. पुण्य, f. °आ, meritorious, holy, मूल ., root. | auspicious. रस m., taste, feeling. 0375 sharing. वानप्रस्थ m., a Brahman in the मनोहर, f.०, entrancing, agree- third period of his life. able. fag m., Brāhman. रसवत , f. वती, tasteful. शब्द m., sound; noise; word. सदृश, f. •ई, similar; worthy. Adj.: नव, f. ० , new. Exercise XXXV. आचारादिच्युतो विप्रो न वेदफलमश्नुते । आचारेण तु संयुक्तः संपूर्णफलभाग्भवेत् ॥ २० ॥ बलहीना अपि बुद्धिप्रभावन महान्तं दुःखोदधिं तरीतुं शक्नुव- न्ति।१। वानप्रस्थः शय्यार्थ भूमिं नवपत्तैर्हरिणचर्मभिशोपास्तृणोत् । २। स्वपितरावुद्यानादाढ़ातुं बालं प्रहिण । ३। हे मघवन् पणिभिरपहृता अस्मद्गाः प्रत्याहते मरुतः सहायानादाय गुहाया द्वारमपवृणुया इत्यृषि- भिरिन्द्रः प्रार्थत।४। वनवृक्षान्धुन्वानस्य वायोः शब्दं पथा** गच्छन्ताव- शृण्व । ५। पुण्यकर्मभिर्धर्म संचित्य मृताः स्वर्ग जन्मान्तरे च विद्यारूपा- दीन्गुणानाभवाम।६। यज्ञेषु होतृप्रचोदिता अध्वर्यवः सोमं सुन्वताम्।७। महावने त्रिरात्रं परिभ्रम्य चतुर्थदिवसस्य मध्याहे गिरिशिखरमवाप्नु- वत।८। मूलफलादि वन आहारार्थ प्रचिन्वीरंस्तपस्विनः।९। पण्डितः शिष्येभ्यः शब्दशास्त्रं व्यवृणोत् ॥ १० ॥ 11. Having eutered the temple of the worshipful(भगवत्)- Visnu we heard the ear-entrancing (श्रुतिमनोहर) song-of-the-young- women (use 79 at end of cpd). 12. Listen to this word of a de- voted (स्निह्, pu88. part.) friend. 13. The greedy (लभ, pa88. part.), who are always gathering riches, never attain the enjoyment of 10॥

  • Infin. of तु.
    • The instr. is sometimes used to express the medium, or space

or distance or road, traversed. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 152 Lesson XXXV. XXXVI. them. 14. By tasteful, well-composed poems ye may attain glory in the ten regions of the world (feu). 15. Çakuntalā, mayest thoa get (imv.) a husband worthy-of-thee. 16. My-two-brothers deter- mined to travel to Benares. 17. May the king's-sword bring grief to (5, imv. or opt.) the hearts-of-the-wives-of-bis-enemies. 18. Clouds cover the sky. 19. Let the doorkeeper close the door. Lesson XXXVI. 392. Verbs. Class IV. B. u-class. The few roots (only six) of this sub-class end already in 7 – except one, an, of consid- erable irregularity — and so add only 3 as class-sign. The in- flection is quite that of the nu-class, the 3 being gunated in the strong forms, and dropped (optionally, but in fact nearly always) before a and Ħ of Ist dual and plural. | 393. Thus तन्, ‘stretch', makes तनोमि, तनोषि, etc.; 1st du. तन्वस (or तनुवस्), 1st pl. तन्मस् (or तनुमस्); mid. तन्वे, तन्वहे. तन्महे, etc. - all like a vowel-root of the nu-class. 394. The root lक, ‘make', makes the strong stem करो, weak कुरु; the class-sign उ is always dropped before व and म् in 1st du. and 1st pl., and also before y of the opt. active. Thus: Indicative. Active. Middle. 1. करोमि कुर्वस कुर्मस् कुर्वे कुर्वहे। कुर्महे 2. करोषि कुरुथ करुथ कुपे कुर्वीथे कुरुक्षे 3. करोति कुरुतस् कुर्वन्ति कुरुते कुर्वीते कुर्वते Imperfect. 1. अकरवम् अकुर्व अकुर्म अकुर्वि अकुर्वहि अकुर्महि 2. अकरोस् अकुरुतम् अकुरुत । अकुरुथास् अकुर्वीथाम् अकुरुध्वम् 3. अकरोत् अकुरुताम् अकुर्वन् अकुरुत, अकुर्वीताम् अकुर्वत Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXVI. 153 Imperative. 1. करवाणि करवाव करवानी करवै करवावहै करवामहे 2. कुरु कुरुतम् कुरुत ७ कुरुष्व कुवथाम् कुरुध्वम् 3. करोतु कुरुताम् कुर्वन्तु कुरुताम् कुर्वीताम् कुर्वताम् 0ptative. । 1. कुर्यम् कुयीव कुयाम कुर्वीय कुर्वीवहि कुर्वीमहि etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. Participle. कुर्वन्त्, f. कुर्वती कुर्वाण, f. आ. 395. This root sometimes assumes (or retains from a more original condition) an initial स after the prefix सम्*; thus, संक- रोति, संस्कुरुते, समस्कुर्वन्. | 396. The adverbial prefixes आविस and प्रादुरु, ‘forth to sight, ‘in view'; तिरस ‘through', ‘out of sight'; पुरस ‘in front, forward'; and the purely adverbial अलम् ‘enough, sufficient', are often used with an, and with one or two other verbs, oftenest अस् ‘be' and ५ ‘become'. 397. Any noun or adjective-stem is liable to be compounded with verbal forms or derivatives of the roots of and 7, in the manner of a verbal prefix. If the final of the stem be an a-vowel or an i-vowe!, it is changed to $; if an u-vowel, to 37. Conso- nantal stems take the form which they have before consonant- endings — of course with observance of the usual euphonic rules; but stems in अन् change those letters to ई. Thus, स्वीकरोति ‘he makes his own’, ‘appropriates'; भस्मीकरोति (भस्मन्) 'he changes to ashes', i. e. burns': स्तम्भीभवति ‘becomes a post' (स्तम्भ); शुचीभवति ‘becomes pure' (शुचि); साधूकरोति ‘makes holy'. 398. The suffixes at (f.) and a (n.) are very extensively used to form abstract nouns, denoting the quality of being so- 010

  • Also sometimes after oft and 34.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 154 Lesson XXXVI. 00 Thus, afum f., and-80’, from both adjectives and nouns. aftha n., “the rank of a Kşatriya'. ble. Vocabulary XXXVI. Verbs: make known, or visi- om (karóti, kurute) do, make. + 9 do evil to, barm (gen.,| + HA (§ 395) prepare, adorn; loc., or acc.). consecrate. + A prepare, adarni 7 (kşaņoti, kşaņuté) wound. + utfak (āriskarito) make 719 (tanóti, tanuté) stretch, ex- known, exhibit. tend (tr.); perform (a sacrifice). + 39 do good to, benefit (gen., + 1 cause, bring about. loc.). + g spread abroad (tr.). + fat hide; blame, find fault za (disyati) be defiled. with (acc.).

  1. 71 (manuté) think, consider.

+ TĦ put at the head. + afa pay, recompense; punish (acc. rei, gen., dat. or loc. pers.). I Subst.: 9 m., fault. paetia m., priest of a cer- tfa f., conduct of life; ethics; taiu kind. politics. m., progeny, descendant. H45 m., king. Hatam., plan; view; opinion. AETOA n., kitchen. BT# n., breast. ATH 11., Aesh. ofers m., name of a tribe. i u n., salt. aufa f., charm, grace. 259 n., spice. JA TTT m., astonishment. @att m., trade. चातुर्मास्य n., a certain sacrifice. |संशय m., doubt. arga m., name of a tribe. #m., cook. fatenfTunt f., veil. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXVI. 155 Adj.: अन्ध, f. ०आ, blind. अवश्य, f. आ, necessary. •ज्ञ, f. “आ, knowing. °भुज enjoying. वल्लभ, f. “आ, dear. व्यलीक, f. ०आ, wrong, false. शुभ, f. °आ, good, proper. सज्ज. f. आ. ready. Exercise XXXVI. यो ऽनधीत्य द्विजो वेदमन्यत्र कुरुते श्रमम् । स जीवन्नेव शूद्रत्वमाशु गच्छति सान्वयः ॥ २१॥ यत्करोत्यशुभं कर्म शुभं वा यदि सत्तम । अवश्यं तत्समाप्नोति पुरुषो ऽत्र न संशयः ॥ २२ ॥ कुर्वन्नपि यलीकानि यः प्रियः प्रिय एव सः । अनेकदोषदुष्टो ऽपि कायः कस्य न वल्लभः ॥ २३॥ यो ब्रह्मणा कर्णवावृणोति तं पितरं मातरं च मन्वानी न द्रुह्येत्तस्मै कदाचन । १। इदं ते लोभान्धस्य वृत्तं मनसि चमत्कारमातनोति ।२। भी राजन् नीतिज्ञानां मन्त्रिणामभिप्रायं श्रुत्वा यद्धितं तत्स्वीकुरुष्व।३। अस्मद्यशांसि दित्तु प्रतनुयुरिति मत्वा भूयसीं श्रियं भूभुजः कविभ्यो विभजन्ति ।४। मांसमूलफलादि प्रभूतव्यञ्जनैः सूदा महानसे संस्कुर्युः।५। शत्रुष्पागतेषु शूरा युद्धाय सज्जीभूय स्वगुणानाविष्कुर्वन्तु। ६। अप्सरस- स्तिरस्करिण्या वपुस्तिरकुर्वते ऽविज्ञाताश्च मनुष्यानुपागच्छन्ति ॥ ७॥ 8. Every-year an Agnihotrin must perform the Cāturmāsya (pl.). 9. Mayest thou, O Great-King, protect thy kingdom, benefitting thy friends and harming thy enemies. 10. Brāhmans find fault with the trade-in-salt. 11. What thou didst (mid.), that distresses thy friends even now. 12. May I recompense him (dat.) who has done me a service. 13. By the command of the great-king consecrate the four princes according to the law (विधि, instr.). 14. The Caulukyas held sway (राज्यं कृ) in Anahilapataka 247 years. 15. By-the-charn-of-her-face the lotus-eyed eclipses (तिरस्क) even the moon. 16. If one consecrates a scholar, teaches him, makes

  • Poss. cpd, cf. 374, 5.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 156 Lesson XXXVI. XXXVII. mes him holy, then this one becomes his child (प्रजा). 17. The king- of-the-Kalingas wounded bis enemy in the breast with an arrow. Lesson XXXVII. L 399. Verbs. nā-class. The class-sign is in the strong forms the syllable ना nā [णा pd], accented, which is added to the root; in the weak forms it is oft ni [tit ņā]; but before an initial vowel of an ending the i of oft ni un ņi] disappears altogether. 400. Thus, क्री ‘buy': strong stem क्रीणी krand, weak क्रीणी krita (before a vowel, क्रीण krin). Indicative. Active. Middle. 1. क्रीणामि क्रीणीवर क्रीणीमस क्रोणे क्रीणीवहे क्रीणीमहे 2. क्रीणासि क्रीणीथस् क्रीणीय क्रीणीषे । क्रीणाथे क्रीणीध्वे 3. क्रीणाति क्रीणीतस क्रीणन्ति क्रीणीते क्रीणात क्रीणते Imperfect. 1. अक्रीणाम् अक्रीणीव अङ्गीणीम °णि | •णीवहिणीमहि 2. अक्रीणास अक्रीणीतम् अक्रीणीत •णीथास् °णाथाम् । ०णीध्वम् 3. अक्रीणात् अक्रीणीताम् अक्रीणन् °णीत खाताम् °णत Imperative. 1. क्रीणानि क्रीणाव क्रीणाम क्रीणै क्रीणावहै। क्रीणाम है। 2. क्रीणीहि क्रीणीतम् क्रीणीत क्रीणीष्व क्रीणाथाम् क्रीणीध्वम् 3. क्रीणात क्रीणीताम् क्रीणन्तु क्रोणोताम क्रीणाताम् क्रीणताम् Optative. 1. क्रीणीयाम क्रीणीयाव क्रीणीयाम क्रीणीय क्रीणीवहि क्रीणीमहि etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. Participle. क्रीणन्त्, f. क्रीणती क्रीणान, f. 401. The ending of the 2nd sing. imv. act. is fe, never fy; and there are no examples of its omission. But roots of this class Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXVII. 157 2 ending in a consonant substitute for both class-sign and ending in this person the peculiar ending आन amd; thus, बधान, अशान, स्त- भान, गहाण (see 58 402, 403). 402. The roots ending in Hi shorten that vowel before the class-sign; thus, पू, पनाति, पुनीते. The root ग्रह is weakened to गृह; thus, गह्णाति. 403. A few roots which have a nasal in some forms outside the present-system, lose it in the present; thus, yy or jou, J- थाति; बन्थ्, बध्नाति; स्तम् or स्तम्भ, स्तभाति. Similarly, ज्ञा makes जानाति- 404. Root-class. In this class there is no class-sigy; the root itself is also present-stem, and to it are added directly the per- sonal-endings; in the opt. (and subj.: $ 60, end) of course combined with the mode-sign. The root-vowel takes guņa, if capable of it, in the strong forms. 405. Roots ending in vowels. Roots in 7t of this class are inflected only in the active. In the 3rd pl. imp. act. they may optionally take as ending of instead of 77, the 7t being lost before it.* 406. Thus, या ‘go: यामहे Indicative. 1. यामि यावस् । 2. यासि याथस् 3. याति यातस याथ यान्ति Imperfect. अयाम् अयाव याम अथास् । यातम् यात अयात् अयाताम् अयान् or अयुस्

  • The same ending is also allowed and met with in a few

roots ending in consonants; viz. iविद know', चक्ष, द्विष, दुई, मृज् . Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 158 Lesson XXXVII. Imperative. Optative. 1. यानि याव याम यायाम् यायाव | यायाम 2. याहि यातम् यात यायास यायातम् यायात 3. यातु याताम् यान्तु यायात् यायाताम् यायुस Part. यान्त्, f. यान्ती or याती (260). Vocabulary XXXVII. Verbs: ल + आ (aptuduate) drench. 27 (açnáti) eat. 27] (badhnáti, badhnīte) bind; ant (krīņāti, krīņāté) buy. catch; join; compose. goy (grathnáti) string together; HT (bháti) gleam, glance. compose. AT (máti) measure. ग्रह (grhndti, grhmite) take, seize. + निस् work, create. + नि hold, restrain, check. । Ja (muşņáti) steal, rob. + प्रति take, receive. 2लुठ (लुङ) + निस् steal. II (jānáti, jānīté) know. 2ą (urnāté: also varáyati, -te) + अन allow, permit. choose. 201 (påti) protect. शिष् + उद् remain over. go (puşņáti) make increase or a (stīņáti, strņīté ; see also in grow. Vocab. XXXV) strew. (punáti, punīte) clean. AT (snáti) bathe. st(prīņáti, prīnīté), act., delight; 69 + 79 remove. mid., rejoice. 39. crease | | Subst.: कला f., crescent. piro m., a gesture of respect- afa f., work (literary). ful greeting." कोष m., treasure; treasury. इच्छा f., wish. क्षण m., n., moment; time. उदय no., rise. चामीकर n., gold.

  • The two hands bollowed and opened, and raised to the

forehead. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXVII. 159 7777 m., demon. समुन्नत f., height, elevation; high नाग m., snake. position. नेत्र n., leading-rope, cord. Adj.: मन्थन् ($ 278) m., stirring-stick. | अद्यतन* of to-day. मन्दर D., n. pr., a mountain. धार्मिक right, just. yg m., sacrificial post. प्रसन्न (part of प्र-सद्) kindly dis- ललाट n., forehead. posed. 197 (vará) m., suitor, bride- ofat knowing. groom. विवेकिन shrewd. 277 (rára) m., choice, privilege, Adv.: favor. | | समक्षम् before, in the presence Ta m., n. pr., a snake - demon of (w. gen.). who supports the earth. Exercise XXXVII. परकाव्येन कवयः परद्रव्येण चेश्वराः । निलुण्ठितेन स्वकृतिं घुसन्धतने क्षणे ॥ २४ ॥ विवेकिनमनुप्राप्य गुणा यान्ति समुन्नतिम् । सुतरां रत्नमाभाति चामीकरनियोजितम् ॥ २५ यज्ञं विधातुमिच्छन्यजमानः प्रथमं वेदविद ऋत्विजो वृणीताम्। १ यज्ञेषु पशून्स्वलंकृतेषु यूपेषु रज्जुभिर्बध्नन्ति ॥ २ ॥ देवानां कोपानिं शान्तिं नेतुं तान्तुतिभिर्नलराजो ऽप्रीणात् । ३। प्रसन्ना वयं वरं वृणी- वेति तैरुक्तो राजा धार्मिकत्वमवृणीत ॥ ४ ॥ सोमं दृषयां सुखाध्वर्य- वस्तं पुनन्तु ॥ ५॥ मन्दपर्वतं मन्यानं शेषनागं च नेत्रं कृत्वा देवदा- नवा अमृतार्थ क्षीरोदधिममधून ॥ ६॥ यथा सूर्य उदये भाति तथा पापीन्यपहत्य गङ्गाजलालुता नरा विभान्ति ॥ ७ ॥ लुब्धमर्थेन गृह्णीया- क्रुद्धमञ्जलिकर्मणा ॥ ८ ॥ 9. Allow me to go now. 10. Take these jewels which I have

  • With the suffix 79 (sometimes a) are made adjectives from

adverbs, especially of titne; thus, प्रत्न ‘ancient', प्रतिस्तन ‘early', स्तन ‘of the morroy'. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 160 Lesson XXXVII. XXXVIII. given you (pass. constr.). 11. Let the great poet weave (ory, qal) a verse-wreath of word-pearls (instr.). 12. Every-day two thieves robbed the king's treasury. 13. He who receives (part.) gifts from every one is polluted (59). 34. The Creator formed the world by his will (FEET) alone. 15. Betake thyself (HT) for salvation to the gods' protection. 16. Let kings restrain the wicked by punishments. 17. We saw Rāma's daughter coming out (pres. part.) of the house. 18. Let the bridegroom grasp the maid- en's hand before the fire. 19. An Aryan must not eat an- other's leavings (36- o, pass. part., neut. sing.). 20. One must bathe daily in unconfined (part. from fa-ty) water. 21. May the three-eyed god, the great-lord (at) whose-forehead-is-adorned- with-the-crescent, protect you. DO Lesson XXXVIII. an U-10 407. Verbs. Root-class, contd.* Roots ending in an i-vowel or an u-vowel (except 17 go') change these into yy and są before vowel-endings in weak forms, when not gunated. 408. Root & 'go' (act., but used in mid. with the prep. fy: ‘go over for oneself', i. e. “repeat, learn, read'; the [ then be- comes 4, as above). Indicative. Active. Middle. 1. एमि इवस् इमस अधीये अधीवहे। अधीमहे 2. Ufa इथस् थ अधीषे अधीयाथे अधीध्व 3. एति तस्य न्ति अधीते अधीयते अधीयते

  • A number of roots belonging to this class accent the root-

syllable throughout, in weak as well as in strong forms-except of course in the imperfect. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXVIII. | 161 Imperfect. (for augment cf. § 179.) 1. अयम् एव ऐम अध्यैयि अध्यैवहि अध्यैमहि 2. ऐस ऐतम् ऐत अध्यैथास् अध्यैयाथाम् अध्यैध्वम् 3. ऐत् ऐताम् आयन् अध्यैत अध्यैयाताम् अध्यैयत | Iiuperative. 1. अयानि अयाव अयाम अध्ययै अध्ययावहै अध्ययामहै 2. इहि इतम् इत अधीष्व अधीयाथाम् अधीध्वम् 3. एतु इताम् यन्तु अधीताम् अधीयाताम् अधीयताम Optative. इयाम् etc., 3rd pl. इयुस् अधीयीय etc. | Participle. यन्त , f. यती अधीयान, f. आ 409. The root oft (mid.), ‘lie', has guna throughout; thus, yêu, शेष, शेते, शेवहे etc.; impf. अशय, अशेथाम् etc.; opt. शयीय etc., part. शयान. Other irregularities are the 3rd persons pl.: indic. शेरते, imy. शेरताम्, impf. अशेरत. 410. The roots of this class ending in G hare in their strong forms the vzddhi instead of the guna-strengthening before an ending beginning with a consonant. 44. Thus, स्तु ‘praise': Indicative. Active. Middle. 1. स्तौमि स्तुवस् तुमस स्तुवे तुवते स्तुमहे 2. तौषि स्तुथम् स्तुथ स्तुपे स्तुवाथे स्तुध्वे 3. स्तौति स्तुतस् स्तुवन्ति स्तुते स्तुवाते स्तुवते । Imperfect. Act.: 1. अस्तवम् , 2. अस्तौस् , ३. अस्तौत, 3rd pl. अस्तुवन्. Mid.: 1. अस्तुवि, 3rd pl. अस्तुवतः । Imperative. Act. : स्तवानि, स्तुहि, स्तोत, स्तवाव etc., 3rd pl. स्तुवन्तु. Mid.: स्तवै, स्तुष्व, स्तताम्, स्तवावहै etc., 3rd pl. स्तुवताम् 0ptative. स्तुयाम् etc. स्तुवीय etc. । | 11 Perry, Sanskrit Primer. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 162 Lesson XXXVIII | Participles Act.: स्तुवन्त . f. °वती. Mid.: स्तुवान. 412. The root a, .say', takes the union-vowel after the root when strengthened, before the initial consonant of an ending.* Thus: Iudicative. Active. Middle. 1. ब्रवीमि ब्रूवम् ब्रमस् | ब्रुवे ब्रूवहे ब्रूमहे 2. ब्रवीषि ब्रूथस बूथ व्रषेब्रुवाथे ब्र 3. ब्रवीति ब्रूतम् ब्रुवन्ति बूते ब्रूवाते ब्रवते Imperfect. Act.: अब्रवम्, अब्रवीस्, अब्रवीत् ; अब्रूव etc.; 3rd pl. अब्रुवन्. Mid.: अनुवि, अब्रूथास etc.; 3rd pl. अब्रुवत. | Imperative. Act.: ब्रवाणि, ब्रूहि, ब्रवीत; ब्रवाव etc.; 3rd pl. ब्रुवन्तु. Mid.: ब्रवै, ब्रुष्व etc. 0ptative. Act.: ब्रयाम् etc. Mid.: ब्रुवीय etc. Participle. Act.: ब्रुवन्त . Mid.: ब्रुवान. 413. Emphatic Pronoun. The uninflected pronominal word स्वयम् signifies self’, ‘own self'. It is oftenest used as a nomin- ative, along with words of all persons and numbers; but not seldom it represents other cases also. + Vocabulary XXXVIII. Verbs: + १ explain, teach; announce. इ (6ti) go. + fa explain, etc. + fy (adhīté) repeat, read. T (rāúti) cry, scream. +999 (apāiti) go away, depart. + fa scream. + अभि approach. |शी (¢ete) lie, sleep. + अस्तम् set(of heavenly bodies). + अधि lie asleep on (acc.). + उद् rise (of heavenly bodies). सू (site) bring forth, bear. + उप approach. | + y bring forth. a (bravīti, brūté) speak, say, state. (stäiti) praise.

  • Special irregularities in this verb are occasionally met with,

such as afa gaifa. Some of the verbs in 3 are allowed to be infected like , but forms so made are rare. + + IdISA Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXVIII. 163 Subst.: साक्षिन् n., witness. foam., n. pr., a name of Buddha. ATTĒ m., crane. faget f., tongue. Adj.: नीलकण्ठ m., n. Tr. उद्यत, f. आ, ready. न्याय m., logic. उद्योगिन् diligent, energetic. पुष्प n., flower. करुण, f. , lamentable. प्रश्न m., question, कारिन् making, doing. मानस n., sense, understanding. Adv.: qy m., killing, murder. अधस् below, down, on the शुनःशेप m., . pr. ground. सहचर m., companion; •री f., wife. Exercise XXXVIII. पुष्पाणीव विचिन्वन्तमन्यत्र गतमानसम् । अनवाप्तेषु कानेषु मृत्युरभ्येति मानवम् ॥ २६॥ भो दुष्कृतकारिणः । अस्माइलादपेतेति क्रोधादृषिरामहरिण- वधीयतान्याधानब्रवीत् ॥ १॥ गुरुमभिवाद्य शिष्यस्तं ब्रूयाधीष्व भो (5 264) इति ॥२॥ कानि शास्त्राणि काश्यां त्वमध्यैथाः।३। न्यायादीनि षड् दर्शनानि श्रीनीलकण्ठपण्डितस्य गृहे ऽहमध्यैयि ॥ ४ ॥ अग्नीषोमा- वष्टाभिर्झग्भिऋषिरणोदिन्द्रावरुणौ च तिसृभिः ॥ ५ ॥ उद्योगिनं पुरुषसिंहं स्वयमुपति लक्ष्मीः ॥ ६॥ सा जिहा या जिनं स्तौति तच्चित्तं यजिने रतम् ॥ ७॥ आचायाः शिष्यान्धर्स प्रब्रुवते ॥ ८॥ हतसहचराः सारसाः करुणं विरुवन्ति ॥ ९॥ श्रीमद्भी राजभिराहताः पण्डिताः सभां यन्ति धर्मप्रश्नांश विब्रुवते ॥ १० ॥ 11. The three wives of Daçaratha bore four sons. 12. Rāma and Laksmana, followed-by-Sita, went (६) into the forest. 13. Women whose-husbands-are-dead must sleep six months on the ground. 14. A witness stating anything other-than-what-was- seen-or-heard is to be punished (fut. pass. part.). 15. All guilt departs from one-who-has-done-penance. 16. One must not look 11 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 164 Lesson XXXVII. XXXIX. at (9- ) the rising or the setting sun. 17. Why bast thou come (f2-) to-my-house with-wife and witb-children? 18. “Praise Varuņa”: thus the gods addressed Çunahçepa who was bound to the sacrificial post. 19. Always speak the truth. 20. In a kingless land the rich do not sleep in peace (सुखेन). CO 25 rv Lesson XXXIX. 414. Verbs. Root-class, contd. Roots ending in consonants. The endings of the 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. act. are generally dropped, and the resulting root-final treated according to the usual rules for finals.* Cf. $$ 239, 242. But a root ending in a dental mute some- times drops this final mute instead of the added in the second person; and, on the otber hand, a root or stem ending in some- tinies drops this Ę instead of the added a in the third person: in either case establishing the ordinary relation of and a in the second and third persons. 415. Roots in a and 5 substitute at for those letters before q, q and Ħ (wbich then becomes ); and I before y. Thus, aq 'speak’: afm, afg, afai (only these three forms used). 416. Root ifaz 'know, (act. only): Indicative. Imperfect. 1. वेद्मि विद्वस विद्मस अवेदम् अविद अविद्म 2. वेत्सि वित्यम् वित्थ अवेस् or अवेत् अवित्तम् अवित्त 3. वेत्ति वित्त विदन्ति अवेत् अविताम् अविदुस् Imv.: acıfa, fafs, a7; azia, fanta, fantA; ETA, fan, faza. – Opt.: faqih, etc.

  • In the inflection of roots with final consonant, of tbis class and

the reduplicating and nasal classes, euphonic rules find very fre- quent application. The student is therefore advised at this point to read carefully the chief rules of euphonic change in Wbitney's Grammar, $$ 139—232 (the two larger sizes of print). Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIX. 165 S 417. This root also makes a perfect without reduplication (but otherwise regular) which has always the value of a present. The forms of the indic. are: Sing. 1. वेद, 2. वेत्थ, 3. वेद; du. 1. विद, 2. विदथुस, 3. विदतुस् । pl. 1. विद्म, 2. विद, 3. विदुस्. The participle is विद्वांस, f. विदुषी (cf. 8 268). 418. The root अद्, ‘eat' (act.), inserts अ before the endings of the 2nd and 3rd sing. impf.; thus, आदम्, आदत. 419. The root हुन्, ‘kill' (act.), is treated somewhat as are noun-stems in अन् in declension ($ 283). Thus: | Indicative. Imperfect. 1. हन्मि हवस् हन्मस् अहनम् अहव । | अहम 2. हंसि हथस् हृद्य अहन् अहतम् अहत 3. हन्ति हतघ्नन्ति अह अहताम् अघ्नन् | Imr.: हनानि, जहि, हन्तु; हनाव, हतम्, हताम् ; हनाम, हत, घ्नन्तु. - 0pt.: हन्याम् etc. - Part.: घ्नन्त , f. घ्ती. 420. Roots in 7, 9, 7, substitate as before F (which then becomes ५), ५ before a and थ (which become टू and ), and हु before s (which becomes ). Thus, द्विष् ‘hate' (act. and mid.): Indicative Act. Imperfect Act. 1. द्वेष्मि विष्वस द्विष्मस अद्वेषम् अद्विष्व अविष्म 2. देहि द्विष्ठस् द्विष्ठ अवेट अदिष्टम् अद्विष्ट 3. द्वेष्टि विष्टस् द्विषन्ति अवेर् अद्विष्टाम् अद्विषन् Imv. act.: देषाणि, द्विढि, द्वेष्टु; द्वेषाव etc. 421. चक्ष , see' (mid.): Pres. Ind.: चक्षे, चक्षे, चष्टे; चक्ष्व हे, चक्षाथे, चक्षते; चत्महे, चड्ढे, चक्षते. - Impf.: अचक्षि, अचष्ठास, अचष्ट; अचवहि, अचक्षाथाम् , अचक्षाताम्; अचमहि, अचड्ढूम्, अचक्षत.

  • Anomalous dissimilation.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 166 Lesson XXXIX. 422. 1. , 'rule' (mid.), inserts g before endings beginning with Ħ and y; thus, 2nd sing. Sfug. — 2. 74, “wish'(act.), is in weak forms contracted to 389; thus, 3rd. pl. guf. 423. 451,ʻrub”, “clean’ (act.), has vrddhi in the strong fornis, and optionally also in weak forms when the endings begin with a vowel. In the treatment of the root-final this verb follows the roots in श्. Thus, ind. 3rd sing. मार्टि, du. मृष्टस्, pl. मृजन्ति or मार्जन्ति. Vocabulary XXXIX. Verbs: | + I wipe off.

    • (iste) rule, own (w. gen.). TTY + 4 (aparādhnóti) do

7 (caste)+ Trelate; call, name. wrong. + व्या explain. 92 (vásți) wish. faa (drésti, dvisté) hate. ifaz (vétti; vėda) know, consider. +9 hate extremely. 79+ of smite. HJ (mársti) rub, wipe. + fa kill. +79 wipe away, off. Subst.: atatu n., grammar. 8 m., lip. ATH m., n. pr., a Rishi. gy m., decay, destruction. TFT f., hesitation. 7TH n., eye. Ta m., n. pr., a name of Çiva. wa m., conqueror. ga n., learning Zut f., compassion, pity. # m., creation. way m., destruction. ferfa f., condition, existence. Ha m., n. pr., a name of Çiva. | Adj.: Ha m., sacred text; spell, charm. ara, f. , blameworthy, cul- GTA m., watch (of the nigbt). I pable. T71 D., conduct. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XXXIX. 167 Exercise XXXIX. करोति पापं यो ऽज्ञानान्नात्मनो वेत्ति च क्षयम् । प्रद्वेष्टि साधुवृत्तांश्च स लोकस्यैति वाच्यताम् ॥ २७ ॥ पञ्च पश्वनृते हन्ति दश हन्ति गवानृते । शतमश्वानृते हन्ति सहस्रं पुरुषानृते* ॥ २८ ॥ सर्वं वृत्तान्तं यथावृत्तमाचड्ढुम् ॥ १॥ शर्व इति प्राञ्चः शिवमा- चक्षते भव इत्युदञ्चः ॥ ३ ॥ प्रद्विषती भार्या किं मां द्वेक्षीत्यब्रवोत्प- तिः ॥ ३॥ पुराणेषु त्रिभुवनसर्गस्थितिप्रलयान्च्यासो व्याचष्टे । ४ । यो ऽस्मान्छेष्टि यं च वयं द्विष्मस्तमेभिर्मन्त्रैर्हनाम ॥ ५॥ यो ब्रह्मचर्य चरित्वा गुरुणानुज्ञाती यथाविधि स्वाति तं सर्वलोकपूज्यं स्नातकं विदुः ॥ ६ ॥ अनपराद्धं तवोपकर्वाणं कथं भोः पापात्मंस्त्वं मां हंसि ॥ ७ ॥ अशुचि- लिप्तमङ्गं मृदा प्रमृष्टमद्भिः परिमृढि ॥ ८ ॥ भवो दिवो भव ईष्टे पृ- थिव्याः ॥ ९॥ गां धयन्तीं परस्मै नाचक्षीत ॥ १०॥ बद्धमपि पृथ्वीराजे निर्दया (5 374, 6) यवना असिनाघ्नन् ॥ ११ ॥ 12. Hear the words of the learned man who explains (pres. part.) the-science-of-grammar. 13. Know that Rāma (acc.) is the son, famous in the-three-worlds, of Daçaratba, and the conqueror of Ravana, lord-of-Lanka. 14. Having sipped (अ-चम्) water thrice, one wipes the lips twice; according to others, once.** 15. Two warriors smote (अभि-हन्) with arrows the king-of-the-Angas, who had murdered their companions. 16. Kill without-hesitation even (fa) a teacher who approaches (past. pass. part.) in order to kill you. 17. Why dost thou consider (faz) me a Çūdra, though know- ing (ज्ञा ger.) my learning-and-conduct? 18. Do not hate the sons- of-Pāņdu. 19. The women whose-song-were-dead, having lamented greatly, wiped the tears from their eyes. 20. Thou, O Lord, rulest over bipeds and quadrupeds (gen.). । ।।

  • Refers to false witness before a court. An untruth where

small beasts (sheep, etc.) are concerned, involves the destruction of five ancestors; where cattle are concerned, of ten, etc.

    • सकदित्यन्ये.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 168 Lesson XL. 0 Lesson XL. 424. Verbs. Root-class, cont'd. Ta 'sit' (mid.): Indic. असे, आस्से, आस्ते; आस्वहे etc.; आस्महे, आड्डे*, आसते. Impf. आसि, आस्थास, आस्त etc. Inv. आसै, अस्स्व, आस्ताम् etc. Part. आसीन (unique). 425. The root शास्, ‘command' (act.), substitutes in the weak forms with consonant-endings the weakened stem fra ; thus, indic. sing. ufen etc.; du. fama etc.; but 3rd pl. trefa. Impf.: अशासम्, अशास्, अशात् **; अशिष्व etc.; but 3rd pl. अशासुस्. Imv. 2nd sing. शाधि; 3rd pl. शासत. | 426. The extremely common root lअस्, ‘be' (act.), loses its vowel in weak forms, except wben protected by the augment. The 2nd sing. imv. is ufet; in the 2nd sing. iudic. one # is omitted ; in the 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. ई is inserted before the ending. Thus: Indicative. Imperfect. 1. अस्मि स्वस् मस्। सम् अस्ति 2. असि स्थस् स्थ । आसोस् आस्तम् आत 3. अस्ति स्तम् सन्ति आसीत् आस्ताम् आसन् Imperative. 1. असानि असावे असाम 0pt.: स्याम् etc.; 3rd pl. स्युस्. 2. एधि स्तम् स्त। Part.: सन्त , f. सती. । 3. अस्तु स्ताम् सन्तु | 427. Roots in हु (except दिह and दुह) combine है with त, « and s into , and then lengthen preceding अ, इ, उ; before स्, है becomes क्; in 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. act. (where the endings are dropped) the हु becomes . Thus, लिह ‘lick' (act. and mid.): Impf. act.: अलेहम्, अलेट्, अलेट; अलिहू, अलोढम्,

  • Or आध्ये. So अङ्कम् or आध्वम् (imv., impf.).
    • See § 414. 721 is said to be used in 2nd pers. also.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XL. 169 अलीढाम्; अलिह्म, अलीढ, अलिहन. Imv. nid.: लेहै, लिक्ष्व, लोढाम्; लेहावहै, लिहाथाम्, लिहाताम्; लेहामहै, लीडुम, लिहताम्. 428. In the two roots दुह, ‘milk' (act. and mid.), and दिह,

  • smear' (act.), the final है represents an earlier guttural which

reappears in the inflection. Thus, from SE: Indicative. Imperfect. 1. दो#ि दुस् दुह्मस् अदोहम् अदुइ अदुह्म 2. धोक्ष दुग्धस् दुग्ध अधोक् अदुग्धम् अदुग्ध 3. दोग्धि** दुग्धस् दुहन्ति अधोक् अदुग्धाम् अदुहन् | Ind. mid.: दुहे. धुक्षे, दुग्धेः दुई etc. Impf. mid.: अदुहि, अदुग्धास् , अदुग्ध; अदुइहि etc.; अदुह्महि, अधुरध्वम्, अदुहत. Imv. uid.: दोहै, धुत्व, दुग्धा; दोहावहै etc.; दोहा है, धुरध्वम्, दुहताम्. 429. The roots रुद, ‘weep', स्वप्, ‘sleep', अन्, ‘breathe', श्वस, breathe' (all act.), insert १ before all endings beginning with a consonant, except # and a of 2nd and 3rd sing. impf., where they insert either अ or ई. Thus, रुदः Pres, indica: रो- दिमि, रोदिषि etc., 3rd pl. रुदन्ति. Impf.: अरोदम्, अरोदस or दोस्, “दत् or °दीत; अरुदिव etc.; 3rd pl. अरुदन्. Imv.: रो- दानि, रुदिहि, रोदित etc. 0pt.: रुद्याम् etc. (या being mode-sign). Verbs: अन् (dnati) breathe. +9 (prăniti) live. अस् (dsti) be. Vocabulary XL. अस् (aste) sit. + उप sit by; wait upon; at- tend; reverence.

  • cf. 58 244, 249.
    • When the final sonant aspirate of a root is followed by a

or y of an ending, the whole group is made sonant, and the aspir- ation of the root-final is not lost, but is transferred to the initial of the ending Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 170 Lesson XL. चल + प्र-वि (practcdtatt) move,विश् + समा approach. stir (tr.). शास् (caste) command, govern. fez (dégdhi) smear. U (çvásiti) breathe. दुह (dogdhi, dugdhe) milk. + आ or समा breathe gently, मील + नि (niruttati) 8hut (the revive. | eyes). । + fą be confident, trust (w. gen. रुद (rodita) weep. or loc. of pers.) fak (lėdhi, līdhé) lick. स्था + उद्* (uttisthata) arise. + अव lick. Subst.: | कन्ध m., shoulder. उपभोग m., enjoyment. Adj.: केश m., hair. धीर, f. "आ, firm, resolute. दान n., gift, generosity. निपण, f. आ, shrewd, skilled. atat f., girl, maiden. न्याय्य, f. “आ, right, proper. मुसल m., n., club, pestle. प्रमत्त, f. “आ, carele88. रुधिर n., blood. Indecl.: सत्र n., Sacrifice. प्रातर् early, in the morning. सवितु m., n. pr., the sun-god | भृशम् greatly, much. Savitar; the sun. Exercise XL. निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु लक्ष्मीः समाविशतु गच्छतु वा यथेष्टम् । अयैव वा मरणमस्तु युगान्तरे वा । न्याय्यात्पथः प्रविचलन्ति पदं न धीराः ॥ २९ ॥ तेनो मुसलं कन्धे कृत्वा मुक्तकेशो राजानमुपेत्य शाधि मामि- तिब्रूयात् ॥ १॥ मित्रच्च पापेषु न विश्वसिति बुद्धिमान् ॥ २॥ महो- दधिमध्ये शेषनागमधिशयानो विष्णुः सुखं स्वपिति ॥ ३॥ प्रमत्तैर्छ-

  • After उद्, the initial स् of स्था and स्तम्भ is dropped; thus,

उत्थातुम् for उत्स्थातुम्. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XL. XLI. 171 विग्भिर्भूमी निहितानि हवींषि श्वानाववालीढाम् ॥ ४॥ सुखमास्तां भवानिति गन्तुमनुज्ञातो ऽपयन्सखा सखायं ब्रूयात् ॥ ५ ॥ सुन्दर समाश्वसिहि समाश्वसिहीति भयनिमीलिताक्षीमुर्वशीं पुरूरवा अब्र- वीत् ॥ ६॥ गुरुक्रोधभीताः शिष्या रात्रि वेदानध्यैयत ॥ ७ ॥ अस्तु यशः श्रुतवृत्ते स्तां श्रियः सन्तु न तु भक्तिं विना स्वर्ग प्राप्नुयाः ॥ ८ ॥ दानोपभोगहीनः पुमाञ्श्वसन्नपि न जीवति ॥ ९ ॥ दीर्घसचमुपासते ये ब्रह्मचर्य चरन्ति ॥ १० ॥ 11. Long may the great-king govern the earth according to law. 12. There was a mighty king Nala by name (FTA), son of Vīrasena. 13. The lion, satiated-with-the-blood-of-the-slain-gazelle, licked his mouth with his tongue. 14. Let the householder say to the guest: “where didst thou sleep during the night"? 15. The cowherd milked the cows twice daily. 16. The boy, beaten by his father, wept bitterly (HVA). 17. Whose daughter art thou, girl? 18. Know that that by which thou livest, and the whole world lives, is the world-spirit. 19. Having arisen in the morning, reverence the sun (afaq). 20. If you do not praise Rāma, there will be no salvation for you (use WF, in pres. opt.). Lesson XLI. 430. Verbs. Reduplicating Class. This class forms the present- stem by prefixing a reduplication to the root.* 431. The rules governing the reduplication are as follows: 1. The consonant of the reduplicating syllable is in general the first consonant of the root; thus, दा, ददा. But, (a) a non-a8- pirate is substituted for an aspirate; and (b) a palatal for a guttural

  • Only a small proportion of the roots of this class retain the

accent on the root-syllable in the strong forms. In the great ma- jority, the accent is on the reduplication, both in the strong forms and in those weak forms whose endings begin with vowels. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 172 Lesson XLI. CAI or है; thus, धा, दधा; खिद्, चिखिदः ही, जिद्दी; (c) if the root begin with a sibilant followed by a pon-nasal mute, the latter is repeated (with observance of a), not the sibilant; thus, स्था, तस्था . 2. A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicating syllable; and ऋ is replaced by इ; thus, ददा and दधा above; भी, बिभी; भू, बिभृ. 432. The present-stem gunates the root-vowel in the strong forms; thus, fazît, strong faâ; fax, strong faut. 433. The verbs of this class lose the ñ from the endings of the 3rd pl. in the active as well as in the middle; and in the 3d pl. impf. act. always take BH, before which a final radical vowel has und; thus, अबिभरुस्. 434. Root 2, 'bear, carry'. For 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. act., cf. 38 122,414. Indicative. Active. 1. बिभर्मि बिभृवस् विभूमस बिधे। बिभूव बिभूमहे 2. बिभर्षि बिभूथस् बिभूथ बिभषे बिधार्थ बिध्ये 3.बिभर्ति विभूतस् बिभ्रति बिभृते बिधाते बिभ्रते Imperfect. 1. अबिभरम अबिभूव अबिभृम अबिधि अबिभूवहि भूमहि 2. अबिभर् अबिभृतम् अबिभृत अबिभृथा अबिभ्राथाम् भृध्वम् 3. अविभर अविभृताम् अबिभरुस अबिभृत अबिधाताम् भ्रत Imperative. 1. बिभराणि बिभराव बिभराम विभरै बिभरावहै बिभराम है 2. बिभूहि बिभतम् बिभृत बिभृष्व बिभ्राथाम् बिभध्वम् 3. बिभर्तु बिभृताम् बिधतु विभृताम् बिधाताम् बिधताम् Opt. act.: fata etc.; mid.: fauty etc. Part. act.: बिभ्रत् ($ 259), f. बिभ्रतो; mid.: बिभ्राण. 435. The roots lदा, ‘give', and 'धा, ‘put', lose their radi- cal vowel in the weak forms, leaving the weak stems दद् and द. Middle. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLI. 173 fe. The inflection In the 2nd sing. imy. act. they form Efe and of yt is as follows :* Indicative. Active. Middle. 1. दधामि दध्वस् दध्मस् दधे दध्वहे दमहे 2. दधासि धत्यस् धत्थ धत्से दधार्थ धड़े 3. दधाति धत्तम् दधति धत्ते दधाते दधते | Imperfect. 1. अदधाम् अदञ्च अदधा अदधि अदध्वहि अदमहि 2. अदधाम् अधत्तम् अधत्त अधत्यास् अदधाथाम् अधद्धम् 3. अदधात् अधत्ताम् अदधुस् अधत्त अदधाताम् अदधत | Imperative. 1. दधानि दधाव दधाम दधै दधावहै दधामहै। 2. धेहि धत्तम् धत्त धत्स्व दधाथाम् धद्धम् 3. दधातु धत्ताम् दधत धत्ताम् दधाताम् दधताम् 0pt. act.: दयाम् etc.; mid.: दधीय etc. Part. act.: दधत्, f. दधती; mid.: दधान. 436. The root 127 is inflected in precisely the same way, but with change everywhere of y to , except where y belongs to the ending. 437. The root 1हा, ‘quit, abandon' (act.), drops the n in weak forms where the ending begins with a vowel, and in the opt.; thus, indic. 3rd sing. जहाति, pl. जहति; impf. 3rd. sing. अजहात्, pl. अजङ्गम् ; opt. जह्यात्. The 2nd sing. imv. is जहीहि or जहिहि. In the other weak forms before consonant-endings the stem is either जही or जहि; thus, जहीमस् or जहिमस्. 438. 1AT, ‘measure' (mid.), and 227, 'move, go' (mid.), formi

  • In combination with a or • of an ending, the q of दध्।

does not give 5, but follows the general rule of aspirate and of surd and sonant combination; and the lost aspiration is thrown back upon the initial of the root. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 174 Lesson XLI. मिमो and जिही before consonant-endings, मिम् and जिह before vowel-endings; thus, 3rd persons indic. forta, faria faha. 439. F 'pour, sacrifice' (act. and mid.), makes the 2nd sing. imv. Jefy; 3rd persons impf. VIETA, WIFITA, PIEGH. 440. 1. aft, 'fear' (act.), may shorten its vowel in weak forms; thus, faithy or faf Ah, fazteta or fafareta. - 2. st, “be ashamed' (act.), changes its weak stem fet to foffa before vowel-endings; thus, indic. 3rd persons forfa, fastan, fa- feura. "Son Vocabulary XLI. Verbs: + 1 puton; (mid.) take, receive. 1ęt (dådūti, datte) give. +fa arrange, ordain. + q entrust. + AA unite, put together; lay on. TE (dádhāti, dhatte) put, place. 15T(jáhāti) quit, abandon, neglect. + ufq close, shut. t (jihréti) be ashamed. Subst.: formed the ablution castonary WHT n., safety; feeling of safety. at the end of religious pupilage. 87 m., demon. Adj.; Ffa f., oblation. 2a, f. og, divine. महिष m., 7. pr. fafte, f. 7, excellent, remark- Hy m., gazelle. able. fai n., possessions, wealth. Adv.: To m., n., rest, remainder. सायम् at evening- ara m., one who has per- e ve Exercise XLI. यद्ददासि विशिष्टेभ्यो यच्चान्नासि दिने दिने । तत्ते वित्तमहं मन्ये शेषं कस्यापि रक्षसि ॥ ३० ॥ Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLI. XLII. 175 यश काष्ठमयो” हस्ती यश्चर्ममयो मुगः । यश्च विप्रो ऽनधीयानस्त्रयस्ते नाम बिधति ॥ ३१॥ यः सर्वभूतेभ्यो ऽभयं दत्त्वा प्रव्रजति तस्माद्यतेर्भतानि न बिभ्यति से च तेभ्यो न बिभेति ॥ १॥ सायं प्रातर्ब्रह्मचारी प्रत्यहं समिधमावाद- ध्यात् ॥ २ ॥ ये हैं कालं विधत्तले महती ज्योतिषी स्तवीमि ॥ ३ ॥ नैकं पुत्रमन्यस्मै दद्यादन्यस्मात्प्रतिगृह्णीयाद्वा ॥ ४॥ यस्मान्महिषासुरात्सर्वे ऽपि देवा अबिभयुस्तं शिवस्य पत्नी पार्वती न्यहन् ॥ ५॥ भिक्षां भव- ति (voc. sing. f.) देहीति क्षत्रियो भिक्षां चरन्ब्रूयात् ॥ ६॥ राजा जरसा वाक्रान्तं पति पत्नी कदापि न जह्यात् ॥ ७॥ यत्र भूषणालंकृतां कन्या पिता यज्ञभूम्यामृत्विजे ददाति स देवो विवाह उच्यते ॥ ८॥ शत्रूना- यातो (part., acc. pl.) दृष्ट्वा क्षत्रियाविषु धनुषोः समधत्ताम् ॥ ९ ॥ प्रायश्चित्तार्थे ऽष्टशतं घृताहुतीनां जुहुधि ॥ १० ॥ 11. Let the Adhvaryus pour the sacrificial offerings into the fire. 12. The seers ordain forty sacraments in the law-books (स्मृति). 13. DaQaratha entrusted his sons to Vasistha as scholars. 14. Meeting a woman in the forest, one should say to her: “Sister, be not afraid ”. 15. Let a Spātaka carry (wear) a garland, and an umbrella-and-shoes. 16. One who takes (part.) roots-fruits-or-grain from a strange-field, is to be punished. 17. Let the two doorkeepers close the door. 18. Do not neglect the teacher's command. 19. The royal-sage, who wore much jewelry, shone (fa-41) with great- brilliancy, like the sun. 20. The scholars who-have-not-learned- their-lessons are ashanied before their teacher (acc. or gen.). PA " Lesson XLII. 441. Verbs. Nasal class. All roots of this class end in con- sonants. As class-sign they insert a nasal before the final con-

  • with the suffix मय, f. ०६, are formed adjectives signifying

made or composed or consisting of'. – In the second line, 'bear the name' merely, i. e. are not in reality such. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 176 Lesson XLII. OS ce sonant, unless one be there already (as in HF); this nasal is adapted to the consonant, except in the strong forms, where it is expanded to the syllable न [ण], which bears the accent. 442. The combination of the final radical consonants with those of the personal endings is in accordance with the rules al- ready given for the root and reduplicating classes. 443. Thus, युज् ‘join'; strong stem युनज् , weak युञ्ज. Indicative. Active. Middle. युनज्मि युज्वम् युज्मस युञ्ज युञ्ज्वहे युजमहे युनक्षि युक्थस* युथ युङ्गे युञ्जाथे युध्वे युनक्ति युङ्कस युञ्जन्ति युङ्गे युञ्जाते युञ्जते Imperfect. अयुनजम् अयुञ्जय अयुञ्जम अयुञ्जि अयुञ्जवहि अयुज्महि अयुनक् अयम् अयुङ्ग अयुङ्कथाम अयुञ्जाथाम् अयुध्वम् अयुनक् अयुङ्काम् अयुञ्जन् अयुङ्क अयुञ्जाताम् अयुञ्जत | Imperative. युनजानि युनजाव युनजाम युनज । युनजावहै युनजाम है। युग्धि युङ्गम् युङ्ग थुङ्ग युञ्जाथाम् युध्वम् युनते युङ्काम् युञ्जन्तु युङ्काम् युञ्जाताम् युञ्जताम् Opt. act.: Y JUTA etc.; mid.: gita etc. Part. act.: युञ्जन्त , f. युञ्जती; nid.: युञ्जान. 444. Root रुध् ‘obstruct; strong stem रुण, weak रुन्छ् । Indicative. Active. Middle. रुणध्मि 'कन्ध्वस् रुन्मस् रुन्धे रुन्धवहे रुन्धमहे । रुणत्सि इन्डस् रुन्छ रुन्त्से रुन्धार्थ रुन्छे । रुणद्धि रुन्छस् रुन्धन्ति रुन्छे रुन्धाते रुन्धते

  • Instead of yGFUH, GT, and the like, it is allowed

(and more usual) to write युथस्, युद्ध्वे etc.; also रुन्धस्, रुन्ध etc., instead of FGF etc.; in each case omitting the consonant im- mediately following the nasal. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLII. 177 Imperative. ऋणधानि रुणधाव राणधाम रुणधै रुणधाव है कणधामहै। रुन्द्धि रुन्द्वम् इन्द्ध रुन्त्स्व रुन्धाथाम् रुन्द्धम् । झणडु रुन्डाम् रुन्धतु दाम् रुन्धाताम् रुन्धताम् | Imperf. act.: अरुणधम्, अरुणत्, अरुणत्; अरुन्ध्व etc.; mid.: अरुन्धि etc. - 0pt. act.: सन्ध्याम् etc.; mid.; रुन्धीय etc. - Part, act.: रुन्धत , f. रुन्धती; nid.: रुन्धान. 445. Roots पिष्, ‘grind, crush' (act.); and हिंस, ‘injure, destroy' (act.): Imperfect. अपिनषम् अपिंष्व अपिंष्म अहिनसम् अहिंस्व अहिंस्म अपिनट् अपिंष्टम् अपिंष्ट अहिनस् अहिंस्तम् अहिंस्त अपिन अपिंष्टाम् अपिंषन् अहिनस or °नत् अहिंस्ताम् अहिंसन् Ind. 2nd persons: पिनर्चि, पिंष्ठस् , पिंष्ठ; - हिनस्सि, हिंस्थस्, हिंस्थ. Imv. 2nd persons: पिण्डुढि, पिष्टम्, पिंष्ट; - हिन्धि, हिंस्तम्, हिंस्त. 446. qz, “crush' (act.), combines qug with fa and a into तृणैढि and तृणे- Vocabulary XLII. Verbs: 77 (yunákti, yuñkte) join; yoke, TU (inddhé) kindle, light. harness. feez (chinátti, chinddhé) cut, cut + fa appoint, establish. off. | 74 (ruņáddhi, runddhé) obstruct, + ओ take away, remove. check; besiege. + उद् exterminate. frų (çináști) leave, leave re- जागरय (caus. stem) awaken. । maining. पिष् (pindsti) grind, crush. + fa set apart, distinguish. भञ्ज (bhandket) break, destroy. | हुन् + सम् unite. fH (bhinátti, bhinddhé) split. fae (hinásti) injure, destroy. 75 (bhunákti, bhuñkté) eat, enjoy. Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 12 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 178 Lesson XLII. -- Subst.: लेखन n., writing, copying. अवस्था f., condition, state. | हिमवन्त m., the Himalaya Mts. उषस f., dawn; also personified, Adi.: । | Usas, the Dawn. उच्छ्रित high. कटक m., thorn; eneniy. | क्षात्र suitable for Ksatriyas. OTH m., bite, mouthful. गृह्य domestic. तण्डुल m., rice. प्रतिकल, f. °आ, unfavorable. पातक n., crime. | शुभ, f. आ, splendid, beautiful, पौत्र m., grandson. excellent. बन्ध m., relative. Exercise XLII. यद्यायति यत्कुरुते धृतिं बध्नाति यत्र च।। तदवाप्नोत्ययत्नेन यो* हिनस्ति न किंचन ॥ ३२ ॥ यस्यां यस्यामवस्थायां यत्करोति शुभाशुभम् । तस्यां तस्यामवस्थायां तत्फलं समुपाश्नुते ॥ ३३॥ दूत एव हि संधत्ते भिनत्येव च संहतान् । | दूतस्तत्कुरुते कर्म येन भिद्यन्ते वा न वा ॥ ३४ ॥ ये गो हिंसन्ति तेषां** गरीयः प्रायश्चित्तं विदधति तस्माद्गां मा हिन्धि ॥ १॥ जीवत्पुत्रपौत्रो वर्षशतं निष्कण्टकं राज्यं भुङ्केति कवयो महाराजमस्तुवन् ॥ २॥ यथा वातो बलेन वृक्षान्भनक्त्येवं त्वं मे द्विषो भग्धि ॥ ३ ॥ रणे शत्रुभिर्युध्यमानः शूरः कांञ्चिदिषुभिरभिनत्केषां चिमूर्धहस्तपादादिकमसिनाच्छिनत् ॥ ४ ॥ प्रातरश्विनावुषसा स्वस्रा सह भूतानि जागरयितुं विचक्रे रथे ऽश्वौ युङ्ग इत्युक्षु श्रूयते ॥ ५॥ यो भूमिदानमाच्छिन्द्याद् आछिद्यमानं वानुमोदते स पञ्चभिर्महापा- तकैः संयुक्तः स्यात् ॥ ६॥ अहो प्रतिकूलो विधिर्विशिनष्टि मनोरजं मे ॥ ७ ॥ यत्र पित्रादीनां बन्धूनां शिरांसि भिन्दन्तो व्दतीं कन्या बलाञ्चरन्ति तं क्षात्रं विवाहमृषयो विदुः ॥ १० ॥ 11. After Jayasinha had long besieged Girinagara, be destroyed

  • The antecedent of this relative is the subject of yaratfa.
  • Translate as though dative.

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLIII. 179 (47) it at last. 12. An ascetic shall eat only 240 mouthfuls in a inontb (loc.). 13. “Kindle the fire; cut branches for firewood (AfyA); milk the cows; grind grain ": thus said one priest to another early in the morning. 14. The teacher entrusted (fa-45) the scholars with the copying of the books (cpd., dat.). 15. The invuntain - range Himavant checks the course of the clouds with its exceedingly-high peaks. 16. The doers-of-right (oaia) are bappy in Heaven, enjoying the fruits-of-their-works. 17. A king wbo has conquered a foreign realm must not exterminate the royal-family. 18. Aryans must kindle the domestic-fire at the time-of-the-wedding. 19. Women pounded the rice with pestles. Lesson XLIII. 447. Verbs. Perfect-System. In the later language the perfect- system comprises only an indicative mode and a participle, each both active and middle. Its formation is essentially alike in all verbs; its characteristics are: 1. reduplication; 2. distinction of strong and weak forms; 3. endings in some respects peculiar; 4. the fre- quent use of the union-vowel i. 448. Reduplication. 1. Initial consonants are reduplicated ac- cording to the rules given in Less. XLI for the reduplicated pre- sent-stem. 2. Medial and final vowels, short and long, are represented by the corresponding short vowel, diphthongs by their second element; but (or #T) is represented always by 7, never by g as in the reduplicated present-sten. Thus, H, EA; et, het; fH, fafa; a, fha ; TT, FIT; Q . 3. Initial 7, followed by a single consonant, becomes #T (through 4-7); thus, g, #T. 4. Initial 7 and 3 follow the same analogy; but in the strong O Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 180 Lesson XLIII. forms, where the root-vowel is gunated, the reduplicating vowel is protected from combination by the insertion of g or a ; thus, 8, strong perfect-stem ga (i-y-es) weak * (i. e. i-is); 37, strong 3ata (u-v-oc), weak 377 (u-uc). 5. Roots beginning with vowels long by nature or position do not in general make the ordinary perfect-system, but use instead a periphrastic formation (see below). But 779 is an exception, making the constant perfect-stem 979; and a few roots with initial or show the anomalous reduplication 19 in the perfect.* 449. Strong and weak forms. In the three persons sing. act. the root-syllable is accented, and exhibits usually a stronger form. As regards the strengthening: 1. In roots with medial vowels long by nature or position, and in those with initial 7, the difference of strong and weak forms does not appear, except in accented texts. 2. Medial and initial vowels are gunated, if possible, in the strong forms; thus, fute, w. faufz, s. fae; gu, w. 69, s. 99; 377, w. 377, s. 31a (§ 448, 4). 3. Medial up before a single final consonant is vriddhied in the 3rd pers., and optionally in the 1st; thus, from 9a, in 1st sing. either पपच् or पंपाच्, in 2nd पपच्, in 3rd पपाच्. 4. A final vowel takes either guna or vrddhi in the 1st person, guna in the 2nd, vrddhi in the 3rd; thus, from aft, in 1st fatã or faa, 2nd fa, 3rd faa. 450. The root H makes, irregularly, the perfect-stem a, and adds a before a vowel-ending. 451. Some roots, instead of strengthening the vowel in the DTMs

  • The grainmarians prescribe (doubtless falsely) this redupli-

cation for all verbs beginning with or followed by more than one consonant. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLIII. 181 ré strong forms, weaken it in the weak forms; some few even do both. See below. 452. Personal Endings. The perfect-endings are these: Active. Middle 1. a vá má é váhe máhe 2. tha åthus å sé áthe dhvé 3. a átus ús é áte But roots ending in å take au in 1st and 3rd sing. act.; thus, 9, art. 453. Union-vowel. The endings beginning with consonants are in classical Sanskrit usually joined to the base by the union- vowel . The most important rules for the use of 7 are as follows: 1. The 1 of 3rd pl. mid. always has before it. 2. The other endings beginning with consonants, except y, take it in nearly all verbs. But it is rejected throughout (except from © by eight verbs: viz. la 'make', a 'bear', 'go', 27.choose', ç'run', 'hear', 'praise', 'flow'. 3. For its use or omission in 2nd sing. act. the rules are too complicated to be given here. 454. With the union-vowel q a final radical & or & is not combined into &, but becomes y or (if more than one consonant precede) 74; thus, from t fafaa ni-ny-i-va. A. Examples of inflection. A. Roots in final vowels. 455. I. Roots in 7 or . The and û of gunated and vrid- dhied vowels become i and Te before the vowel beginning an ending. See also § 454. Thus, 1. नोः Act.: Sing. 1. निनय or निनाय, 2. निनयिथ or faây, 3. faara; du. 1. fafaia, 2. faalu, 3. famiga ; pl. 1. fatfach, 2. faol, 3. faogh.-- Mid.: Sing. 1. faz, 2. fafvq, 3. 17o; an Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 182 Lesson XLIII. du. 1. निन्यि है, 2. निन्याथे, ३. निन्याते; pl. 1. निन्यिमहे, 2. निन्यिध्वे, 3. निन्यिरे. 2. क्रीः Act.: Sing. 1. चिक्रय or चिक्राय, 2. चिक्रयिथ or चिक्रेथ, 3. चिक्राय; du. 1. चिक्रियिव, 2. चिक्रिय[स, 3. यतुस् ; pl. 1. चि- क्रियिम, 2. चिक्रिय, 3. चिक्रियुस. 456. II. Roots in 3 or fi follow the model of the last-mentioned. Thus, स्तुः Act.: Sing. 1. तुष्टव or तुष्टाव, 2. तुष्टोथ (not तुष्टविथ - see 5 453, 2), 3. तुष्टाव; au. 1. तुष्टुव, 2. तुष्टुवथुस्, ३. तुष्टुवतुस् - लू: Act.: du. gafaa etc. 457. ५ is irregular in the perfect. (Cf. 8 450): | Active. Middle. 1. बभूव बभूविव बभूविम बभूवे बभूविवहे बभूविमहे 2. बभूविथ बभूवथुस बभूव बभूविषे बभूवाथे बभूविध्यै 3. बभूव बभूवतुस बभूवुस बभूवे बभूवाते बभूविरे 458. III. Roots in ऋ. 1. 1} (see 5 453, 2): 1. चकर, चकार चकृव चकम चक्रे चविहे चकृमहे 2. चकर्थ | चक्रथुस चक्र चक्षे चक्राथे चकृध्ये 3. चकार चक्रतुस् चक्रुस चक्रे चक्राते चक्रिरे So also , स, 2 choose'. 2. The other roots in ऋ make the first persons thus: from धू, दधर or दधार, दध्रिव, दध्रिम; दध्र, दध्रिवहे, दध्रिमहे. 459. If the final 2 be preceded by more than one consonant, the formation is as follows: स्म्, 1. संस्मर or सस्मार, 2. समर्थ, 3. सस्मार; du. समरिव, सस्मरथुस्, etc. - the ऋ being gunated. 460. IV. Roots in 7 (including those written by the natives with ए or ऐ or ओ). These take औ in 1st and 3rd sing. act.; and the r is lost before vowel-endings and इ. 1. 1धाः । 1. दधी दधिव दधिम दधे दधिवहे दधिमहे 2. दधाथ, दधिथ दधथुस दध दधिषे दधार्थ दधिध्वे 3. दधौ । दधतुस् दधुस् दधे दधाते दधिरे 2. 01, ZT, and similar roots, make their weak forms from the Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLIII. 183 simpler root-forms ūt, etc.; and Et makes its strong forms also front F; thus, जुहव or जहाव etc. B. Roots in final consonants. 461. I. With medial vowel capable of guna. 1. forz: Act: Sing. 1. fazia, 2. fawrzy, 3. fatig; du. fafat- fra etc.; pl. fafafzA etc. Mid.: fafaa etc. 2. So from az: aate etc.; 3. from 9: 1. Fif, 2. rty or 58, 3. TTT; du. ददृशिव etc. 462. II. With initial vowel capable of guna. 1. 77: Sing. 1. , 2. refuy, 3. a; du. 1. &fea, 2. TH, 3. uga; pl. 1. &f9A, 2. , 3. TH. 2. 57: Bate etc. 3. The root g, go', also follows this rule, forning gail etc., 3rd. pl. YR 4. makes (see § 448, 5) 2798, utaray ete. 463. III. With initial 75. L, etc.; 72, TC etc. But yg (originally ) makes yan etc. ($ 448,5). 464. IV. With medial 7. 1. FA : Act.: sing. 1. aith or HTA, 2. gray, 3. WATA; du. चक्रमिव etc. id.: चक्रमे etc. Thus all sueb roots beginning with more than one consonant, or with an aspirate, a guttural mute, or E. 465. 2. Roots in general baring medial before a single final consonant, and beginning also with a single consonant which is repeated unchanged in the reduplication — i. e. not an aspirate, a guttural, or ? — contract with the reduplication into one syllable, with as its vowel, in the weak forms; and this is allowed also in 2nd sing. act. wben the union-vowel 7 is taken.* Thus, , 8. que and 9919, w. 92:

  • Several roots not having the forın bere defined are said to

undergo the sanie contraction, most of them optionally. CONSOL Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 184 Lesson XLIII. पपच, पपाच पैचिव पैचिम पेचे पैचिवहे पेचिमहे पपक्थ, पेचिथ पेचथस् पेच पेचिषे पेचाथे पेचिध्व पाच पेचतुस पेचुस पेच पेचाते पेचिरे 466. 3. Certain roots beginning with a va (also one with y ya) and ending in one consonant, reduplicate with the syllable 3 (the one root just mentioned, with 7), and abbreviate the a (a) of the root to 3 (T) in weak forms. They are treated like roots with initial उ (इ: 5463) but retain the full root form in the strong persons. These roots are वच्, वद्, वप्, व, वस् ‘dwell', and वह; also यज. Thus, वचः Act. sing. 1. उवच or उवाच, 2. उव- क्थ or उवचिथ, 3. उवाच; du. ऊचिव (u-tuc-t-a) etc. Mid. ऊचे etc. - यज: Act. sing. 1. इयज or इयाज, 2. इयष्ठ or यजिथ, 3. इयाज; du. ईजिव etc. Mid. ईजे etc. | 467, 4. Several roots which have medial अ between single consonants, but cannot follow the rule of 8 465, drop out the अ from the weak forms. These roots are, in the classical language, खन्, गम्, घस्, हन्; and also जन्, which might be expected to follow 8 465. They form the weak stems चख, जग्म्, जक्ष , जघ्; and जज़. Thus, चखन or चखान etc., चखिव etc. हन् makes its strong stem जघन् and बघान् 468. 5. The roots व्यध्, स्वप्, and one or two others, redupli- cate from the semivowel, and contract J and a to and 3 in weak forms. Thus, strong सुष्वप् or सुष्वाप्, weak सुषुप्. 469. 1. The root अह्, ‘speak', is found only in this tense, and only in the following forms: sing. 2. आत्य, 3. आह; du. 2. - हथुम, 3. हतुस; pl. 3. हुस्. These forms have only the value of the present.-2. The root 1विद्, ‘know', makes a perfect without reduplication, but otherwise regular, which has only present-value; see § 417. 2fqz, “find', forms the regular faaz. 470. The roots fe, fag, fa, and fe, form as perfect-stens चिकि, चिकित्, जिगि, and जिघि Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLIII. 185 471. Perfect participle. 1. Active. The ending of the pf. part. active is वांस (mid. वत्, w. उष्), which is added to the weak per- fect-stem.* When this is monosyllabic the union-vowel is inserted (but not in the weakest cases, before 39). Tbus, a. from 79, strong stem of part. ईषिवांस्, mid. ईषिवत्, w. ईपुष्; from पच्, पेचिवांस, पेचिव, पेचुष्; from वच्, ऊचिवांस्, ऊचिवत्, ऊचु; from दा, दिवांस, ददिवत् , ददुष्. But, from नी, निनोवांस्, नि- नीदत्, निन्युष्; from स्तु, तुष्टुवांस्, तुष्टुवत्, तुष्टुवुष्; from भिद्, बि- भिडांस, बिभिद्वत, बिभिदुष्. - 6. The root गम् makes as its strong stem of pf. part. जमिवांस or जगन्वांस, mid. जग्मिवत् or जगन्वत्, weakest only जरमुष. Similarly, from हुन्, जघ्विांस् or जघन्वांस्, जम्निवत् or जघन्वत्, जनुष्. - c. iविद्, ‘know', makes fagie etc.; 2fa2, 'find', fafagia etc. 2. Middle. The pf. part. middie is made with the suffix yta, which is added to the weak stem as this appears in the middle voice; thus, बुध, बबधान; धा, दधान; क, चक्राण; नी, निन्यान; तन्, तेनान. । Periphrastic Perfect 472. Most roots beginning with a vowel long by nature or po- sition adopt a periphrastic formation in the perfect tense; the same is also taken by the secondary conjugations, and optionally by a few primary roots not falling in the above category. It is made as follows: 473. To the accusative of a derivative noun-stem in 1, made from the present-stem which is the general basis of each conjugation, are added, for the active, the perfect active forms of क or अस् (or, very rarely, of 24); for the middle, only the perfect middle forms

  • Mechanically, the weakest participle-stem is identical with

the 3rd pl. act. (of course, ५ instead of स्). Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 186 Lesson XLIII. XLIV. threfa, pf. ETTEATEA or TTigait; of 3*. Thus, from from *, fargen 474. Force of the Perfect. In classical Sanskrit the perfect coincides in meaning with the imperfect, as a tense of narration, but is less often met with. Lesson XLIV. se 475. Verbs. Future-System (aud Conditional). The verb has two futures: I. The simple, or s-future, which is by far the older, and much more common, than the other; and II. the periphrastic future. 476. I. Simple Future. This tense contains an indicative mode and a participle, active and middle. It may be made from all verbs. The tense-sign is the syllable , added to the root either directly, or by the union-vowel (in the latter case becoming o). The root has the guna-strengthening when possible; and some roots witb medial # gunate with t instead of 7. The inflection is precisely like that of the present indicative of a verb of the a-conjugation; thus, from 2, Hfqqfa, oa. 477. When y is not taken, final radical consonants suffer the same changes before er as before Ę in the inflection of the root- class or reduplicating or nasal class. Thus, from E, utafa; 19, tafa; forg, Freifa; TU, Trefa; TA, jefa; faz, Sayfa; fa, ceafa; , zafa. The root ał dwell', makes वत्स्यति. 478. 1. Most roots ending in vowels reject t; thus, T, 27- efa; T, dreifa; fa, gofa; , refa. 2. But all roots in ऋ take : thus, के, करिष्यति; तु, तरिष्यति; and also the roots शी (Tferafa) and (afqura). 3. og makes ustafa. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLIV. 187 CCO 479. In general, the verbs which take 7 in the infinitive and periphrastic future (see below), take it also in this tense. But the accordance is far from complete; and these parts should be learned, as a matter of usage, for any given verb. 480. Stems of causative inflection, and denominatives in Tz, make their future-stem8 in अयिष्य; thus, चुरु, चोरयिष्यति । 481. Participle. The participles, act. and mid., are made from the future-stem precisely as from the present-stem; thus, T, ZT- era (f. oernt), teata; at, aften, afTuata. Cf. &$ 260, 262. 482. Conditional. A tense called the conditional (indic. only) is made from the stem of the simple future precisely as the im- perfect is made from the present-stem, and similarly inflected. Thus, IPA, Pafton; Tê, wafte. It is of extremely rare occurrence. are 483. II. Periphrastic Future. This tense, which is allowed to be made from all verbs, contains a single indicative tense, active, * It is formed by the nomen agentis in q, having the value of a future active participle, to the nom. sing. of which (at) are added, in the 1st and 2nd persons of all numbers, the corresponding inflected forms of the pres. of 1 'be'. In the 3rd persons the nomen agentis is used alone, in the proper number, without the auxiliary. 484. The root bas in most cases the same form before the suffix a which it takes before the ata of the infinitive. Thus, na; fs, âq; , WQ; H, affaq; a, ang; 2017, geraa. 485. The infection is then as follows: Oms 0 2 en

  • The Hindus also prescribe a middle formation ; it has, how-

ever, practically no existence. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 188 Lesson XLIV. 1. कतस्मि कतस्विस कर्तास्मस् 2. कर्तासि कतीस्थम् कर्तस्थ 3. कता कतीरौ कतारस | Aorist-System. 486. The aorist comprises three quite distinct formations, each with certain sub-varieties; but all are bound together into one complex system by certain correspondences of form and meaning. In classical Sanskrit aorists are comparatively rare. Their value is quite that of impf. or pf. as tenses of narration. But they are used also (though not nearly so often as the prohibitive opt.) with the particle HT, in prohibitions, the augment being then omitted; thus, मा दाः ‘do not give'; मा भैषीः ‘do not fear'. With this ex- ception the aorist always has the augment in classical Sanskrit. The tense comprises, in the later language, only an indicative mode.* The main varieties of aorist are three: I. Simple Aorist; II. Redu- plicated Aorist; III. Sibilant Aorist. 487. I. Simple aorist. (1) Root aorist. This aorist is precisely like an imperfect of the root-class. It is limited to the active voice of a few roots in आ, and of भू. E. g. | iदा 1. अदाम् अदाव अदाम | अभूवम् अभूव अभूम 2. अदास् अदातम् अदात अभूस् अभूतम् अभूत 3. अदात् अदाताम् अदुस् अभूत् अभूताम् अभवन् । | Like दाः धा, अधातः स्था, अस्थात्; पा, अपात्; गा ‘go', अ- गात्. 488. (2) The a-aorist. This is like an imperfect of the a-class, active and middle. Thus, from सिच्, 1st persons असिचम्, असिचाव, असिचाम; असिचे, असिचावहि, असिचामहि. In general the root

  • The precative is strictly a peculiar aor. Optative; but it is so

rare that its formation need not be explained here. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLIV. 189 T00 assumes a weak form; but three or four roots in final #take guna. Thus, आप, आपत्; गम्, अगमत् ; धं, अधशत; सुच, अमुचत् । सद्, असदत्; शक्, अशकत्; संस्, अस्रसत्. - Irregular: ख्या, अ- ख्यत्; हा, अहूत्; श्वा, अश्वत्; शास्, अशिषत् ; अस् ‘throw', आ- स्थत् (anomalous). वच् makes अवोचत्, and पत्, अपप्तत्, which, with one or two others, were doubtless originally reduplicated aorists. 489. II. Reduplicated Aorist (3). This aorist differs from all others in that it has come to be attached nearly always to the deriv- ative (caus., etc.) conjugation in अय, as its aorist. The connection is not formal, as the aorist is not made from the stem in , but from the root. Its characteristic is a reduplication, of quite pe- culiar character. 490. The reduplicated aorist is very unusual in classical San- skrit, and it will be sufficient for the present to give an example or two of its formation. Thus, जन् makes अजीजनत् ; स्पृश, अपि- स्पृशत; स्था, अतिष्ठिपत्. The infection is the usual one of imper- fects of the a-conjugation. 491. III. Sibilant Aorist, of four varieties. (4) The s-aorist. The tense-stem is made by adding to the augmented root, which usually has its vowel strengthened. E. g. Īt: Act.: sing. 1. a. पम्, 2. अनैषीस, 3. अनैषीत् ; du. 1. अनैष्व, 2. अष्टम, 3. अनेष्टाम्; pl. 1. अनैष्म, 2. अनेष्ट, 3. अनैपुस्. Mid.: sing. 1. अनेषि, 2. अनेष्ठा, 3. अनेष्ट; du. 1. अनेष्वहि, 2. अनेपाथाम्, 3. अनेषाताम्; pl. 1. अने- महि, 2. अनेढुम्, 3. अनेषत. -- लभ (mid.only): sing. 1. अलप्सि, 2. अलब्धास्. 3. अलब्ध etc. 492. (6) The iş-aorist. The tense-stem is made by adding # by means of an inserted & The root is generally strengthened. E. g. पू ‘purify': Act.: sing. 1. अपाविषम्, 2. अपीवीस, 3. अपा- वीत्; du. 1. अपाविष्व, 2. अपाविष्टम्, 3. •ष्टाम्; pl. 1. विष्म, 2. विष्ट, 3. विषुस्:- Bid, sing. 1. अपाविषि, 2. अपाविष्ठा, 3. अ- Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 190 Lesson XLIV. XLV. ufag; du. 1. ofamafe, 2. ofanyTA, 3. OOTA; pl. 1. ofanie, 2. ofach, 3. ofaua. – This is the only aorist of which forms are made in the secondary and denominative conjugations (but for causatives and denominatives in y, cf. § 489). 493. (6) The siş-aorist is active only, the corresponding middle being of the s-form. An example will suffix here. Et: sing. 1. - InfHTA etc., quite like the inflection of the iş-aorist. 494. (7) The sa-aorist. 1999: Act. sing. 1. TA, 2. •ZĘ, 3. 779 ; and so on, like an impf. of the a-conjugation. But in the mid. the grammarians prescribe the 1st. sing. #fafa, and 2nd and 3rd du. # f TH and GTA. 495. Aorist Passive. Generally the middle forms of aorists 4, 5, or 7, are used also for the passive. Roots which do not ordin- arily take aorists of these forms, may make them like 4 or 5 espe- cially for the passive. 496. But a 3rd pers. sing., of peculiar formation, bas become a recognized part of the passive conjugation. It is formed by add- ing g to the root, which takes also the augment, and is usually strengthened, in some cases by guņa, in others by výddhi. After final 71 is added 7. Thus, oft, afet; 1, Pata; at, waift; 97, Watfa; – but FA, YA; TT, TT; 1, #tfal. 11 Lesson XLV. Derivative or Secondary Conjugations. 497. Secondary conjugations are those in which a whole system of forms, more or less complete, is made from a derivative conjugation-stem, this whole system being usually connected with a certain definite modification of the original radical sense. These conjugations are: I. Passive. II. Intensive. III. Desiderative. IV. Causative. V. Denominative. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson XLV. 191 re are 498. I. Passive. The present-system of the passive has been described; as also the peculiar 3rd pers. sing. used as aor. pass., the past pass. participle in a or 7, and the fut. pass. participles or gerundives. In all other parts of the verb middle forms are used, if necessary, with passive meaning. 499. II. Intensive. The intensive conjugation signifies the intensification or the repetition of the action expressed by the primary conjugation of a root. Forms outside the present-system are too rare to Deed notice here; indeed, even within that system they are by no means common in the later language. Intensives fall into two classes. 500. 1. The verbs of the first class (only act.) form their in- tensive-stem by reduplication, and the reduplicating syllable is strengthened. a. Radical and are reduplicated with , and & with T, 3 and 3 with w; thus, arag, gry, 2017, T7997. b. Sometimes the reduplicating syllable has a final consonant, taken from the end of the root; thus, T T, AHL. c. Sometimes the reduplication is dissyllabic, an i-vowel being inserted after the final consonant of the reduplicating syllable; thus, align: - The model of infection is the present-system of the reduplicating- class, but deviations are not rare; in particular, an & is sometimes inserted between stem and ending. 501. 2. From the intensive-stem as just described may be formed another, formally identical with a passive-stem, by the suffix y. It takes middle inflection, but has no passive value, being used precisely as is the intensive just mentioned. Thus, 751, AHFUN. 502. A few intensives, having lost their value as such, come to be used as presents, and are treated by the native gramwarians as simple roots. Thus Fly, really intensive of Į wake', is assigned to the root-class: pres. Jiufü etc., du. Origh etc.; impf. 1. VETTA, 2. FIT, 3. VETT; du. Atya etc. So 2 2 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 192 Lesson XLV. re- VO also TT, intens. of glórun', used as a present with the sense be poor'. faa wash', and some others, use the intensive present-system in the same way, and are assigned to the re- duplicating class; thus, 3rd sing. aafa, 3rd pl. a faufa. Intensive forms outside the present-system are very rare. 503. III. Desiderative. By this conjugation is denoted a desire for the action or condition denoted by the simple root; thus, fuaTfA 'I drink', desid. futaTfH 'I wish to drink'. 504. To form the desiderative-stem the root is reduplicated, and adds #, sometimes gy. The consonant of the reduplication is determined by the usual rules; the vowel of reduplication is g if the root has an a-vowel, an i-vowel, or 7, and 3 if the root has an u-vowel. Thus, ut, forgrafa; ait, faoitufa; H1, gaufa; a, fautsfa; fue, farhafa; fag, fafawa. 505. A number of roots form an abbreviated desiderative- stem; thus, 719, fafa; z1, frafa. 506. The conjugation in the present-system is like that of other a-stems. Outside of that desiderative forms are quite in- frequent. The perfect is the periphrastic. The aorist is of the is-form; thus, & H, Tra ; pfafafae. The futures are made with the auxiliary vowel T; thus, sfogofa, graf. The verbal nouns are made with in all forms where that vowel is ever taken. A passive may be made; thus, freà 'it is desired to be obtained'; part. fua. 507. IV. Causative. 1. The present-system of the causative has been treated of already. 2. The perfect is the periphrastic, the derivative noun in WT being formed from the causative-stem; thus, yiyei qart. 3. The aorist is the reduplicated, made in general directly from the root, and formally unconnected with the causative-stem; thus, H, TETA, quam. In a few instances, where the root bas assumed a peculiar form before the causative- sign, the reduplicated aorist is made from this form, not from the ms OU ev 2 ca Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Lesson'LXV. 193 simple root; thus, T, erafa, ufafgga. 4. Both futures are made from the causative-stem, the auxiliary a replacing the final

thus, yttigrafa, yrtfyatfch. 5. The verbal nouns and

adjectives are in part formed from the causative-stem in the same manner as the futures, in part from the causatively strengthened root-form; thus, pass. part. faa; fut. pass. part. (gerundive) aufgaa, eta; inf. stufya; gerund Hierat, RD, 07-

  1. 21 (§ 310).

508. Causative passive and desiderative. These may be made from the causative-stem as follows. 1. The passive-stem is formed by adding the usual passive sign u to the causatively strengthened root, the syllables ya being omitted; thus, urla. 2. The desider- ative-stem is made by reduplication and addition of the syllables 97, of which the g replaces the final copy of the causative-stem; thus, दिधारयिषति, बिभावयिषति. This is a rare formation. 509. V. Denominative. A denominative conjugation is one that has as basis a noun-stem. In general, the base is made from the noun-stem by means of the conjugation-sign , which has the accent. Intermediate between the denominative and causative con- jugations stands a class of verbs plainly denominative in origin but having the causative accent. Thus, from Ama, Hayâ mantráyate; from ara, andera kārtáyati. See § 76. 510. The denominative meaning is of the greatest variety; e. g. 'be like', 'act as', regard or treat as', 'make into', desire, crave' – that which is signified by the noun-stem. Examples: from 7uF 'penance, asceticism', agefa “practise ascetism ; from JH, Jhefa 'honor'; gautiã "blacken’; Baafa óseek horses'; oftarafa 'play the herdsman, protect ’; quefa' desire wealth’; fzurufa 'play the physician, cure'; at Rifa'desire a son’, from the poss. cpd. TEATA "desiring a son’ nala a Perts, Sanskrit Primer. 13 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 194 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. Glossary to the Exercises. For the alphabetic order of Sanskrit words see p. xii. I. Sanskrit-English. Adjectives in -a form their feminine in -ā, unless otherwise stated. akşa m., die, dice. adhas adv., below, down. akşan (akși: 275) n., eye. adhastāt adv., below; prep., w. agni m., fire; as n. pr., Agni, the gen., underneath. god of fire. adhi adv., over, above, on. agnihotrin m., a kind of priest. adhika a., additional; superior. agra ., front; tip, end. adhīta part. of adhi-i. añga n., limb; body. adhună adv., now angiras (253) m., certain mythical adhvaryu m., priest who recites characters. | the Yajurveda. añjali m., a gesture (Voc. 37). 1 an (ániti: 429) breathe; - + aņu a., small; as n., atom. pra breathe; live. atas adv., bence. an, before cons. a, negative prefix. ati adv., across, past; in cpds, anaờuh (278) m., ox. to excess. anantaram adv., after, immediately atithi m., guest. afterward; as prep., W. abl., atra adv., bere, bither. right after. atha adv., then; thereupon. anartha m., misfortune. atharvaveda m., the fourth Veda. anavadya a., faultless. adas (asāu: 287) pron., that one; anahilapāțaka n., n. pr., a city. so-and-so. anu adv., after, along, toward. adya adv., to-day. anuküla a., favorable; as n., favor. adyatana adj., of to-day. anujñā f., permission. adroha m., faithfulness. anurūpa a., suitable. adhurma m., injustice, wrong. aneku a., several. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 1. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 195 anşta n., untruth. araçya a., necessary. anta m., end; in loc., at last. arasthā f., condition, state. antara a., inner; as n., interior, arāñc (272) a., downward. middle; interval, difference; oc- Vlaç (açnute) acquire, obtain; casion, juncture. Cf. 375, 4. - + sam-upa idem. andha a., blind. 1 2aç (açnáti) eat; caus. (ācáya- andhra m., n. pr., a people. ti) make eat, give to eat. anna n., food, fodder. acīti (332) num., eighty. anya (231) pron. adj., other. açru n., tear. anyatra adv., elsewhere. açta m., horse. anvañc (272) a., following. açvin m. du., n. pr., the Açvins anvaya m., descendant, progeny. 1 (the Indian Alòs xoģpol). ap (277) f. pl., water. aşta (332) num., eight. apara (233) pron. adj., hinder; astādaça (332) num., eighteen. other. aștāvinçati (329,332) num.,twenty- api (190) adv., unto; further; as eight. conj., also, even. | las (ásti : 426) be, exist. apsaras f., heavenly nymph. 1 2as (ásyati) throw, hurl; abhaya n., feeling of safety; safe- + abhi repeat, study, learn; - ty. trust; - + pra throw abhi adv., to, unto. forward or into. abhiprāya m., plan, design; riew.asi m., sword. abhyāsa m., study, recitation. asura m., demon. amặta a., immortal; as n., nectar. asāu same as adas. ambā (273) f., mother. asthan (asthi : 275) n., bone. ayam same as idam. asmad same as vayam; as stem ari m., enemy. in cpds, cf. 352, 4. artha m., purpose; meaning; ahan (ahar, ahas : 271) n., day. wealth. aham (223) pron., I. V arthaya (den,: artháyate) ask ahita a., disagreeable. for (w. two acc.); + pra idem. Jaho excl., ob! ah! aryaman (284) m., n. pr. ahorātra n., a day and a night. Warh (árhati) deserve; have a right to; w. inf. (320), be able. à(130) adv., hither, unto; as prep., alam adv., enough; very; w.instr., | w. abl., hither from; until. enough of, away with ; w. dat., ākāra m., form, figure. suitable for. akāça m., air, sky. ali m., bee. ākrsta part. of ā-krs. ava adv., down, off. ākrānta part. of a-kram. 13* Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 196 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. āgamana A., arrival. | itara (231) pron. adj., other. ācāra m., 6 walk and conversa itas adv., hence. tion"; conduct; observance. iti adv., thus, so. ācārya m., teacher. ittham adv., in this way, so. ājñā f., command. idam (285-286) pron., this, this ātman m., soul, self; often simple here. reflexive pronoun. Vidh, indh (inddhé: 444) kindle, ādi m., beginning; in cpds, cf.| light. 375, 1. indu m., moon. aditya n., sun. indra m., n. pr., the god Indra. ādeça m., command, prescription. indraprastha n., n. pr., Delhi. Vāp(āpnóti,āpnuté) acquire, reach; indrāni f., n. pr., a goddess. - tara, pra, or anu pra, idem; iyant (263) a., so great; so much. + sam idem; finish. iyam fem. of idam. āpad f., calamity. iva adr., postpos., as; like. āpta part. of õp, trustworthy; fit. 1 liş (iccháti : 109) wish, desire. āyuşmant (263) a., long-lived. lişu m., arrow. āvista, part. of viç + ā, entered liha adv., here, bither. (by), i. e. filled (with). açā f., hope. Vīks (ikșate) see, behold; -- tupa ăçu a., swift. Deglect; - tprati expect. āçrama m., hermitage. idrs, f. -7, a., such. V ás (áste : 424) sit; caus. (ā-1 iç (iste : 422) rule, own (gen.). sáyati) place; – tupa sit by; āçvara m., naster; lord; rich man. wait upon; reverence. ásana 1., seat, chair. ucchrita part. of ud-çri, high. āharaṇa n., bringing. ud adv., up, up forth or out. āhāra m., food udañc (272) a., northward. āhuti f., oblation, offering. udadhi m., ocean. udaya m., rise. V i (éti (-ité : 408]) go: – + adhi udara n., belly. mid., go orer, repeat, read; udyata part. of ud-yam, ready. caus. (adhyāpáyati) teach; -udyāna n., garden. tanu follow; — + apa go away; udyoga m., diligence. - + abhi approach; – + astam udyogin a., diligent, energetic. (lit’ly go home) set (of the sun, upa adv., to, toward. etc.); - + ud rise; tupa ap- upanayana n., initiation. proach; - + pra go forth; die. upanişad f., certain Vedic works. iccha f., wish. upabhoga m., enjoyment. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 197 U upavīta n., sacred cord of the cles ca, cana, cid, api, some one three higher castes. or other; so also w. relatives; upānah (249) f., sandal, shoe. oftenest in neg. clauses: no one ubha a., du., both. whatever (236). uras n., breast. kața m., mat. uru, f. urvī, a., wide. kanțaka m., thorn, enemy. urvaçã f., n. pr., an Apsaras. kantha m., neck. uşas f., dawn; as n. pr., Uşas, kanva m., n. pr. goddess of the daw katham adv., how? V kathaya (den.: katháyati) relate, 1 ? (rccháti: 109) move; go to; tell. fall to one's lot, fall upon; caus. kadā adv., when ? — + cana, cid, (arpáyati) send; put; give. api, at some time, ever; often ?ksa m., bear. W. neg. rgreda m., the Rigveda. kaniştha a., youngest. rc f., verse of the Rigveda; in kanīyas a., younger. pl., the Rigveda. kanyå f., daughter, maiden. īņa 1., debt. kapi m., monkey. Țtvij m., priest. kapota m., dove. ? și m., seer. V kamp (kámpate) tremble. kara m., hand; trunk (of elephant); eka (231) num., one; pl., some; ray; toll, tax. eke.. eke, some • • others. karin m., elephant. ekadā adv., once upon a time. karuņa a., lamentable. ekādaça (332) num., eleven, karņa m., ear. ekādaça (334) a. eleventh. kartȚ m., doer, maker (202); etad (231) pron., this, this here. author. eva adv., just, exactly. karman n., deed; ceremony; fate. evam adv., so, thus. 1 kal + sam (samkaláyati) put eșa same as etad. together, add. kalaha m., quarrel. ostha m., lip. kalā f., crescent. kalinga m., n. pr., a people. āuşadha n., medicine. kaliyuga n., the “Iron Age” of the world. ka (232) pron. 1. interrogative, | kalyāņa n., advantage; salvation. who, what; kim w. instr., cf. kavi m., poet. kävien 5 note on p. 89. — 2. indefinite, kāņa a., one-eyed. adj. and subst., chiefly w. parti- | kānti f., charm; grace. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 198 1. Sanskrit-English Glossary. kāma m., desire, love; as n. pr., gen., dat., or loc. pers.); - the god of love. + prādus make known or visible; kāmadugha a., granting wishes; – + sam (395) prepare, adorn. as f. subst., sc. dhenu, the fab- |V2kr (kiráti) strew, scatter; – ulous Wonder-cow. + vi, iden. kāmaduh a., idem. V kợt (kgratiti: 10) cut, cut off; kāya m., body. + ava idem. kārama n., reason, cause. kyti f., work (literary). -kärin a., causing, making. kştrima a., adopted. kārya n., business, concern. kȚtsna a., whole, entire. kāla m., time. krpaņa a., poor; niggardly. kālidāsa m., n. pr., a poet. krpā f., graciousness, pity. kāvya n., poem. | V kļš (kársati) draw; - + å draw kāçã f., n. pr., a city, Benares. on or up; – (krşáti) plough. kāştha n., fagot; wood. | krși f., agriculture. kāșthamaya a., made of wood. krșirala m., husbandman, peasant. kim neut. of ka; w. tu, however. kršņa a., black; as m., n. pr., the kiyant (263) pron. adj., how god Krşņa. great? v klp (kálpate) be in order; tend karti f., glory. or conduce to (dat.); caus. (kal- kutas adv., whence? why? påyati, -te) ordain, appoint. kutra adv., where? whitber? ketu m., banner kunta n., spear. keça m., hair. V kup (kúpyati) be angry (gen. kāilāsa m., n. pr., a mountain. or dat.). koți f., peak; point, tip. kumāra m., boy, prince. | kopa m., anger. kucala a., able; clever; learned. koşa n., treasure; treasury. Vikr(karóti, kurutė: 394-5) make, kāunteya m., n. pr. do, perform; - + adhi put at kāusalyā f., n. pr. the head, make ruler over (loc.); V kram (kråmati, krámate: 134) - + apa do evil to, barm (gen., step; – + ati pass beyond; loc., acc.); – + apa-ā pay; - | transgress; pass (of time); -- + alam prepare, adorn; -+āvis + å stride up to, attack; – (āvişkaroti) make known, ex- + nis go out. bibit; — + upa do good to, be- V krī (krīņáti, krīņāté) buy. nefit (gen., loc.); – +tiras (ti- krīdā f., game, sport. rask.) hide; blame; – + puras V krudh (krúdhyati) be angry(gen. put at the head; - + prati pay,] or dat.). recompense, punish (acc. rei, krodha m., anger. • PC Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit- English Glossary. 199 199 kra adv., where? whither? + cit! – + sam (mid.) come together, sometimes, ever. | meet (instr.). kşaņa m. 1., moment; time. garīyas comp., very honorable. ksatriya m., warrior, man of the V2gā (gåyati) sing. second caste. gāndharva, f. -ē, a., in the manner kşaya m., decay, destruction of Gandharvas. kşan (kşaņoti, kşaņute) hurt, v gāh (gåhate) plunge; ~ + ava wound. dive or plunge onder (acc.). V kşal (kşāláyati) wasb; -- + pra gir f., voice, song. idem. giri m., mountain. kşātra a., suitable for Kşatriyas. gāta n., song; singing. 1/2kşi (kşinóti) destroy. guna m., quality, excellence. kșitipa m., king. guru m., teacher. | kşip (kşipáti) hurl, throw. V guh (gúhati: 101) hide, conceal; kşīņa part. of 2kși, reduced, de-i caus. (gūhayati) idem. cayed, ruined. guhā f., cave. kşīra 1., milk. grha n., house. ksudra a., little, small. grhastha m., bouseholder, bead of kşudh f., bunger. family. kşetra n., field. grhya a., domestic go (209) m., f., bull, steer, cow; V khan (khánali) dig. as f., fig., speech. khara m., ass. gotra n., ox-nature, stupidity. gopa m., cowherd, shepberd; gangā f., n. pr., the Ganges. | guardian. gaja m., elephant. 1 gopāya (den. : gopáyati) be keep- 1 ganaya (den.: gaņiyati) number, er; guard. count; - t ava despise. gāurava n., weigbt; dignity. gati f., gait; course. V granth (grathnáti) string to- gandha m., odor, perfume. I gether; compose. gandharva m., a Gandharva, one grantha m., literary work, book. of a band of celestial singers. | 1 grah (gļhņåti, gļhnīte) receive, V gam (gácchati : 100) go; — + anu seize; - + ni bold, restrain, follow; - t abhi visit, attend; check; ~ t prati take. -- tava understand; – tastam grāma m., village. go down, set (cf. i + astam); – grāsa m., bite, mouthful. + à come; – + ud rise; – + nis come forth; proceed from; ghata m., pot, vessel. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 200 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. ghāsa m., fodder, bay. nis or vi-nis decide, conclude; ghệta n., clarified batter; ghee. 1 + pra gather; -t vi idem; - V ghrā (jéghrati : 102) smell. + sam collect. citta n., notice ; thought; mind. ca encl. conj., and, also, te, -que; 1 cint (cintayati) consider. sometimes = if. ciram adv., long, a long time. cakra n., wheel. V cud + pra in caus. (pracodáyati), \/caks (caste: 421) see, bebold;| impel. - + ā relate; call, name; – ir cur (coráyati) steal. + vi-ā explain. cūdā f., top-knot, scalp. cakşus n., eye. ced adv., postpos., if. catur (332) num., four. l' cest (céştati, -te) stir, be alive. caturtha, f. -7, a., fourth. cāulukya m., n. pr., a people. caturdaça (332) num., fourteen. V cyu (cyávate) totter, fall; – tvi catuspad (282) a., quadruped. fall away. catrārinçat (332) num., forty. candra m., moon. chattra n., umbrella. candramas m., moon. chāyā f., shade. 1 cam, used only with ā (ācămati), V' chid (chinátti, chinddhé) cut, cut sip; rinse the mouth. off; ~ tara idem; - tā take camatkāra m., astonishment. I away, renove; - + ud exter- l'car (cárati) go, wander; graze minate. (of cattle); tr., perform, commit; - tā perform, complete, do; l jagat n., that which moves; men - + sam-ā idem; – + ud caus. and beasts; the world. (uccāriyati) pronounce, say. V jan (jáyate : 155; janáyati) trans. -cara a., moving, going. (janayati and active forms) beget, carana m., n., foot, leg. produce; intrans. (jayate and carita n., behavior, life. middle forms) be born (mother in carman n., hide, skin; leather. loc.), arise, spring up; – + ud carmamaya a., leathern. (ujjāyate) be born, arise (abl.); 1 cal (cálati) stir; – + pra move -- + pra or sam idem. on, march; – +pra-vi, tr., move, jana m., man; pl., and coll. in stir. | sing., people, folks. cāturmāsya n., a certain sacrifice. janaka m., father. cāmākara n., gold. janani f., mother. cāra m., spy. janman n., birth, existence. cāru a., beautiful. jaya m., victory. V ci (cinóti, cinute) gather; – +! jaras (280) f., old age. tros. Voss Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 1. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 201 jarā (280) f., old age. | tatas adv., tbence, therefore; there- jala n., water. upon. v jalp (jálpati) speak; chat. tatra adv., there, thither. i jāgaraya (caus.) awaken. tathā adv., in that way, so. jāti f., birth; caste; kind. tad nom. and acc. s. n. to ta; as jāmātſ m., son-in-law. adv., therefore. jāyā f., woman, wife. tadā adv., then. jāla n., net. tadyathā adv., namely, to wit. ji (jáyati) trans, and intrans., 1 tan (tanóti, tanuté), tr., stretch, conquer, win; ~ + parā, mid., extend; perform (a sacrifice); be conquered (cf. in Voc. 9). 1 - + cause, bring about; - jina m., n. pr., a name of Buddha. + pra extend. jihrā f., tongue. V tap (tápati, -te), tr. and intr., v jiv (jivati) live. burn; pain; in pass., suffer, do jūvita n., life. penance. juhū f., spoon, esp. sacrificial tapas n., heat; self-torture. spoon. tapasvin a., practising ascetism; jetỉ m., conqueror, victor. as m., ascetic. -jña a., koowing. V tam (támyati : 131) be sad. V jñā (jānáti, jānīté : 403) know; ſtaru m., tree. - tanu permit; - tā caus. taruņa, f. -7, a., young, delicate. (ājñāpáyati) command ; – tvi tasthicāns pf. part. of sthā; as D., recognize. the immovable. jñāna n., knowledge; insigbt. tādrç a., sucb. jyā f., bowstring. tālu n., palate. jyeștha (340) a., best; oldest. tāvant adj., so great, so much; jyotişa n., astronomy; astronomi. tāvat as adv., so long, so much; cal text-book. often concessive, like donc, doch. jyotis n., light; star; beavenly tiraskariņā f., veil. body. tiryañc (272) a., going horizontally; as subst., animal. ta (228-230) pron., he, etc.; that, tilaka m., ornament (often fig.). botb subst. and adj.; also as tīra n., bank, sbore. def. article. tīrtha n., bathing-place; place of taksaçilā f., n. pr., Taxila, a city. Į pilgrimage. V tad (tāļáyati) strike, beat. tīvra a., great, strong, violent. taļāga m., pond. tu conj., bat, however. tadit f., lightning V tud (tudáti) push; strike. tandula m., rice. 1/tul (toláyati) weigh. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 202 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 10 NI 1/tus (túşyati) rejoice, take pleasure daça (332) num., teu. in (w. instr.). daçaratha m., n. pr. tr (tárati) cross over; - + ava dasta part. of danç. descend; + ud emerge; — + pra V dah (dáhati) burn. in caus. (prataráyati), deceive. Vidā (dádāti, datté : 436) give; in tytīya, f. -ā (335), a., third. caus. (dāpáyati) make give or 1 tsp (třpyati) satisfy oneself. pay; - tā take (312); — + pra trsnā f., thirst, desire. entrust; give in marriage. tejasvin a., courageous. V/ 2dā (dyáti : 132) cut; quine V tyaj (tyájati) leave, abandon; dāty m., giver; as adj. (204), gen- + pari leave off, give up. erous. trayodaça (332) num., thirteen. dāna n., gift, present; generosity. tri (332) num., three. dānava m., demon. trinçat (332) num., thirty. dāsa m., slave, groom. triloka n., -kī f., the threefold dāsā f., female slave, servant. world. dina n., day. trivrt a., triple, threefold. div (277) f. (rarely m.), sky. triçîrşan a., three-headed. divasa m., day. tristubh f., name of a metre. divya a., heavenly, divine. tryaçīti num., eighty-three. V diç (diçáti) show, point out; – tva stem of pron. of 2d pers. (226;| + à command; – tupa teach, cf. 352. 4). instruct. tvad 80-called stem of pron. tva. diç f., point, cardinal point; tvaşt? m., n. pr., a god, Tvaştar. quarter, region; direction. 1' dih (dégdhi : 428) smear. 1 danç (dácati) bite. dirgha a., long; – am adv., afar. danstrā f., tooth. dirghāyus a., long-lived. dakṣa m., n. pr. 1/ dīv (divyati) play. dakşiņa a., right-hand; southern. du (dunóti), intr., burn, feel dis- danda m., stick; punishment. I tressed; tr., distress (acc.). 1 dandaya (den.: dandáyati) pun- duḥkha n., misery; misfortune. ish. dugdha n., milk. dadhan (dadhi: 275) n., curds. durjana m., scamp, rogue. dadhyañc(weakest -dhāc) m., n. pr. durdaçā f., misfortune. 1 dam (dámyati : 131) control; caus. durlabha a., hard to find or reach; (damáyati) tame; compel. difficult. daya f., compassion, pity. 1 duş (dúşyati) be defiled. daridra a., poor. dusprayukta a., badly arranged. darçana n., philosophical system. duşşanta m., n. pr. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 203 dus insep. prefix, bad; bard. dhanus n., bow. V duh (dogdhi, dugdhé: 428) milk. dharma m., right; law; virtue. duhit; f., daughter. 1 Idhā (dádhāti, dhatté : 435) put, dūta m., messenger, envoy. place; - t api close, cover, \/dſ in caus. (dāráyati) + vi tear | keep shut; - tā put on; mid., open. receive; — + sam-ā lay or place I'drç (127) see; cans. (darçáyati) || on; - + ni lay down; - + show; pass. (drçyáte) seem, pari in caus. (-dhāpayati), make look. put on, clothe in (two acc.); dụç f., look, glance; eye. - t vi arrange, ordain; - + dera m., god; f. -7, goddess; sam put together, unite; lay on. queen. 12dha (dháyati : 126) suck. devaki f., n. pr. dhātſ m., creator. devakula n., temple. dhānya n., grain. devatā f., divinity, deity. dhārmika a., rigbt, just. deça m., region, land. dhav (dhåvati) run; – + anu daiva, f. -7, divine. run after. doşa m., fault. dhāvana n., running; course. dyuti f., brilliancy. dhi f., understanding, insight. dravya n., property; object. dhīmant a., wise, prudent. draştr m., seer; autbor (of Vedic dhira a., steadfast, firm, brave. bymns, etc.). V dhū (dhunóti, dhunuté: 391), 1/dru (drávati) run. sbake. V druh (drúhyati) be hostile, offend. 1 dhệ in caus. (dhāráyati) bear. dra (332) num., two. dhịti f., firmness; courage. drāḥstha m., doorkeeper. dhenu f., cow. dvár f., door, gate. dhāirya n., steadfastness. dvija m., Aryan. V dhyā (dhyâyati) think, ponder. dvijāti m., Aryan. dritīya (335) a., second. na adv., not; with opt., cf. 207. dvipad (282) a., biped. naksatra n., lunar mansion. y driş (dvésti, drişte) bate; - + nagara n., -i f., city. pra hate extremely. nadi f., river. driş m., enemy. | nand (nándati, -te) + abhi re- dvis adv., twice. joice in, greet joyfully (acc.). dvīpin m., panther. 1 nam (námati), intr., bow, bend; tr., bonor, reverence (acc.). dhana n., money, riches. namas n., honor, glory. dhanin a., wealthy. nara m., man (vir and homo). Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 204 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. naraka m., hell. |nīti f., conduct of life; ethics, pol- narmadā f., n.pr., a river in India. | itics. nala m., n. pr. nīruj a., healthy, well. nava a., new. nilakantha m., n. pr. nava (332) num., nine. Vnpt (artgati) dance. navati (332) nom., ninety. nţtta n., dance, dancing. navadaça (332) num., nineteen. nrpa m., king. navina a., new. nrpati m., king. V naç (náçyati) perish; – t vi net; m., leader. perish; disappear. netra n., leading-rope, cord; eye. V'nah (náhyati) bind; – + sam nāu f., ship. gird, equip oneself. nyañc (272) a., low. nāga m., snake. nyāya m., logic. näțaka n., drama, play. nyāyya a., right, proper. naman n., name; nāma adv., by name. pakṣa m., wing, side; party. närī f., woman, wife. pakşin m., bird. nālā f., pipe, conduit. paīka n., mud, bog. nāça m., destruction. V pac (pácati) cook. ni adv., down; in, into. pañca (332) num., five. nitya a., constant; daily; -am as pañcadaça (332) num., fifteen. adv., always, daily. pañcapañcāça (334) a., fifty-fifth. nideça m., command. pañcāçat (332) num., fifty. V nind (nindati) blame. V pat (pāțáyati) split open. nipuņa a., shrewd, skilled. patu a., skilled. niyata, part. of ni- yam, ordain- 1 path (páthati) recite, read. ed, fixed, permaneot. pani m. pl., n. pr., certain demons. nirdaya a., pitiless. pandita m., learned man; pandit. nirvști f., contentment, happiness. V pat (påtati) fall, Ay; – t ud nis adv., out, forth. fly up. niçcaya m., decision, certainty. pati (274) m., lord, master; hus- V ni (náyati; caus. näyáyatë) lead, band. guide; - + apa lead away; — paitra n., leaf, letter. tā bring; -- + upa introduce, patnī f., wife, consort. consecrate, initiate; - t nis pathi same as panthan. bring to an end, determine, pathya a., wholesome. settle; - + pari lead about; pad (282) m., foot. marry. Vpad (pádyate) go; - t vi-ā in nica a., low. | caus. (vyāpādáyati) kill; -+ Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 205 nis (nispádyate) grow, arise from pāçupālya n., cattle-raising. (ahl.); - t pra flee for refuge pit; m., father; du., parents; pl., to (acc.). Manes. pada p., step; place. V pis (pinásti) grind, crush. padma m. D., lotus. vpi same as pyā. panthan (278) m., road, path. pāna part, of pī, fat. payas n., milk. ipad (pāļáyati) torment, vex. para(233) a., cbief, bigbest; other. puins same as pumāns. paramātman m., the world-spirit. punya a., meritorious, holy, aus- paraçu m., axe. | picious; as n., merit. parā adv., to a distance, away. putra m., son; -trī f., daughter. pari adv., round about, around. punar adv., again, but. parivrāj (247, 2) m., wandering pumāns (279) m., man, male. ascetic. pur f., city. - parişad f., assembly. purā adv., earlier, formerly. parvata m., mountain. purāņa, f. -ā and -2, a., former, 1 palāy (pálāyate: cf. p. 116, note) | ancient; as n., one of a class of flее. works on the creation, etc. V paç (páçyati: 127) see. puruşa m., man (homo). paçu mn., beast. purūravas m., n. pr., Purūravas. paçcāt adv., bebind (w. gen.). purohita m., domestic priest. Vlpā (pibati: 102) drink; caus. pulinda m., n. pr., a tribe in India. (pāyáyati) give to drink, water. V puș (puşņáti) make increase or V 2pā (páti) protect; caus. pālá- grow. yati) idem. pusta part. of puș, stout, fat. pāțaliputra n., n. pr., the city puspa n., flower. Patnā. pustaka n., book (manuscript). · pātha m., lecture, lesson. 1/pū (punáti, punīte) clean. pāņi m., band. V pūj (pūjáyati) bonor. pāņini m., 8. pr. pūra m., food, high-water. pāndara m., descendant of Pāņqu. pūru m., n. pr. pātaka n., crinie, sin. pūsan (284) m., n. pr., Pūşan, pātra n., pot, vessel. the Sun-god. pada m., foot; quarter; ray, beam. pịthivī f., earth, ground. pāpa a., bad; as n. subst., sin. prthu a., broad, wide. pārthira m., prince. prthri f., earth. pārratī f., n. pr. prthvīrāja m., n. pr. pălana n., protection. 1 lpr (piparti) fill. , vipy, I gårays til overe pāça m., noose, cord, spare. poşaka m., supporter, maintainer. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 206 1. Sanskrit-English Glossary, pāutra m., grandson. sociable. pāura m., citizen. priyavādin a., idem. 1 pyā (vyáyate) swell, get stout. V prī (prīņāti, prīnīte), act., de- pra adv., forward, forth. light; mid., rejoice; caus. (prī- prakāçin a., bright, glistening; máyati), make glad, please. act., illuminating. 1plu (plávate) + å drench. V prach (prccháti) ask, ask about. prajā f., creature, subject. phala n., fruit, reward. prati adv. and prep., back, back phalavant a., fruitful. again; towards (postpo8., w. acc.). ly bandh (badhnáti, badhnīte) bind; pratikūla a., unfavorable. entangle, catcb; join; com- pratyañc (272) a., backward, west- ward. | bandhu m., relative. pratyaham adv., daily. bala n., strength, might. V prath in caus. (prathayati), balavant a., strong, mighty. spread; proclaim. baliştha a., strongest. prathama (335) a., first. | bahu a., much, many. prabhāva m., might, power. bāla a., young; as m., child, boy; prabhūta a., much; many. f. -ă, girl. pramatta a., careless. başpa m., tear, tears. prayāga m., n. pr., Allahābād. bāhu m., arm. prayukta part. of pra-yuj. bindu m., drop. prayoktỉ m., arranger, user. | buddha part. of budh, awakened; pralaya m., destruction. enlightened. praçna m., question. buddhi f., prudence, intelligence. prasanna, part. of pra-sad, well-buddhimant a., prudent. disposed. 1'budh (bódhati, -te; bůdhyati, -te), prahāra m., stroke, shot; wound. wake; know. prāñc (272) forward, eastward. budha m., wise man, sage. prāna m., often pl., breath, life. brahmacarya n., life of holiness, prāņin m., living creature. | esp. religious studentship. prātar adv., early, in the morning. brahmacärin a., studying sacred prāyaçcitta n., penance, expiation. knowledge; as m., Brāhman prāyeņa adv., commonly. student. prāsāda m., palace. brahman n., devotion; sacred word priya a., dear. (of God); sacred knowledge; priyakarman a., kind. world-spirit. priyavāc a., saying pleasant things, brahmán (a personification of brá- Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 207 hman)m., the supreme All-Soul; bhāṣā f., speech, language. Brahına, the Creator. bhāsvant a., shining, brilliant. brahmahan (283) m., killing a 1' bhikṣ (bhikṣate) beg, get by beg- Brāhman. ging. brāhmaṇa m., priest, Brāhman. bhikṣā f., alms. j'brú (braríti, brūté), speak, say; bhikṣu m., beggar; ascetic. - tpra explain, teach, announce;' 1 bhid (bhinátti, bhinddhé) split. – tvi explain, announce. | 1' bhī (bibhéti) fear; in caus. (bhi- şayate, bhāyáyate) terrify. bhakta a., devoted, true. 1 2bhuj (thunákti, bhuñkté) eat, bhakti f., devotion; honor. enjoy; caus. (bhojáyati) feed; – ' bhaks (bhakşayati) eat. + upa enjoy. bhakşana n., eating. -bhuj a., enjoying. bhagavant a., honorable, blessed. bhujyu m., n. pr., a Vedic persorf. 1 bhaj (bhájati, -te) divide; - tvi bhuvana n., world. distribute. V bhū (bhávati, -te) become; be, 1' bhanj (bhanákti) break, destroy. { exist; - + abhi overpower; bhadra a., good, pleasant; as n.,| – + pari despise; - + pra fortune. arise; be mighty, rule; valere. bhaya n., fear. bhū f., earth, ground. bharatakhanda m., n. pr., India. bhūta part, of bhủ; as n. subst., bhart; m., supporter; preserver; being, creature. lord, master; husband. bhūti f., prosperity, blessing. bhava m., n. pr., a name of Çiva. bhūbhuj m., king. bhavant, f. bhavatī; in voc. bhos, | bhūbhịt m., king; mountain. f. bhavati; used in respectful | bhūmi f., earth, ground, land. address instead of pronoun of bhūyas (340) comp. adj., more; 2nd person. Cf. § 264. -yas adv., mostly. bhasman n., ashes. bhūsana n., ornament. 1 bhā (bháti) gleam, glance; - 1 bhr (thárati, -te) support(lit. and + å or vi idem. fig.). bhāga m., part, piece, share. bhrgukaccha n., n. pr., Baroch, a -bhāj a., sharing. holy place in India. bhānu m., sun. bhịtaka m., serrant. bhāra m., burden. bhịtya m., servant. bhāryā f., wife, woman. bhrçam adv., greatly, much. | bhās (bháşate) speak; – +prati bheka m., frog. answer (acc. of pers.); - +sam bhoga m., enjoyment. converse. bhojana n., meal. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 208 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 352, 4. bhos see bharant. mastaka n., head. l'bhram (bhrámyati : 131) wander mahant (261) a., great. about, Ait; -+ pari idem. mahānasa n., kitchen. bhrātę m., brother. mahārāja m., great king. Uhrű f., eyebrow. mahişa m., n. pr. mahişi f., queen. makşikā f., Ay, gnat. 1/1mā (māti; mimité : 438) mea- maghavan (270) m., Indra. sure; – + nis work, create. i maji(májjati) siok; t ni idem. mâ adv. and conj., not; used in maņi m., jewel. prohibitions, etc., like Lat. ne, mati f., mind. greek uy; cf. 195. matimant a., shrewd, prudent. māħsa n., flesh. matsya m., fish. māt; f., mother. mathi same as manthan. mādhurya n., sweetness. mad called stem of aham; cf. mānava m., man (homo). mānasa n., sense; understanding. {/mad (mádyati) get drunk; - mānuşa, f. - , human. + pra be careless. märga m., road, way, street. madhu n., honey. mālā f., garland. madhuparka m., sweet drink. māsa m., inonth. madhulih m., bee. mitra n., friend. madhya a., middle; as n., middle; mitradruh (249) a., friend-be- waist. traying. Vman (mányate; manute) think, mina m., fish. suppose; -+ sam bonor. lo mīl (milati) wink; + ni close manas n., mind. the eyes. manusya m., man (homo). muktā f., pearl. manoratha m., wish. mukti f., salvation, deliverance. manohara a., agreeable; entranc- mukha n., mouth, face. ing. mukhya a., principal, first. mantra m., sacred text; spell, V muc (muñcáti: 110) free, release; charm. muktvä, without (312). mantrin m., minister; councillor. V mud (modate) rejoice; - + anu V manth (mathnáti) stir. allow. manthan (278) m., stirring-stick. muni m., sage; ascetic. mandara m., n. pr., a mountain. 1 muş (muşmáti) steal, rob. maranu n., death. musala m. 1., club, pestle. marut m., wind; pl., n. pr., the 1 muh (múhyati) be confused or Storm-gods. | dazed or stupid. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 209 mürdhaçu a., on the head. l - tud undertake; – + ni or- mürdhan m., head. dain, fix, appoint. müla n., root. yamunā f., n. pr., the river Jumna. V mr (mriyáte: 155) die; caus. (mā- yavana m., Greek, barbarian. ráyati) kill. yavas n., glory, fame. mrga m., wild animal; gazelle. yaşti f., stick, staff. 1 mrgaya (den.: mrgáyate) hunt1 yā (yäti) go; with abstracts, for, seek. come into such and such a state; mşyayā f., chase, bunting. - tā approach. 1 mrj (mărşți: 423) rub, wipe ; yātrā f., march, journey; support. caus. (märjáyati)rub off, polish; yāma m., watch of the night. - + apa, pari or pra, wipe off. yāvant a., how much or many; mộta, part of my, dead, fallen. yārat as adr., as long as, while; mrtyu m., death. as 8000 as. mặd f., earth, dirt. yuga n., age of the world. mekhalā f., girdle. yugma n., pair. megha m., cloud. l'yuj (yunákti, yuñkté) join, yoke, mokṣa m., deliverance; salvation. harness; caus. (yojáyati) idem; moha m., infatuation. -- + ni place, appoint, establish; - + pra arrange; use. ya (231) rel. pron., used as subst. yuddha n., battle. and adj., who, which, wbat; cf. 1 yudh (yúdhyate) fight (instr.). 234 ff. yuvati f. to yuvan. 1 yaj (yájati, -te) sacrifice (acc. | yuvan (269) a., young; f. yuvati, pers., instr. rei); caus. (yājá- yuşmad called stem of yāyam; as yati) make to sacrifice, offer sa-i stem in cpds. (352, 4.), you. crifice for (acc.). yüpa m., sacrificial post. yajus n., sacrificial formula, text. yūyam (226) pron., you. yajña m., sacrifice. yajñiya a., suitable for sacrificing. V raks (rákṣati) protect. I'yat (yátate) strive after (dat.). rakṣaṇa n., protection. yatas adv., whence; wherefore. rakṣitſ m., protector. yati m., ascetic. I rac (racáyati) arrange, compose yatna m., exertion. (a literary work). yatra adv., where, wbither. rajju f., cord. yathā adv., in whicb way; as. 1 rañj + anu (anurdjyati, -te) be yadā adv., when, if. inclined or devoted to (loc.). yadi adv., if. raņa m. ., battle. V yam (yácchati: 100) furnish, give; ratna n., jewel. Perry, Sanskrit Primer. p.29 17 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 210 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. ratha m., wagon. Trūpa n., form, beauty. rathyä f., street. rūpaka n., gold-piece. Vrabh (rábhate) grasp; – tā rãi (277) m., rarely f., possessions, take hold on, begin. wealth. Vram (rámate) amuse oneself; - rohiņi f., n. pr. +vi (virámati) cease (abl.). racmi m., ray; rein. lakṣa n., a bundred thousand. rasa m., taste, feeling. lakşmi (276) f., goddess of for- rasavant a., tasteful. tube. rākşasa m., demon. I'lag (lágati) attach, bang, cling. Vrăj (rájati, -te) direct, rule; laghu, f. -ghu or -ghvī, a., light; shine; be illustrious. small, little. rājan m., king. lañkā f., n. pr., Ceylon. rājya n., kingdom. plap (lápati) prate; -- + vi com- rātri f., night. plain. V ràdh (ràdhnóti) succeed ; - tapa 1 labh (lábhate) receive, take; do wrong. caus. (lambháyati) make receive, rāma m., n. pr., a bero. give. rāmāyaṇa n., a noted poem. |lalāța n., forehead. rāvaņa m., n. pr., a demon. lavaņa ., salt. rāçi m., heap. lãñgala n., plough. Vru (räúti: 410) cry, scream; – läbha m., acquisition, gain. + vi idem. V likh (likháti) scratch, write. Vruc (rócate) please (dat., gen.). 1 lip (limpáti) smear. ruj f., sickness, disease. I lih (lédhi, līdhé: 427) lick; - y rud (róditi : 429) weep. + ara iden. ruddha, part. of rudh, besieged, l/lunth (luntháyati) + nis rob. surrounded; suffused. llup (lumpáti) break to pieces; Vrudh (runåddhi, runddhé) ob- devastate; plunder. struct, check, besiege; – + upa 1 lubh (lúbhyati) covet (dat., loc.). besiege. lekhana n., writing, copying. rudhira n., blood. loka m., world; sing. and pl., Vruh (róhati) rise, spring up, people. grow; caus. (roháyati, ropayati) | lobha m., desire, avarice. make rise or grow, plant; - loman n., hair. + ava descend; — + à climb, loha n., metal; iron. mount, ascend ; – + pra grow up. vança m., race, family. rūkņa a., harsh, rough. vakra a., crooked, bent. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 211 vakşas n., chest, breast. vastra 1., garment. Voac (rákti: 415) speak, say; j'rah (váhati) tr., carry, bear; pame; caus. (rācáyati) make (al intr., proceed; flow; blow. written leaf) speak, i. e. read. rā encl., or. vanij m., mercbant. vāc f., voice; word. ratsa m., calf. vācya a., blameworthy, culp- 1 vad (rádati) speak, say; - able, + abhi in caus. (abhivādáyati) vānijya d., trade. greet; – + vi (mid.) dispute, vāta m., wind. argue. rānaprastha m., a Brāhman in vadha m., killing, murder. the third stage of his life. tadhú f., woman; wife. vāpă f., cistern. vana n., woods, forest. vāyasa m., crow. vanarāsin a., forest-dwelling. vāyu m., wind. V vand (vandate) greet, honor. vāri n., water. p'rap (vápati) scatter; sow. vi adv., apart, away, out. vapus n., body; figure. vinça (334) a., twentieth. vayam (223) pron., we. vinçati (332) num., twenty. vayas n., age. vinçatitama (334) a., twentieth. lrará m., suitor, bridegroom. vikramāditya a., n. pr., a king, 2vára m., choice, privilege; favor. 1/vij (vijáti) tremble; - + ud in 3vara a., best; better (w. abl.: caus. (udvejáyati) terrify. than). vitta n., possessions; wealth. varāha m., boar. Vvid (vétti; vėda: 416—417) know, varuņa m., n. pr., a god. consider; caus. (vedáyati) inform varņa m., color; caste. (dat.); – + ni caus., idem. I'varņaya (varņáyati) describe, V 2vid (vindáti, -te) find, acquire. portray. -vid a., knowing. rartin a., abiding, being. vidyā f., knowledge, learning. varsa n., year. vidvāns a., kpowing, wise. vallabha a., dear. vidvista pass. part. of vi-dviệ, I raç (vásti) wish. detested. v ras (vásati) dwell; — + ni in- | vidhi m., rule, fate; Brahma. habit, dwell; - + pra go away vidheya a., obedient. on a journey; - + prati in- vinaya m., obedience. habit. vinā prep., without (with instr. tasati f., dwelling. or acc., often postpos). rasu n., wealth, money. ripäka m., ripening; recompense. vasudeva m., n. pr. vipra m., Brāhman. 14* Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 212 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. vibhu, f. -bhvī, a. pervading, far-11 eps (várşati) rain, give rain ; reaching; omnipresent, mighty. fig., shower down; overwhelm. vivāha m., wedding, marriage. veda m., science, knowledge; esp. vivekin a., shrewd. sacred knowledge, holy writ. Vviç (viçáti) enter; – + sam-a vedanā f., pain. approach; – + upa seat one- vedānta m., a system of pbilo- self; — + pra enter, penetrate. sophy. viç m. pl., people; the Vāiçya. vedi f., altar. caste. või assev. particle, to be sure, in viçișta part. of vi-çis, excellent, sooth; often untranslated. remarkable. võiçya m., man of the third caste. viçruta part. of vi - fru, famous. vyañjana n., spice. viçua (231) a., all (Vedic). voyath in caus. (vyatháyati) tor- viçvāsa m., trust, confidence. ment. visa n., poison. l' vyadh (vidhyati) bit, pierce. vişņu m., n. pr., a god. ryalika a., false, wrong. rihaga m., bird. vyavahāra m., trial, law-suit; trade. vihita part. of vi-dhā, ordained. Ivyākarana n., grammar. V lvr (vrņoti, vrnuté) cover, sur- vyāghra m., tiger. round; - tā cover; -- + apa-ū vyādha m., hunter. open; - tri explain; manifest; vyâdhi m., disease, illness. - + sam shut. vyādhita a., sick, ill. 1/2v? (crņāté; varáyati, -te) choose, vyāsa m., n. pr. select. V vraj (vrájati, -te) proceed; – vrka m., wolf. + wander forth; become an as- vykṣa m., tree. cetic. I vrt (vártate) turn; exist, subsist, vraña m., wound. be, become; – tni return home; vrata n., vow, obligation; duty. -- +pra get a-going, break out, arise; continue; caus. (act.) con- | 1 çans (cánsati) praise; proclaim; tinue (trans.). — + pra proclaim. vytta n., conduct. 1 çak (caknóti) be able; sometimes výttānta m., state of affairs;] pass., cf. 322. news. çaka m., Scythian. vytra m., n. pr., a demon. çakața m., car. ryddha part, of vşdh, old. çakuntalā f., n. pr. l' rrdh (várdhate) grow; caus. çañkā f., hesitation. (vardháyati, -te) make grow; çata (332-333) n., a hundred. bring up. |çatatama a., hundredth. 49 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 213 çatru m., enemy. 1 Çūra m., hero. çabda m., sound, noise, word. Grgāla m., jackal. V çam (cámyati) become quiet, çeşa m. n., rest, remainder. be extinguished, go out. çeşa m., a fabulous snake sup- çayyā f., bed, couch. porting the earth. çara m., arrow. 1 çram (frāmyati: 131) become çarana n., protection. weary. çarad f., autumn; year. çrama m., pains, trouble. çurīra n., body. crāddha n., oblation to the Manes çarva m., n. pr., a name of Çiva. (cf. in Voc. 16). çākhā f., branch; edition, red-V çri tā (āçrayate) go for pro- action. tection, take refuge with (acc.). çanti f., repose. çrī f., luck, fortune, riches; as bless 1 ças(çāste) command; rule; pun-1 n. pr., goddess of fortune; as ish. prefix to proper names, famous, cāstſ m., governor, punisher. honorable, etc. çastra n., science; text-book. çrimant a., rich; famous. 1 çikş (çikșate) learn. 1 çru (crnóti, çrnuté: 391) hear; in çikhara m., summit. caus. (crāváyati) make hear, i.e. çiras n., head. recite, proclaim (acc. pers.). çiva a., beneficent, gracious; bless. çruta part. of cru; as n., learning. ed; as m., n. pr., a god. çruti f., hearing; holy writ. çiçu m., child. greyas a., better; best; çreyas as j'çiş (çinášți) leave, leave remain: 1., salvation. ing; — + ava remain over, sur-çvan (269) m., dog. vive; – + ud idem; - tvi set çvaçura m., father-in-law. apart, distinguish. craçrū f., mother-in-law. çisya m., pupil, scholar. çras adv., to-morrow. 1 çi (céte: 409) lie; sleep; - v çvas (çvásiti : 429) breathe; - +adhi lie asleep on (acc.). tsam-ă breathe gently: revive; çita a., cold. - tvi be confident; trust (gen. 1 çuc (cócati) grieve, sorrow. or loc.). çuci a., pure, clean. cveta a., white. çunahçepa m., n. pr. V çubh(çóbhate) be brilliant, shine. şaţtrinçat (329) num., thirty-six. çubha a., good; splendid. | șadaçīti (329) num., eighty-six. 1 çuş (çúsyatı) dry up. șaş (332) num., six. çūrlra m., man of the fourth caste. sașți (332) num., sixty. çūdratra n., condition of a Çūdra. şaştha, f. -i (334), a., sixth. up. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 214 1. Sanskrit-English Glossary. (loc.). şodaça (332) num., sixteen. samāgama m., meeting, encounter. samāja m., convention, company. samyukta part. of sam-yuj, pro samidh f., fagot. vided with. samīpa a., near; as n., vicinity, sainvatsara m., year. nearness, presence. saṁçaya m., doubt. samudra m., ocean. sakȚt adv., once. samunnati f., height, elevation; sakthan (sakthi: 275) n., thigh. high position. sakhi (274) m., friend. sameta a., provided with. sakhā f., female companion, friend. sampūrņa part. of lp? + sam, sajja a., ready. full. V sanj (sájati ; sajjáte: cf. in Voc. samyak adv., well, properly. 22) hang on, be fastened on samrāj m., great king; emperor. sarit f., river. satkāra m., hospitality. sarga m., creation. sattra n., sacrifice. sarpa m., snake. satya n., truth, righteousness. sarva (231) a., all. V sad (sidati) sit; settle down; be sarvatra a., everywbere. overcome or exhausted; – tā savitſ m., n. pr., the Sun-god Sa- approach; - +sam-ă seat one- vitar; sun. self; caus. (-sādáyati) meet, en- V sah (såhate) endure. counter; – + ni sit down; — saha adv., together; prep., often + pra be favorable. postpos., with, along with, sadā adv., always. (instr.). sadrça, f. ož, a., similar; worthy. sahacara m., companion; -i f., samdigdha a., doubtful; unsteady. wife. sandhyā f., twilight. sahasă adv., suddenly, quickly. sant, part. of las, being, existing;/sahasra n., a., thousand. good; as m., good man; as f. sahāya m., companion, helper. sati, good woman, especially a sākşin m., witness. widow who immolates herself. sadhana n., means, device. sapta (332) num., seven. sådhu m., holy man, saint. saptati (332) num., seventy. saman n., Vedic melody, song; saptadaça (332) num., seventeen. / pl., the Sāmaveda. sabhā f., council, meeting, court. sämanta m., vassal. sam adv., along with; completely. sampratam adv., at present. samakşam adv., before, in the sāyam adv., at evening. presence of (gen.). särasa m., crane. samartha a., capable, able. sinha m., lion. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 215 V sic (sincáti) drip, drop, moisten; soina m., the intoxicating ferment- - tabhi anoint as king. ed juice of the Soma-plant. V Isidh (sédhati) repel; – +prati skandha m., shoulder. hold back; forbid. V stu (stāúti: 411) praise. V 2sidh (sidhyati) succeed; in caus. stuti f., song of praise; praise. (sādháyati) perform; acquire. 1 st? (strņóti, strņuté; stņņáti, sindhu m., n. pr., the Indus. strņité) scatter, strew; - + upa sīman f., border, boundary; out- scatter, bestrew. skirts. stena m., thief. su adv., well; easy; very. stotra d., song of praise. 1 su (sunóti, sunuté) press. strī (276) f., wonan. sukha n., fortune, luck, happiness. V sthā (tisțhati) stand, iotr.; be in sundara, f. -i, a., beautiful. or on, etc., be situated; caus. sumanas a., favorably-minded; as (sthāpåyati) put, place; appoint; f., flower. stop; – + adhi mount, stand surāpa m., drunkard. over; rule, govern; - + anu suvarna n., gold. follow out, accomplish; (cf. also suhrd m., friend. p. 96, last note); — + ud arise, V sū (süté) generate, bring forth; rise (cf. Voc. 40); – + upa ap- – +pra generate. proach, reach; - + pra mid., súkta n., Vedic hymn. start off; in caus. (act.), send; - sūta m., driver, charioteer. + sam in caus., cause to remain sūda m., cook. sthāna n., place, locality; stead. sūrya m., sud. sthita part. of sthā; cf. 290, end. V s? (sárati) flow; – tanu follow sthiti f., condition. up; - tapa go away; in caus. | 1 onă (snáti) batbe. (-säráyati) drive away. Snātaka m., one who bas perform- V srj (srjáti) let go, create; -1 ed the ablutions customary at +ud let loose or out; raise (the the end of religious pupilage. voice). snāna a., bathing, bath. 1 sſp (sárpati) move;-+pra idem. snäyu m., tendon, bowstring. sȚşti f., creation. snigdha part. of snih, affectionate. setu m., bridge, dike. Vsnih (snihyati) feel inclined to, senă f., army. love (gen., loc.). y sev (sévate) serve, honor; –+ snuşā f., daughter-in-law. ni dwell; devote oneself to; 11 sprç (sprcáti) touch. attend. 1/sph (sp?háyati) desire (dat.). sāinika m., soldier. sma encl., slightly assev.; often säinya D., army. | accompanies a present tense, Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 216 I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. giving it the force of an histor- hariņa m., gazelle. ical tense. | hala m. n., plough. V sm? (smárati) remember; think havis d., oblation. on; call to mind; teach; esp. in | hasta m., hand. pass. smaryate ‘it is taught, i. e. hastin m., elephant. traditional'. V 1hă (jáhāti) abandon, give up; smrti f., tradition; law-book. neglect. (hiyate (fass.) sraj f., garland. 1 2hā (jíhīte: 438) move. stast? m., creator. Vhi (hinoti) send; – +pra idem. sva a., own; one's own. hi assev. particle, surely ; causal, V svañj (svájate) embrace; - + for, because. pari (Cf. Voc. 21) idem. l' hins (hinásti) injure, destroy. svadşç a., similar. hita part. of Idhā; as adj., ad- V svap (svápiti: 429) sleep. vantageous; as n., advantage. svapna m., sleep, dream. himavant a., snowy; as m., the svayam pron., own self, self. Himālaya Mts. svayambhū a., self-existent; as m., hāna part. of lha, abandoned; epithet of Brahma. wanting in; w. instr., without. svarga m., heaven. V hu (juhóti, juhute) sacrifice. svas? f., sister. hutabhuj (nom. -bhuk) m., fire. stādu a., sweet. 1 hū see hva. stādhyāya m., private recitation v hr (hárati) take away; steal; of sacred texts. plunder; - + apa idem; — + svāmin m., possessor, lord. ă act. and mid., fetch, bring; svāiram adv., at pleasure. - + ud-ā cite, mention; - + praty-ā bring back; - + ud hata part, of han. save, rescue. V han (hánti: 419) kill; caus. (gha- hrd (281) n., heart. túyati), have killed; - t apa hşdaya n., heart. remove; - + abhi smite; - 1 hrs (hárşati, hrsyati) rejoice, be + sam-å wound; - + ni kill; delighted; — + pra idem. – +prati hinder; injure, offend; he interj., 0, ho. - + sam write. hemanta m., winter. -han (283) a., killing. hrasvam adv., near by. hanu f., jaw. 1' hrī (jihréti) be ashamed. hanumant m., n. pr., a monkey- hrī f., modesty, bashfulness. V hrá (hráyati) call; in caus. (hra- hant? m., killer, slayer. yáyati) have called; – tā call, hari m., n. pr., a god. sumuon. king. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 217 1. English - Sanskrit. abandon, to: tyaj; Thā. answer, to: bhāş + prati. able: samartha; çakya. appoint, to: klp, caus.; yuj + ni. able, to be: çak. approach, to: gamtā; yātā. according to: anu, postpos. argument (reason): vāc f. acquire, to: labh; āp. arise, to: bhū; (get up) sthā + ud. Açvins: uçvināu, du. arm: bāhu m. address, to: brú. army: senā f. adore, to: nam + pra. arrive, to: gamtā. adorn, to: Ik? + alam. arrow: çara m.; işu m. advantage: hita n.; kalyāņa n. Aryan: dvija m.; dvijāti m. adversity ; duḥkha n. ascetic: muni m.; yati m.; pari- afraid, to be: bhī. vrāj m.; tapasvin m.; – to be- afterward: tatas. come an a., vraj +pra. again: punar. ashamed, to be: hrī. against : prati. ashes: bhasman n. age: vayas n. ask, to (inquire): prach. all: sarra; (entire) riçva. ask for, to: arthaya. all-protecting: viçvapā. assembly: sabha f.; parişad f. allow, to: jñā +anu. astronomy: jyotişa n. alms: bhikṣā f. attain, to: labh; 2vid; laç; āp; alone (adv.): eva. up tava or pra. also: api. attainment: lābha m. altar: vedi f. author: karty in.; (of Vedic although: api. hymnns, etc.) drastr m. always : sadā, nityam. axe; paraçu m. amuse oneself, to: ram. ancient: purāņa. bad: pāpa. ; M. su and: ca, postpos. ; tathā. bank : tīra n. anger: kopa m.; krodha m. banner: ketu m. animal: tiryanc m. barbarian: yarana m. announce, to: lvid+ni, caus. bathe, to: 8nā. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 218 II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. battle: raņa m. n.; yuddha n. born, to be: jan; jan + ud. be, to: bhú; ért; (be situated) both: ubha du. sthā. bow, to : nam. bear, to: bhị; (bring forth) sū; boy: bāla m.; kumāra m. sú +pra. Brāhman: brāhmaṇa m.; dvija m.; bear: çkṣa m. drijāti m.; vipra m. beat, to: tad. branch : çākha f. beautiful: sundara; rūparant. brave; dhāra. beauty: rūpa n. breast: uras n.; vakşas n. become, to: bhũ; vrt. bridegroomn: vará m. bee: ali m.; inadhulih m. bring, to: nita; hr tā. beg, to: bhiks. broad: pöthu ; uru. begin, to: rabh tă. brother: bhrāts m. bebind : paçcât (w. gen.). burn, to: dah. behold, to: ēks. business: kārya n. Benares: kāçī f. but: tu; kimtu ; punar. bend, to: nam. benefit, to; Ikr +upa. call, to: hvā; (name) vac; vad. beseech, to: pad + pra. capable: samartha. besiege, to: rudh; rudh+upa. caste: jāti f. best: creştha; jyestha. cattle: go m. pl. betake oneself, to: yā; çri tā. cease, to : çam; ram + vi. better: çreyas; jyāyas. celebrated : viçruta ; çrīmant. bind, to: bandh. chain: hāra m. biped: dripad. charioteer; sūta m. bird: vihaga m.; pakşin m. charm: kanti f.. birth : jāti f.; janman n. check, to: dam, caus. ; rudh. black : krsna. chest: vaksas 11.; urus n. blame, to: nind; 1kr +tiras. child: bāla m.; çiçu m. blessed: bhagavant; (as prefix) choose, to: 2vr. çri. cistern: vāpī f. blood: rudhira n. citizen: paura m. blow, to (intr.): vah. city: nagara n.; -ī f.; pur f. boat: nãu f. cleverness: buddhi f. body: çarīra n.; vapus n.; kāya climb, to: ruh + á. m.;(heavenly: sun, etc.): jyotis n. close, to: lvr + sam; idhā + api. bone: asthan n. cloud: megha m. book: (manuscript) pustaka n.; coachman: sūta m. (work) grantha m. come, to: gam +a; yã + ; é + Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 219 abhi or å; come out: gam + nis; daughter: kanyā f.; putrī f.; du- yā + nis. hit; f. command, to: diçtā; jña +ă caus. day: divasa m.; dina n.; ahan n.; conımand: ajñā f.; nideça m. d. by d.: dine dine; pratyaham; commit, to: car + ā; lky. a day and a night: ahorātra n. companion: sahāya m.; sahaca- dead: mộta; vipanna. ra m. decide, to (settle): ni + nis. company: samāja m. deed: karman n. compose, to: rac. deity: devatā f. conduct: vștta n. delicate: taruņa. confine, to: rudh + ni. delight, to (tr.): tuş, caus. conquer, to: ji. deliverance: mukti f. consecrate, to: ni + upa. demon: räksasa m. consider, to: cint; lvid. depart, to: i + apa. consort: patnī f. describe, to: varņaya. cook, to: pac. desire, to: lubh. copying: lekhana n. destroy, to: bhanj. cord, sacred: upavīta a. despise, to: man + ava; bhū + pari. count, to : ganaya. determine, to: ci + nis or vi-nis. courageous: tejasvin. devoted: bhakta; snigdha. course: gati f. devotion: bhakti f. cover, to: lvr (mid.); lvr + sam die: akşa m. (mid.). die, to: m?; i + pra; pad + vi. cow: dhenu f.; go f. difficult: durlabha; duşkara. cowherd: gopa m. dig, to: khan. create, to: srj. diligence: udyoga m. creator: dhāt? m.; srasty m. diligently: bhrçam. creature: prāṇin m.; jagat n. disappear, to: naç + vi. crescent: kalā f. disease: ruj f.; vyādhi m. cross, to: tſ. dismount, to: ruh + ara. crow: vāyasa m. disown, to: khya + prati-a. curds: dadhan n. dispute, to: vad + vi. cut, to: krt; chid. idā, pód distress, to: du. cut off, to: krt + ava; chid + ava. distribute, to: bhaj + vi. divine : divya. do, to: 1ks; car + sam-a. daily: nitya; (adv.) nityam ; pra- domestic: grhya. tyaham. dog: çvan m.; çuni f. dancing: nịtta n. door: dvār f. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 220 II. English-Sanskrit-Glossary. Anetfelf, a 1.73 doorkeeper: dvāḥstha m. even (adv.): api. dore: kapota m. every: sarva. draw, to: vah. evil (adj.): pāpa; (subst.) pāpa n. drink, to: lpā. p.29 exceedingly: ati. driver : sūta m. explain, to: brū + vi; lvị + vi; drop, to: sic. caks + vi-d. drop: bindu m. exterminate, to: chid + ud. dwell, to: 3vas; vas + ni; dwell eye: netra n.; cakşus n.; akşan n.; on (fig.): sanj. locana n. ear: karņa m. face: mukha n. earth: prthivă f.; bhū f.; bhūmi f. fagot: samidh f. east, eastern: prāñc; the E.: prācī fair: sundara. f., sc. diç. fall, to: pat; pat + ni; fall to eat, to; ad; 2aç; bhakş; bhuj. one's lot: ?; fallen (killed): eating: bhakşaņa n. patita; mrta. eclipse, to: 1kr + tiras. fame: kirti f.; yaças n. eight: așța. family: vança m. eighth: aştama. famous: viçruta. eighty: açīti f. fast (firm): dịơha. eightieth: acītitama. fasten, to: bandh. eldest: jyeștha. fat: pina; puşta. elephant: gaja m.; hastin m. father: janaka m.; pit; m. eleventh: ekādaça. fault, to find: 1kr + tiras. emerge, to: tſ + ud. faultless: anaradya. eminent, to be: çubh. fear: bhaya n. emperor: samrāj m. field: kşetra n. encompass, to : lor; chid + ava. fifth: pañcama. end: anta m. fight, to: yudh. endure, to: sah. filled: pürna; sampurna. enemy: ari m.; çatru m.; dviş m. I finally: ante. enjoy, to: bhuj. find, to: 2vid. enjoyment: bhoga m. finish, to: āp + sam. . enter, to: viç + pra. fire: agni m.; hutabhuj m. entrancing: manohara. . firewood: samidh f. envoy: dūta m. first: prathama; at first : pra- entrust, to: 1dā + pra. thamam. equip, to: nah + sam. fish: matsya m.; mina m. eulogy: stotra n. | fit, to: yuj. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 221 fire: pañca. generous: dātr. flee, to : palāy. get, to: labh; laç; āp. flit, to: bhram. gift: dāna n. flock: paçu m. pl. gird, to: nah + sam. flower: puspa n.; sumanas f. girdle: mekhalā f. fiy, to: pat; fly up: pat + ud. girl: kanyā f.; bālā f. fodder: ghāsa m. give, to: yam; ldā. foe: ari m.; çatru m. giver: dāt? m. follow, to: gam + anu; i + anu. glance: drç f. fond, to be: tus. glory: kārti f.; yaças n. food: anna n. go, to: car: yā; gam; i; go on foot : pāda m.; pad m. (continue): vrt + pra. force: bala n. god : deva m.; goddess : devi f. foreign: para. gold: suvarna n. forehead: lalāța n. govern, to: çās; rājyam kļ. forest: vana n. good: sādhu; sant. forest-dwelling: vanavāsin. gracious: çiva. form, to: lmā + nis. graciousness: krpā f. formula (sacrificial): yajus n. grain: dhānya n. fortune: çri f., often pl.; goddess grammar: ryākaraņa n. of f.: çri f. grasp, to . grah. forty: catvārinçat f. graze, to: car. four: catur. great: mahant. free, to: muc. great king: mahārāja m. friend: mitra n.; sakhi m.; su- greater: mahīyas; adhika. hrd m. greatly: bahu; bhrçam. friend-betrayer: mitradruh. greedy: lubdła. front: agra n.; in f. of: agre, Greek: yarana m. samakşam (gen.). greet, to: vand; rad + abhi, caus. fruit: phala n. griere, to: du. fruitful: phalavant. ground: bhūmi f.; on the g.: adhas. full: pürna; sampürņa. grind, to: piş. guard, to: raks; gopāya. gain, to: labh. guest: athiti m. garden: udyāna n. guilt: pāra n.; enas n. garland: mālā f.; sraj f. gate: dvär f. band: kara m.; pāņi m.; hasta m. gather, to: ci + sam. hang, to: sanj; lag. gazelle: hariņa mn.; mrga m. i happiness: sukha n. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 222 II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. happy, to be: mud. injustice: adharma m. hard to find : durlabha. intelligence: buddhi f. barm, to: 1kr + apa. iron: loha n. hate, to: dvis; driş + pra. hear, to: cru. jaw: hanu f. heart: hrdaya n.; hệd n. jewel: mani m.; ratna n.; bhú- heaven: svarga m. saņa n. heavy: guru. hell: naraka m. kill, to: m?, caus.; han; han, caus. bere: atra; iha. kindle, to: idh. hero: çūra m.; vīra m. king: nypa m.; nşpati m.; pā- hesitation: çankā f. rthiva m.; rājan m.; bhūbhuj bigb: ucchrita. m.; bhūbhrt m. high water: pūra m. kingdom: rājya n. hold sbut, to: Idhā + api. know, to: lvid; jñā. boly: sadhu. knowledge: vidyā f.; jñāna n. holy writ: çruti f. home (adv.); grham. lament, to: lap + vi. honey: madhu n. land: deça m. honor, to: pūj; nam; ser. language: bhāṣā f. hope: äçā f. I last, at: ante. borse: açưa m. law: dharma m.; vidhi m. house: grha n.: master of the h., law - book: smộti f.; dharmação grhastha m. stra D. householder: gſhastha m. law-suit: vyavahāra m. house-priest: purohita m. lead, to: nī. how?: katham. leader: netſ. buman: mānuşa. learn, to: gam + ava; lvid; ¿ + hunter: vyādha m. adhi. hurl, to: 2as; kşip. learned : vidrāns; pandita; kuçala. husband: pati m.; bharty m. learning: vidyā f. hymn: sūkta n. leatber: carman n. leavings: ucchişta n. I: aham. lesson: adhyāya m. impart, to: 1vid + ni, caus. lick, to: lih; lih + ara. inclined, to be: snih. life: jāvita n.; āyus n.; carita n. increase, to: urdh. light: jyotis n. India: bharatakhanda m. light (not heavy): laghu. initiate, to: ni + upa. like: iva. if yadi Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 223 limb: anga n. misfortune: duḥkha a.; āpad f. lion: sinha m. modesty: hrī f. lip: ostha m. moisten, to: sic. listen, to: çru. monarch; samrāj m. live, to: jīv; vst; an + pra. money: dhana n.; vasu n. long: dirgha; (adv.) ciram. month: māsa m. look at, to: īks + pra. moon: candramas m.; candra m.; lord: īçvara m.; pati m. indu m. lotus: padma m. D. mostly: bhūyas. love, to: snih. morning, in the: prātar. love, god of l.: kama m. motber: māt; f.; ambā f. lanar mansion: naksatra n. mother-in-law : çuaçrī f. mountain : giri m.; parvata m. maiden: kanyā f.; bālā f. mouth : mukha n. maidservant: dāsī f. mucb: prabhūta; bahu. make, to: 1kr. mouthful: grása m. man (vir): nara m.; pumāns m.; murder, to: m?, caus.; han; han, puruşa m.; (homo): jana m.; caus. mānara m.; manusya m.; nara m. must: arh; cf. § 320 and Exer- mankind : jana m. pl. cise 30. many: bahu; prabhūta. march, to: cal + pra. name: naman n.; by n. : nāma. marriage: vivāha m. name, to: rac; vad; (reckon) marry, to : ni + pari. gaņaya. master: bhart; m.; pati m. neck: kaņţha m. mat: kața m. neglect, to: 1hā. means: sādhana n. net: jäla n. medicine: äuşadha n. never: na kadā + api, cid, or meet, to (intr.): gam + sam (mid.). | сапа. meeting: samāgama m. news: vịttanta m. melted butter: ghrta n. night: rātri f. mention, to: hr + ud-ā. no one: na ka + api, cid, or cana. merchant: vanij m. north, northern: udañc; the N.: merit: punya n. udīcī f., sc. diç. mighty: balin; balarant; vibhu. not: na; mă. milk, to: dul. nothing: na kim + api, cid, or milk: kşīra n.; payas n. сапа. mind : manas n.; mati f. now: adhunā; sampratam. minister: mantrin m. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 224 II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. O: he. | pilgrimage: tīrthayātrā f. obediept: vidheya. pious: sådhu. oblation: havis n. place, to : Idha; dhā + sam-ā. occur, to: drç, pass.; 2vid, pass. place: pada n.; deça m. ocean: udadhi m.; samudra m. plan: abhiprāya m. offend, to: han +prati; Thã. plant, to: ruh, caus. offering (sacrificial): havis n. play, to: div. old: vȚddha; older: jyāyas. please, to: ruc. .47 omnipresent: vibhu. pleasure: sukhan.; with p., pleas- once: sakſt. aptly: sukhena; (wish, choice) one: eka. icchā f.; kāma m.; at p.: sve- only: era. cchayā. opinion; mati f.; mata n. plough: lāngala n.; hala m. n. or; vā, postpos.; athavā. plough, to : kȚş. ordain, to: klp, caus.; Idhā +vi; plunder, to: lunth; lir; lup. ordaiped: vihita. poem: kāvya 1). order, to: jña +ă, caus. poet: kavi m. other; anya; itara, apara. point out, to; diç. outskirts: sīman f. polluted, to be: duş. overcome, to: 2pr. p.43 poor: daridra. overwhelm, to: vȚs. possessions: dhana n. own, one's own: sva. post, sacrificial: yūpa m. ox: anaờuh m. pot: ghata m. pound, to: piş. pair: yugma n. pour, to: hu. palace: präsåda m. power: bala n. parents : pitſ, m. du. powerful : balin; balavant. part: bhāga m. praise, song of p.: stutif.; stotra n. path: märga m.; panthan m. praise, to: çais; stu. pearl: muktā f. pray for, to: arth. peasant: kşşīrala m. prescription: ādeça m. penance: tapas n.; prāyaçcitta n. presence: samipa n. people: jana, pl.; loka, s. and pl. previous ; pūrva. perform, to: sidh, caus.; car; priest: įtvij m. car +sam-ā; (a sacrifice) tan. pripce: kumāra m. perfume: gandha m. property: vasu n.; dhana n. perish, to: naç +vi. prosperity: bhūti f. pestle: musala m. p. protect, to: rakş; 2pā; pā, caus. pierce, to: ryadh. protection; çaraña n. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 225 protector: rakṣit; m. riches : dhana 0.; vasu n.; fri f.; punish, to: daņdaya ; çās. rāi m. punishment: daņda m. righteousness : satya n. put, to: sthā, caus.; Idhā; yuj right (subst.): dharma m. + ni. Rigveda: rgredu m.; rcas f. pl. rise, to (of sun, etc.): gam +. ud; i + ud. quadruped: catuspad. | river: nadī f.; sarit f. quarter: pāda m.; (of the sky) road: märga m.; panthan m. dic f. rob, to: muş, lunth. queen: devī f.; rājñi f.; mahiși f. root: mūla n. rub, to: mrj; mrj, caus. rain : vrsti f. royal: rāja-, in cpd. rain, to (give rain): vrs. rule, to: sthā + adhi; īç. raise, to (the voice): sýj + ud. I run, to: dhāv; dru. ray: pāda n.; ravmi m. running: dhārana n. reach, to: labh; āp + pra. read, to: i + adhi; (aloud) path; sacrament: samskāra m. vac, caus. sacrifice, to: yaj; (for some one) realm: rājya n. yaj, caus. receive, to: labh; grah; grah sacrifice: yajña m. + prati; Ida + a. sacrificial formula : yajus n. recitation (private): svādhyāya m. sage: ?și m. recite, to: pagh; (tell) kath. sake of, for the: artha in cpd. reckon, to: ganaya. (cf. 375, 3). recompense, to: 1kr + prati. salt: lavana n. reduced (in fortune): kşīņa. salvation: muktif.; Vhūtif.; hita n. region: diç f.; deça m. satiated: třpta. rein: racmi m. satisfy, to: trp, caus.; (oneself) rejoice, to: tuş; mud. trp. remember, to: smr. save, to: hr + ud. restrain, to: grah + ni. Savitar: savitr m. return, to: vrt + ni. say, to: vad; lac; brī. rice: tanqula m. scatter, to: 2kr. reverence, to: nam; pūj; ás +upa. scholar: çisya: (learned man) reward: phala n. pundita m. rich: dhanin; çrīmant; rasumant science: çāstra n. (comp. and sup. sometimes va- sea: udadhi m.; samudra m. siyas, rasiştha). seat oneself, to: sad + ni. Perry, Sanskrit Psimer. 15 er. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 226 II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. second: dvitiya. son: putra W.; sūta m. see, to: paç; drs; īks; iks + pra. son-in-law: jāmātm. seer: rși m. song: gir f.; gāta n.; (of praise) send, to: sthā + pra, caus. stotra n.; stuti f. servant: bhịtya m.; bhrtaka m. soul: ātman m. serve: sev. sow, to: vap. set, to: (place) 1dhā; (intr., of speak, to: vad: vac; bhāş. sun, etc.) i + astam; gam + astam. spear: kunta m. shade: chāyā f. speech: vāc f.; bhāṣā f. she, etc.: sā, f. of ta. spoon: juhú f. shine, to: çubh; rāj; bhā + vi. stand, to (intr.): sthā. ship: nāu f. state, to: brū. shoe: upānah f. steal, to: cur; mus; luņķh. show, to: drç, caus. steer: go m. sbrewd: patu. stick: daņda m. shut, to: Idhā + api; lvr + sam. stone: dřşad f.; (precious) mani m. sick: vyādhita; rugņa. stop, to (tr.): rudh side: pakṣa m. strange (another's): para. sin : pāpa n.; enas D. street: rathyā f.; märga m. sing, to: 2gā. strike, to: taợ. singing: gita n. strive, to: yat. sip, to: cam tā. strongest: baliştha. sister: svasf. study, to: i + adhi (mid.); 2as + sit, to: sad; sad + ni. abhi. situated, to be: oſt, subject: prajā f. six: şas. such: ādrç. sixth: şaştha. suffering: duḥkha n. skilled: pațu. suffused: ruddha. sky: div f.; diç f. pl.; ākāça n. suitable: anurūpa. slave: dāsa m.; dāsī f. summit: çikhara m. slay, to: m?, caus.; han. srn: bhānu m.; āditya m. sleep, to: svap; çī. survive, to: cis + ud. smell, to; ghrā. sweet: svādu. smite, to: hr + pra; han + abhi. swift: āçu. so: iti; evam: tathā. sword: asi m. soldier: sāinika m. some (pl.): eka pl.; some oth-take, to: dā tā; grah; grah + ers: ke cit• • ke cit. prati. sometimes: kva cit. | take place, to: jan; bhū Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 227 take refuge, to: pad + pra. treasury: koşa m. tasteful: rasarant. tree: rşkṣa m.; taru m. tax: kara m. tremble, to: kamp. teach, to: i + adhi, caus.; diç + true : satya; (faithful) bhakta. upa. truth: satya n. teacher: guru m.; ācārya m. twelfth: drādaça. tear: acru n.; bāspa m. twelve: drādaça. tell, to: kathaya; vad. twenty-eight: astāv inçati. temple: decakula . twenty-seven: saptavinçati. tep: daça. twice: dvis. tend to, to: klp. twilight: sandhyā f. terrify, to: bhi, caus. ; vij + ud, twine: bandh. cans. two: dra. text-book: çāstra n. that: ta; ayam; asāu. umbrella: chattra n. tben: tadā. understand, to: gam + ava. there: tatra. unite, to (intr.): gam + sam (mid.). thereupon: tatas. untruth: anşta n.; asatya n. thief: stena m.; cāura m. upanişad : upanişad f. think, to: cint; man; think on: useful, to be: sev. sm?; dhyā. tbird : tſtāya. vassal: sāmanta m. thirty: trinçat. Veda: reda m. thirty-three: trayastrinçat. verse: çloka m.; (of Rigveda) ?c f. this: ta; ayam. vessel: pātra n. thou: tvam. victorious, to be: ji. three: tri. victory: jaya m. threefold: trivrt. view (opinion): mati f.; mata n. • tbrice: tris. village: grāma m. tbus: iti; evam ; tathā. virtue: dharma m.; punya n. time: kāla m. visit, to: gam + abhi. to-day: adya. voice: vāc f.; gir f. to-morrow: ças. tongue: jihvā f. wagop: ratha m. torment, to: pīļ; vyath, caus. warrior: kşatriya m. touch, to : sprc. wasb, to: kşal; sprç. trade: vyavahāra m.; vānijya. water: jala n.; vāri D.; ap f. pl. travel, to: vas + pra; sthā + pra wave: vīci m. D. (mid.). Twe: vayam. 15* mateade p. 73 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 228 II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. wear, to: dhị, caus.; bhr. winter: hemanta m. weary, to become: fram. wipe, to: mrj; mrj + apa or pari. weave, to: granth; bandh. wish, to: is. wedding: vivāha m. with: saha, w. inst.; or by instr. weep, to: rud. alone. west, western: pratyañc; the withered: mlāna. West: pratīcī f., sc. diç. without: vină (instr., acc.). what (rel.): ya. witness: sākşin m. wheel: cakra n. wolf: vrka m. when (rel.): yadā. woman: nārī f.; vadhú f.; strī f.; when?: kadă. jāyā f. whence?: kutas. woman-servant: dāsī f. where (rel.): yatra. wood: kāştha n.; (forest) vana n. where?: kva; kutra. word : vāc f.; çabda m. which (rel.): ya. work: karman n.; (literary) gra- which (of two)?: katara. ntha m. white: cveta. world: loka m.; jagat n.; bhu- whither?: hra; kutra. тапа п. who (rel.): ya. world-spirit: bráhman n. who?: ka. worship, to: pūj. whoerer: ya ka + api, cid or worthy: sadrça. cana; often by rel. alone. wound, to: kşan. whole: krtsna. wreath: mālā f.; sraj f. why?: kutas; kasmāt. wicked: pāpa. year: sarivatsara m.; varşa m. n. wife: bhāryā f.; nārī f.; patnī f. yoke, to: yuj, caus. win, to: ji. yonder: tatra. wind: vāyu m.; võta m. young: yuvan. W Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Appendix. Hindu Names of Letters. The Findus call the different sounds, and the characters re- presenting them, by the word kära (maker') added to the sound of the letter, if a vowel, or to the letter followed by a, if a con- souant. Thus, a (both sound and character) is called akāra; ū, ūkära; k, kakāra; and so on. But sometimes kāra is omitted, and a, ū, ka, etc., are used alone. The r, however, is never called ra- kāra, but only ra or repha (“snarl'). The anusvāra and risurga are called by these names alone. Modern Hindu Accentuation of Sanskrit. In the pronunciation of Sanskrit almost all Brāhmans employ, with insignificant variations, an ictus-accent, which is quite different from the older musical accent (svara) described in Indian and European grammars, and employed nowadays exclusively in the rec- itation of the Veda The older system, moreover, as marked in the Vedic texts, has been subjected to very considerable modi- fications by the Hindus in the traditional recitations of the Vedic schools. The modern ictus-accent is weaker than that of English. The more important rules governing its use are as follows: 1. a. In primitive verbs and derivatives from them the root- syllable is usually accented. b. But the accent never goes further back than the fourth place, and seldom back of the third. It may rest on the third syllable only if the penult be short; on the fourth, only if both antepenult and penult be short; thus, kúranam, káranāt, but karaņéna; bódhati, kşipasi, náçyatha, but bodháraḥ, kşipámaḥ, naçyánti; dúhitā, dúhitaram, but duhitřnām. 2. Derivatives from nouns generally retain the accent of the Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 230 Appendix. primitive, with the limitations given in 1. b.; thus, ránku, ránkava; gårga, gárgyaḥ, but gārgyắyaņā. A naturally short vowel in the penult, if followed by a group of consonants containing y or v, does not generally become long by position; thus, prábala, prába- lyam; úkta, úktatvāt. 3. In verbs and verbal derivatives joined with prepositions, in augmented and reduplicated forms, and sometimes in declensional forms, the accent is recessive, if the root or stem-syllable be short; thus, ágamat, änatam, anúşthitum, but utkřstam, nirúktam; ágamat, ákşipat, but bibhárti, tuştáva, jagău. Polysyllabic prepositions, when prefixed to other words, retain their own accent as secondary accent; thus, úpagăcchati, úpagămatām. 4. In compounds, unless the first member be a monosyllabic word, each part generally retains its own accent, but that of the principal member is the strongest; thus, rájapăruşam, párvataçi- kharākāram; but únmukham, diggajam, praçisyam. The division of syllables is much more apparent in Sanskrit than in English. In reading Sanskrit prose the Hindus generally drop into a sort of sing-song recitativo. Verses are always chanted. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Corrections and Additions. . P. 10. At end of 8 38 add: The four semivowels are always sonant. P. 27. Add to 8 02: The final ओ a of the root is shortened in the reduplicated stem, except in the first persons. → Add to 8 03: In the dual and plural of all declensions the vocative is like the nominative P. 31. Add to $2.5: It is also used as terminus and quen. P. 39, . 7. For : makes some forms with short. अ = read: makes also forms according to the unaccented o- class: thus. भ्रमति bhramati etc. P. 40, 1. 7. At beginning of line insert: the. P. 43, Vocab., S. V. पु p2. After: overcome insert: (evils). P. 49, Vocab, S. V. गम् + सम्. After: meet insert: (0, instr.) . P. 53, 1. 9 from below. After' शूयते ॥nsert:। १. P. 56, 1. 10. For: besought read: beseech. - L. 11. For: were reud : are. P. 59. At end of 8 l88 add: The impf. pass. is similarly infected. P. 60, 1. 19. For": protisedati read: protisedhoti. P. 65. Dele the first ucord (the) of the page P. 70, 1. 10 from below. Read: accompanied. P. 72, I. 12. After: are insert: so. P. 73, 1. 9 from belowFor: नरः Tecd: नराः P. 74, 1. 7. After: saved ansert: (ud-hg: cf. 8 267). P. 87, 1. 12. Redd: Final and g of a stem regularly become. P. 90, last line. Read: possessive. P. I7, 1. 6. For: पत्या १reud: पतिना. P. II9, Vocab. Insert in last line: + सम्-आ come together, join . P. I26. Add to 8 329 the following: Note also : द्वादश 12, etc, but for 82 only ञ्चाशीति; त्रयोविंशति 23, त्रयस्त्रिंशत् 33, for 88 only यशति; षोडश 16, षड्वंशति 26, etc.; अष्ट विंशति 28, अष्टत्रिंशत् 38, अष्टाशीति 88. Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® Corrections and Additions.

P. 135, 1. 5. For : वरसेन read: वीरसेन.

P. I37, ]. 2. Read: द्यावापृथिवी.

P. I38, 1. 12. Dele युधिष्ठिर ‘firm in battle' .

P. I80, 1. 17. For: बिभदि र्ead: बिभिद.

P. I82, 1. 1. For: निन्यिहै read: निन्यिवहे

P. I86, 1. 1. Read: चोरयति.

P. I90. M. 6. For: suffix read: suffice.

P. 192, 1. 13 from below. For: ऐप्सिषत् red: ऐप्सीत्.

P. I96, col. 1. S. v. √i, insert: + sam- ã come together, join.

P. 197, col. 1. Insert: rsabhadatta m., n. pr.

P. 199, col. 1. S. v. √gam, insert: + upa- ã come near.

P.205, col. 2, 1. 2 from below. Read: √1pr(piparti ; caus. purayati) fill. Also insert in vocab.: √2 pr? (pãrayati) overcome (evils); prevail.

P. 207, col. 2, 1.5. Read: bhiksã f., begging, alms.

P. 208, col. 1, 1. 2. Recd:√bhram (bhramati, -te; bhramyati : 131)— Col. 2, 1. 11. Read: Greek uल ; cf. I95, 486. – L. 3 from below. After: release insert: let fly, shoot.

P. 209, col. 2, 1. 2. Insert: + pra give, give in marriage. — S. v. √yuj + ni, add: caus. set (as jewels).

P. 212, col1, 1. 5. Insert: + pra idem. – Col. 2.1. 15 from below. Read: + pra wander forth. - L. 9 from below. Read: + pra idem.

P. 214, col. 2, 1. 9. Read: sameta (√i+ sam- ã) a., followed by, provided with.

"https://sa.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=A_Sanskrit_primer&oldid=154268" इत्यस्माद् पुनः प्राप्तिः