A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar/अ

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A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.

अ (1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived langua- ges, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an aug- ment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perf. sec.pl.and first and third pers.sing.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed espe- cially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा etc.cf. अ प्रत्ययात् etc. (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 e.g. अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. e.g. भवति, तुदति etc.; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; e.g. द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the im- perf. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् cf. P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, etc. in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī; (9) tad. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ etc. in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम

before case-affixes beginning with the ins. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant

n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.

अं (ं) nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot above the vowel preceding it. cf. स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. cf. T. Pr. V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or re- tained as n (न्). cf. P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as des- cribed in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also R. Pr.1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical


अंशिसमास the same as एकदेशिसमास or अवयवसमास or अवयवषष्ठीतत्पुरुष prescribed

by the rule पूर्वापराधरोत्तरोमकदेशिनैका-

धिकरणे P.II.2.1 and the following P.II.2.2 and 3; c.g पूर्वकायः, अपरकायः, अर्धपिप्पली etc.

अंशुगण, also अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tat- puruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. cf. P. VI.2.193.

अः ( : ) visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha. cf. अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चार- णार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.

अ (ೱ) क् (ೱ) जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha who remarks वज्रा- कृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvā- mūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.

अ ೱ प् (ೱ) Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an ele- phants stated by Durgasiṁha who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It

is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nom. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् T. Pr. I. 23.

अक् ( 1 ) condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar cf. P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remn- ant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.

अक (1) affix अक substituted for the afiix वु given in Pāṇini's Grammar as ण्वुच् as in अाशिका,शायिका (P.III. 3.111); ण्वुल् as in कारकः, भोजको व्रजति, विचर्चिका (P.III.1.133, III.3. 10,108); वुच् as in उपकः (P.V.3.80); वुञ् as in निन्दकः, राजकम्, भालवकः (P. III.2.146, IV.2.39, 53 etc.); वुन् as in प्रवकः, सरकः; क्रमकः, पदकः. III.1.149, IV.2.6l etc.

अकङ् substitute ( अादेश ) for the last letter of the word मुधातृ prescribed along with the tad. affix इञ् by P. IV.1.97. e.g. सौघातकिः

अकच् affix prescribed before the last syllable of pronouns and indeclin- ables without any specific sense for it (P.V.3.71) e. g. सर्वकः, उच्चकैः etc.

अकथित not mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-


direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.

अकम्पित not shaken; tremulous: said with respect to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance., cf अकम्पितान् । कम्पनं नाम स्वराश्रितपाठदोषः प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । तमुपलक्ष्य स वर्ज्य:। R.Pr.III.31

अकर्तृ a case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. cf. अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.

अकर्मक intransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता cf. फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.

अकाण्डताण्डव name of the commentary by Harinātha on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara (परिभाषेन्दुशेखर) of Nageśabhaṭṭa.

अकाम (अकामसंधि) an invariable (नित्य) euphonic change (संधि) such as the dropping of th' consonant r ( र् ) when followed by r. cf. R. Pr. IV.9. रेफोदयो लुप्यते द्राघितोपधा ह्रस्वस्या-

कामनियता उभाविमी । e. g. युवो रजांसि, सुयमासो अश्वा रथ: R. V. I. 180.1.

अकार the letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. cf. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra cf. ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे etc. R. T.I. 4.

अकारक not causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) cf. M. Bh. on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.

अकार्य not a grammatical positive operation: e. g. elision (लोप.) cf. ननु च लोप एवेत्कार्यं स्यात् । अकार्यं लोपः । M. Bh. on I.3.2.

अकालक (1) not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. cf. “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī as


पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।

अकालापक different from the Kālāpa or the revised Kātantra Grammar cf. पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालापकं व्याकरणम् kāś. On P.II.4.21.

अकित् not marked by the mute letter k ( क् ) and hence not disallowing guṇa or vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, cf. सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति P.VI.1.58; दीर्घोऽकित: P. VII. 4.83.

अकृत् lit. non-krt: an affix applied to a root, but different from the conjugational affixes. cf. अकृत्सार्वधातुक्रयोर्दीर्ध: P. VII. 4.25.

अकृत not established; said of a grammatical operation which has not taken place e. g. अकृतसंधिकार्यम् M. Bh. on V. 2.100, W. 3.84, also कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् M. Bh. on VI.4.62.

अकृतकारि doing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha cf. अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । M. Bh. on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.

अकृतव्यूह short expression for the grammatical maxim अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः which means "the followers of Pāṇini do not insist on the taking effect of a rule when its cause or causes disappear." See Par. śek. Par. 56.

अकृतसंधि word or expression without the necessary euphonic changes cf वरुणादीनां च तृतीयात् स च अकृतंसंधीनाम् P. V.3.84 vārt. 1.

अकृतसंहित words ending with a breathing or visarga which are not looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e. g. एष देवो अमर्त्यः R. V. 1X.8.1.

अकृत्रिम non-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also M. Bh. on I.1.28.

अकृत्स्न-अकृत्स्ना, an epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words improperly which does not serve any useful purpose. cf. अकृत्स्ना अप्रयोजना इत्यर्थ: Uvaṭa on R. Pr. XIV. 68.

अङ्कित not possessing the mute letter k (क्) or g (ग्) or ( ङ् ) and hence not preventing the guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e. g. मृजेर ङ्कित्सु प्रत्ययेषु मृजिप्रसङगे मार्जिः साधुर्भुवति M.Bh. on P. I.I.I Vart.10.

अक्त definite, known or specified definitely. cf. अक्तपरिमाणानामर्थानां वाचका भवन्ति य एते संख्याशब्दाः परिमाणशब्दाश्च M. Bh. I.1.72.

अक्रियाज not a result of a verbal activity; the expression is used in connection with qualities ( on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. cf. अाधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोs सत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः M. Bh. on IV. 1.44.


अक्षद्यूतादिगण a class of words headed by अक्षद्यूत which take the tad. affix hak ( इक) in the sense of 'resulting from' e. g. अाक्षद्यूतिकं वैरम्, जानुप्रहृतिक्रम्, गातागार्तकम् etc. cf. P IV.4.19.

अक्षर a letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also pro- tracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a con- sonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any con- sonant at all. cf. ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 cf.एकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा etc. The term akṣa- ra was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a conso- nant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymo- logy of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । M. Bh. Āhnika 2 end.

अक्षरपङ्क्ति name given to the dvipada virāj verses divided into padās of five syllables. cf विराजो द्विपदाः केचित् सर्वा आहुश्चतुष्पदाः । कृत्वा पञ्चाक्षरान्पादांस्तास्तथाSक्षरपङ्क्तयः R. Pr. XVII. 50.

अक्षरसमाम्नाय alphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically inde- pendent letters generally begin- ning with the vowel a (अ). Al- though the number of letters and the order in which they are stat- ed differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enu- merate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five

simple vowels or monothongs (समा- नाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthā- varṇa, the twenty five class-conso- nants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for exam- ple in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the Vājasaneyi- Prātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protract- ed vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmu- līya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mention- ing 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semi- vowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmu- līya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enume- ration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast


with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasa- neyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. cf. V. Pr. VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prā- tiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.cf. सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदि- तव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । M. Bh. Ahnika.2-end.

अक्षराङ्ग forming a part of a sy- llable just as the anusvāra ( nasal utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowel- part) which forms a part of the preceding syllable. cf. अनुस्वारो व्यञ्जनं चाक्षराङ्गम् R. Pr. I.22, also स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गम् R. Pr. I.32.

अखण्डशाब्दबोध unitary import; the meaning of a sentence collectively understood.

अगति (1) absence of any other re- course or alternative. cf. अगत्या हि खलु परिभाषाश्रीयते. Puruṣottamadeva- Pari. vṛtti Pari.119;(2) which is not a word termed gati. cf. चनचिदिवगोत्रा- दितद्धिताम्रेडितेष्वगते: P. VII.1.57.

अगमकत्व non-communicativeness, inability to communicate ade- quately the intended meaning. cf. सविशेषणानां वृत्तिस्तर्हि कस्मान्न भवति । अगमकत्वात् M. Bh on II.1.1: cf. also अगमक: निर्देशः अनिर्देशः।

अगुण् non-secondary, principal; cf. ध्रुवचेष्टितयुक्तिषु चाप्यगुणे तदनल्पमतेर्वचनं स्मरत M. Bh. on I.4.51.

अगृहीत uncomprehended, uninclud- ed cf.नागृहीतविशेषणा शक्तिर्विशेष्यमुपसंक्रामति । cf. also नाज्झलौ इत्यत्र अगृहीतसवर्णानामचां ग्रहणम् Padamañjari on Kāś VIII. 3.57.

अग्नि a term in the Kātantra grammar for a word ending in i ( इ ) or u ( उ ) cf. इदुदग्निः Kāt. II.1.8, अग्नेरमोs कारः Kāt. II.1.50.

अग्निग्निपदादिगण a class of words headed by the word अग्निपद to which the tad. affix अण् is added in the senses of 'given there' or 'done there' e. g. अग्निपदम्. cf. अण्प्रकरणे अग्निपदादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् P. V.1.97 Vārt. 1.

अग्निवेश्य an ancient writer of Vedic grammar mentioned in the Taittirīya prātiśākhya. cf. कपवर्गपरश्च (विसर्ग:) अग्निवेश्यवाल्मीक्योः ( मतेन ऊष्माणं न आपद्यते ) T.Pr. IX. 4.

अग्निवेश्यायन writer of Vedic grammar, mentioned in the Taittirīya prātiśākhya. cf. नाग्निवेश्या- यनस्य ( मते उदात्तपरः स्वरितपरो वा अनुदात्तः स्वरितं नापद्यते इति न) Tait. Pr. XIV.32.

अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय analogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. cf. अग्नौकरवाणि- न्यायेन भविष्यति M. Bh.on. II.2.24.

अग्र the original Samhita text as oppo- sed to pratṛṇna ( प्रतृण्ण ) or pada- pāṭha, (पदपाठ) which is the recital of separate words.

अग्रवाल (Vasudeva-Śarana Agravāla), a modern scholar of Sanskrit grammar, the author of "India as known to Pāṇini".

अग्रहण non-inclusion, non-compre- hension. cf. विभक्तौ लिङ्गविशिष्टाग्रहणम् Par. Śekh. Par. 72, M. Bh. VII. 1.1 Vart. 13.

अग्लोप elision of the vowel a, i,u , r or l ( अ, इ, उ, ऋ or लृ ) which prevents Sanvadbhāva cf. सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेSनग्लोपे P. VII.4.93, as also नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् VII.4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.

अघोष unvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd conso- nants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. cf. T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya cf. द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् V. Pr. I.50.51.

अङ् The vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.e.g. जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा etc.

अङित् not marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārt. 2. In the case of the preposi- tion ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembr- ance of something cf. वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् e.g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् cf. M. Bh. on I.l.14.

अङग (l) the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति etc. cf. यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate part. constituent part cf. पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Par. Śek. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग etc. cf. अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Par. Śek. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression cf. अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः R. T. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् T. Pr. 21.1.

अङगवत् considered as auxiliary or part of another e.g. पूर्वाङ्गवद्भावः, पराङ्गवद्भाव:; cf सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2 and the Vārtika thereon "परमपि च्छन्दसि पूर्वस्याङ्गवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम्."

अङ्गवृत्त an operation prescribed in the section named aṅgādhikara, comprising the fourth quarter of the sixth book and the whole of the seventh book of Pāṇini.

अङ्गाधिकार a large section of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī covering five quarters (VI.4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes etc. are prescribed.

अङ्गुल्यादिगण class of words headed by अङ्गुलि to which the tad. afix ठक् ( इक् ) is added in the sense of comparison ( इवार्थे ); e. g. अङ्गुलीव अाड्गुलिक: cf. Kāś. on P. V.3.108.

अच् the short term or pratyāhāra in Pāṇini's Grammar representing a vowel, e.g. अजन्त (ending with a vowel), अच्संधि (vowel coalescence or combination).

अचिकित्स्य impossible to amend, not to be discussed. cf. एवं च 'पूजितो य:


सुरैरपि' इति अचिकित्स्यः अपशब्दः;Pada- mañjari on P.II.2.12.

अजादिगण class of words headed by अज to which the fem.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.

अजितसेन author of the Cintāmaṇi- prakāśika a gloss on Cintāmaṇi, the well known commentary by Yakṣa- varman on the Sabdānuśāsana of Śākatāyana. Ajitasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva; he lived in the 12th century A.D.

आजिरादिगण class of words headed by the word अजिर which do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI.3.119. although they form technical terms e. g. अजिरवती, पुलिन- वती etc. cf. Kāś on P. VI.3.119.

अज्भक्ति See under स्वरभक्ति.

अञ् (1) tad. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from etc.P. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 etc. IV.3.7 etc. IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also e.g. औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.

अट् (I) token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not inter- fering with the substitution of ṇ

( ण् ) for n ( न् ) e.g. गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण etc. Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) aug- ment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. e.g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् etc. before a Sārvadhātuka affix begin- ning with any consonant except y ( य्), e.g. अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् etc.; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) aug- ment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) e.g. तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् etc. see P.III.4.94.

अठच् tad. affix अठ prescribed after the word कर्मन् by the rule कर्मणि घटोऽ ठच् cf कर्मणि घटते कर्मठः पुरुषः Kāś. on p. V.2.35.

अडच् tad. affix अड applied in the sense of pitiable or poor to a word preceded by the word उप when the whole word after उप is dropped, e.g उपड् ( उपेन्द्रदत्त + अड् ) see. p. V. 3. 80.

अण् (I) token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divi- sions as are caused by length, pro- traction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule - I.1.69 given above e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belong- ing to' etc. except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ.


affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) stand- ing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.

अणादि-a term applied to all taddhita suffixes collectively as they begin with अण् cf. P.IV.1.83.

अणु the minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; cf. अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, V. Pr. 1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defi- nes अणु as half-a-mātrā. cf. अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).

अणुदिच्छास्त्र - the rule prescribing cognateness (सावर्ण्य) of letters. The term refers to Pāṇini's sūtra अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69. The terms ग्रहणकशास्त्र and सवर्णशास्त्र are used in the same sense.

अण्णैयाचार्य author of लिङ्गनिर्णयभूषण, who was a Tamil Brāhmaṇa by caste.

अत्(1) tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist pers. sing. Ātm. in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) case- affix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for abl. sing. and pl. P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the loc. case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the tad. formation; cf. P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice cf. लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.

अतङ् non-Ātmanepadin verbal affixes ति, तः...मस्, P. III.4.78, Cān. I.4.11, Śāk. 1.4.101.

अतत्काल not taking that much time only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice, as required by its long or protracted utterance ; the expres- sion is used in connection with vowels in Pāṇini's alphabet, which, when used in Pāṇini's rules, ex- cept when prescribed or followed by the letter त्, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utter- ances: cf. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः I.1.69.

अतदनुबन्धक not having the same mute significatory letter, but having one or two additional ones, cf. तदनुबन्धकग्रहणे नातदनुबन्धकस्य ग्रहणम् (Par. Śek. Pari. 84.)

अतद्धित an affix which is not a tad- dhita affix. cf. लशक्वतद्धिते P.1.3.8; M. Bh. I.3.4, V.3.1 etc.

अतन्त्र implying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; e.g. ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: cf. also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not neces- sarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) M. Bh. on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍi and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quo- ted it from the writings of Vyāḍi and the earlier grammarians See also M. Bh. on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.

अतसुच् ( अतस् ) tad. aff. अतस् applied to the words दक्षिण, उत्तर, पर and अवर;e.g.दक्षिणतो वसति; उत्तरत आगतः, परतो रमणीयम्, परस्ताद्रमणीयम् , अवरत आगतः अवरस्ताद्वसति. cf. P.V.2.28, 29.


अताद्रूप्यातिदेश conveyance of only the properties of one to another without conveying the actual form, des- cribed as the significance of an- tādivadbhāva. cf. न वा अताद्रूप्याति- देशात् M. Bh. on P. VI.1.85 Vārt. 26. See ताद्रूप्यातिदेश below.

अताम् personal affix of the third pers. pl. Ātm. in the Imperative (लोट्). cf. P. III.4.90.

अतिक्रम passing over a word in the क्रमपाठ without repeating it; passing beyond, cf. अतिक्रम्य परिग्रहः R. Pr. X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e. g. इन्द्राग्नी अपात् । इन्द्राग्नी इति इन्द्राग्नी । or अनु दक्षि । दक्षि दावने | दक्षीति दक्षि ।

अतिजगती one of the varieties of-in fact, the first variety of-the Atic- chandas metre, which see above: this Atijagatī consists of 52 sylla- bles.e. g. तमिन्द्रे जोहवीमि मघवानमुग्रम् Ṛk. Saṁh.8.97.13 cf, प्रथमातिजगत्यासां सा द्विपञ्चाशदक्षरा R. Pr. XVI.80.

अतिदेश extended application; trans- fer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the tad. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; e.g.गाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most

important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full repre- sentation i.e. substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, cf. M. Bh. VIII.1.90 Vārt. 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः - when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depend- ing on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the gene- ral past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Par. Śek. Pari. 101, M. Bh. on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अति- देशिकमनित्यम्- whatever is transfer- red by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Par. Śek. 93.6 as also M. Bh. on P.I.1.123 Vārt.4, I.2.1 Vārt. 3, II.3.69 Vārt.2 etc., Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Nyāsa on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārt. 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa cf. Pari. Śek. 93. 6.

अातिधृति one of the varieties of Atic- chandas consisting of 76 syllables. e. g. स हि शर्धो न मारुते तुविष्वाणिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I.127.6.

अतिनिचृत् a variety of the Gāyatri metre consisting of 20 syllables, cf. R. Pr. XVI.22.


अतिपत्ति absence of any possibility ; Sec क्रियातिपत्ति. cf. P. III.3.139 Cān. 1.3.107. अतिप्रयत्न intense effort; characteri- stic effort as required for uttering a vowel with विक्रमस्वरित.

अतिप्रसङ्ग over-application of a de- finition which is looked upon as a serious fault: e. g. अतिप्रसङ्गो व्रश्चा दिषु P.VI.1.66 Vārt. 3.

अतिबहु too much,rather unnecessary e. g. इदं चाप्यद्यत्वे अतिबहु क्रियते, M. Bh. on I.1.38, इदमतिबहु क्रियते M. Bh. on I.4.63, VI.1.145; नातिबहु प्रयोक्तव्यम् M. Bh. on VIII.1.4.

अतिरिक्त surplus, redundant: cf. Nir. IV.20; see Kaiyaṭa on M. Bh. V. 1.131.

अतिव्यक्त quite distinct; used with respect to pronunciation नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्तमेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् cf. T. Pr. XVII.8.

अतिव्यस्त quite apart, used with respect to lips which are widely apart ( विश्लिष्टौ ) in the utterance of long अा and ओ; cf. T. Pr. II.12, 13.

अतिव्याप्ति the same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see above. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.

अतिशक्वरी a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 60 syllables. e. g. सुषुमा यातमद्रिभिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I. 137.1. cf, R. Pr. KVI.82.

'अतिशय excess or excellence as shown by the affixes तर and तम cf. तरतम- योश्चातिशये V.Pr.V.2; क्रियाप्रधानमाख्यातं तस्मादतिशये तखुत्पद्यते M. Bh. on VI. 2.139; VIII.1.71 ; (2) desire as shown by the affix क्यच् in Pāṇini's grammar; cf. यश्च अतिशये R. T. 126.

अतिशायन excellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in V. Pr. V. 2 cf. अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also cf. भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: M. Bh. on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; cf. देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति M. Bh. on , P. V.3.55.

आतिस्पर्श excess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pro- nunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; cf. अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, R. Pr. XIV. 26.

अतिस्वार्य ( अतिस्वार also ) name of the seventh musical note in the sing- ing of Sāman. cf.क्रष्टुप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीय- चतुर्थमन्द्रातिस्वार्याः T. Pr. XXIII. 13.

अतिहार transfer of a consonant in a Stobha. See पुष्पसूत्र.

अतु short term used by Pāṇini to sig- nify together the five affixes क्तवतु, ड्वतुप्, ड्मतुप् मतुप् and वतुप् ;cf.अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः P. VI.4.14.

अतुल्यबल not having the same force: not belonging to the same type out of the four types of rules viz. पर, नित्य, अन्तरङ्ग and अपवाद. cf. अतुल्य- बलयोः स्पर्धो न भवति Jainendra Pari. 66.

अतुस् personal ending of perf. 1st pers. dual. cf. परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथु- सणल्वमाः P. III.4.82.


अतृन् krt affix अत् applied to the root जॄ in the sense of past time. cf जीर्यतरेतृन् P. III.2.104.

अते personal ending of pres. 3rd per. pl. substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).

अत्यन्तगति complete contact of the verbal activity ( क्रिया ); cf.P. V.4.4.

अत्यन्तसंयोग constant contact; com- plete contact, uninterrupted con- tact. cf. अत्यन्तसंयोगे च P. II.1.29; II.3.5.

अत्यन्तापह्नव complete or absolute denial or concealment offacts; cf. परोक्षे लिट् । अत्यन्तापह्नवे च । 3.2.115, Vārt, 1.

अत्यय past happening, cf अत्ययो भूतत्वमतिक्रमः । अतीतानि हिमानि निर्हिमम् ! निःशीतम् Kāś. on P. II.1.6.

अत्यल्प rather too little, an expres- sion used by Patanjali idiometi- cally cf. अत्यल्पमिदमुच्यते M. Bh. on I.1.69 etc.

अत्यल्पस्पृष्ट having a very slight con- tact (with the organ producing sound),as in the case of the utter- ance of a vowel.

अत्यष्टि a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 68 syllables. e. g. अथा रुचा हरिण्या पुनानः Ṛk. Sam. 8.111.1.

अत्यादिगण the group of prepositions headed by अति which are com- pounded with a noun in the acc. case ; cf. अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया M. Bh. om P. II. 2.18.

अत्युच्चनीच characterized by a sharp utterance; a name of the grave accent

अत्युपसंहृत very closely uttered, uttered with close lips and jaws,

(said in connection with the utterance of the vowel अ ); cf. T. Pr II. 12. See अतिसंश्लिष्ट.

अत्व also अत्व change of a vowel into short अ.

अत्वत् possessing or having a short अ vowel in it; archaic form used by Pāṇini in उपदेशेsत्वतः (P. VII. 2.62) instead of अद्वत् the correct one; cf. छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति M. Bh. on I.1.1 and I.4.3.

अथ Uṇādi affix अथ prescribed in Uṇādi Sūtras 393-396 e.g. see शपथ, अवभृथ, आवसथ ctc.

अथर्वप्रातिशाख्य the Prātiśākhya work of the Atharva veda believed to have been written by Śaunaka. It consists of four Adhyāyās and is also called शौनकीया चतुरध्यायिका.

अथुच् kṛt. affix अथु with उ accented, applied to roots marked by Pāṇini with the mute syllable टु in the sense of verbal activity: c. g. वेपथुः श्वयथुः, cf ट्वितोथुच् P.III.3.89.

अथुस् conjugational affix of perf. 2nd pers. dual Parasmai. substituted for the personal ending थस्, cf. P. III. 4.82.

अदन्त ending with the short vowel अ; cf. P. VIII.4.7: a term appli- ed to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter अ at their end which is not looked upon as mute (इत्) c.g. कथ,गण. etc. Mark also the root पिच described by पतञ्जलि as अदन्त cf. पिबिरदन्तः M. Bh. on I.1.56., M. Bh. on II. 4.43.

अदर्शन a term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning non- appearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explain- ed as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of


लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See M. Bh. on I.1.60 Vārt. 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.

अदादि name given to the class of roots belonging to the second conjugation, as the roots therein begin with the root अद्. The word अदिप्रभृति is also used in the same sense; cf. अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः p.II. 4.72: cf.also अदाद्यनदाद्योरनदादेरेव given by Hemacandra as a Paribhāṣā corresponding to the maxim लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Hem. Pari.61.

अदि Uṇādi affix अदि e. g, शरद्, दरद्; cf. शॄदॄभसोsदि; Uṇ. 127;

अदिप्रभृति See अदादि above.

अदुक् aug. अद् added to the word एक before the negative particle न; e.g. एकान्नविंशतिः, एकान्नत्रिंशत् cf. P.VI 3.76.

अदृष्ट not seen properly; doubtful; in- distinct;said with respect to a letter which is not distinctly deciphered in the Saṁhitāpātha: e.g. तन्नः ( R. Saṁh. I. 107. 3 ): the last letter त् of तत् is deciphered in the Pada-pātha which is given as तत्- न: cf. अदृष्टवर्णे प्रथमे चोदकः स्यात् प्रदर्शकः R. Pr. X. 15.

अदोष absence of fault; absence of inconvenience. The expression सोप्यदोषो भवति often occurs in the Mahābhāṣya: cf. MBh. on I. 3.62; I. 4.108, etc.

अद्ङ् substitute for case affixes सु and अम् added to words ending with the affixes डतर and डतम and to the words अन्य, अन्यतर and इतर. cf. P,VII.1.25.

अद्यतनी tech. term of ancient gram- marians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corres- ponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provid- ed the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; cf. 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārt. 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kāt. III. 1.22, Hem. III. 3.11.

अद्रव्यवाचिन् not expressive of any substance which forms a place of residence (of qualities and actions); cf. तथा व्याकरणे विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरण- वाचि ( P. II.4.13 ); इत्यद्रव्यवाचीति गम्यते । M.Bh. on II.1.1.

अद्वियोनि lit. not made up of two elements, and hence, produced with a single effort, an expression used for simple vowels ( समानाक्षर ) such as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and simple consonants क्, ख्, ग् etc. as distinguished from diphthongs ( सन्ध्यक्षर ) such as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ and conjunct consonants क्व, ध्र , etc. which appear to have been termed द्वियोनि cf. अपृक्तमेकाक्षरमद्वियोनि यत् R.Pr.XI.3.

अद्व्युपसर्गे not preceded by (two or more) prepositions; i. e. preceded by only one preposition. cf. छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य P.VI.4.96 prescrib- ing short अ for the long अा of the root छाद् before the kṛt. affix घ, eg. प्रच्छदः


अधिक (1) additional or surplus acti- vity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; cf. M. Bh. on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)

अधिकरण (1) support: a grammati- cal relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal acti- vity. cf. अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' cf. अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.

अधिकार governing rule consisting of a word (e.g. प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः etc.) or words (e.g. ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे etc.) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference bet- ween अधिकार and परिभाषा; cf. अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1

समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeated. The repeti- tion goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्नि- पाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its in- fluence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional pro- perties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्य- केभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposing. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; cf. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवा- हवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥

अघिकारसूत्र a superintending aphori- sm, which gives no meaning of itself where it is mentioned, but gives its meaning in the number of


aphorisms that follow: e. g- the rules प्रत्यय:, परश्च and अाद्युदात्तश्च P. III.1.1, 2, 3 or सह सुपा. P.II.1.4.

अधिस्पर्शम् incompletely pronounced, referring to a letter so pronoun- ced.

अधुना tad. affix applied to the pro- noun इदम् which is changed into इ before the affix and then elided by P. VI.4.148, or changed into अ in which case धुना or अधुना could be looked upon as a tad. affix.

अध्यवसाय determination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruit. cf. य एष मनुष्यः प्रेक्षापूर्व- कारी स बुद्ध्या कंचिदर्थं संपश्यति, संदृष्टे प्रार्थना, प्रार्थिते अध्यवसायः,म् अध्यवसाये आरम्भः, आरम्भे निर्वृत्तिः, निर्वृत्तौ फलावाप्तिः cf. M. Bh. on I.3.14 and I.4.32.

अध्यात्मादि name of a class of words headed by the word अध्यात्मन् to which the tad. affix ठञ् is added in the sense of 'तत्र भवः' i.e. found therein, or existing therein. e. g. आध्यात्मिकम्, आधिदैविकम्, etc.cf M.Bh. on IV.3.60.

अध्यास superimposition : a relation between a word and its sense ac- cording to the grammarians; cf. Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; cf. आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः R. Pr.XVII.43.

अध्याहार supplying the necessary ele- ment. cf. गम्यमानार्थस्य वाक्यस्य स्वरूपेणोपा- दानं वाक्यस्याध्याहारः Kāś on P.VI.1. 139., cf also Nir. I.1.13 and M. Bh. on Śiva Sūtra 1 Vārt 14.

अध्यै, अध्यैन् kṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substi- tuted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपा- चारध्यै ।

अन्, tad. affix अ ( अन् ) ( 1) added to the word नीली in the sense of 'dyed in', to form the word नील,cf. P. IV.2.2. Vārt. 2; (2) added to the word अषाढा in the sense of 'produced in' cf अषाढाः उपदधाति M. Bh. on IV.3.34 Vārt. 2; (3) add- ed after the affix तीय in the same sense as तीय e.g. द्वितीयो भागः, तृतीयो भागः cf. पूरणाद् भागे तीयादन् P.V.3.48.

अन substitute for the affix यु ( युच्, ण्युट् ल्युट्, ल्यु, ट्यु, ट्युल् and others of which only यु remains), cf. युवो- रनाकौ P.VII.1.1 e. g. कारणा, हारणा, करणम्, हरणम्, नन्दनः, सायंतनम् etc.

अनड् (l) substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi comp. in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders e.g. कुण्डोघ्नी (by apply- ing ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; cf. P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि etc. before the affixes of the instrumental and the follow- ing cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा etc. cf. P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative sing. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना cf. P. VII.1.93, 94.

अनच्क possessing no अच् or vowel in it. cf इन्द्रे द्वौ अचौ, एको यस्येतिलोपेनापहृतो- ऽपर एकादेशेन ततः अनच्कः इन्द्रशब्दः संपन्नः cf. Par. Śek. on Par. 52.: M.Bh. on I. 4.2 Vārt. 22.

अनञ् a word without the negative particle ( नञ् ) before it, e. g. धेनु- रनञि कमुत्पादयति, a sūtra in Āpiśali's grammar quoted in M. Bh. on IV.2.45 see also P. II. 1. 60, VII. 1. 37.

अनत uncerebralized; not changed into a cerebral ( मूर्धन्य ) letter.cf.


दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापात्तिर्नति: Uvaṭa on R. Pr. IV.34.

अनतिदिष्ट not resulting from any ex- tended application or अतिदेश, cf. प्रकृत्याश्रयं अनतिदिष्टं भवति M.Bh. on IV. 1.151.

अनत्यन्तगति absence of the verbal activity in all ways or respects in- complete activity; e.g. छिन्नकम् not completely cut, cf. अनत्यन्तगतौ क्तात् P. V.4.4.

अनद्यतन period of time not pertain- ing to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e g- ह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता etc. cf. P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.

अननुबन्घक without any mute signi- ficatory letter attached; अननुबन्धकपरि- भाषा is the short name given to the maxim-'अननुबन्धकग्रहणे न सानुबन्धकस्य ग्रह णम्' See M.Bh. on I.3.1: V.2.9. There is a reading in the Par. Śek. निरनुबन्धकग्रहणे for अननुबन्धकग्रहणे, in which case the परिभाषा is called निरनुबन्धकपरिभाषा. See Par. Śek. Pari. 81.

अनन्तर (l) immediate, contiguous अव्यवहित. cf. हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.1. 1.7, also गतिरनन्तरः P. VI.2.49: cf. अनन्तरं संयोगः V. Pr.I.48. ; (2) nearest, as compared with others of the same type; cf. अथवा अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M.Bh. on I.1.43; cf. Pari. Śek. अनन्तरस्य विधिर्वा भवति प्रतिषेधो वा, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to the nearest and not to the distant one.Par.Śek. 61,Cān. Par.30.

अनन्त्य non-final cf. अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यस- देशस्य when a change does not con-

cern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Par. Śek. Pari 95. cf. also M. Bh. VI.1.13 Vārt 5.

अनन्य not different, the same: cf. एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् that which has got a change regarding one of its parts is by no means something else; Par. Śek. Pari. 37.

अनन्यवद्भाव being the same, being looked upon as not different. See अनन्य above.

अनभिधान inability to express the meaning desired. The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be form- ed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recogniz- ed by learned persons or scholars; cf. तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also cf. अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Nyāsa on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति M. Bh. on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.

अनभिनिर्वृत्त that which is not applied; lit.(an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective; cf. प्रसक्तस्य अनभिनिर्वृत्तस्य प्रतिषेधेन निवृत्तिः शक्या कर्तुं नानभिनिर्वृत्तस्य M. Bh. on I. 1.5; IV. 1.37. Cf. also न चानभिनिर्वृत्ते बहिरङ्गे अन्तरङ्गं प्राप्नोति । तत्र निमित्तमेव बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गस्य M.Bh. on VI.4.22: VIII.3.15.

अनभिहित not conveyed or expressed by another i.e. by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and


the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the above- mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dat. case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the abl. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the loc.case in स्थाल्यां पचति.

अनभ्यास a wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already re- duplicated; cf. लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.

अनर्थक (1) without any signification;lit. having no meaning of themselves, i.e.possessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with pre- positions); e.g. अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, cf. अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रिया- माहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ M. Bh. on P.I.4.93; cf. न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nir. I. 1.3: cf. also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्था- न्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: cf. प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भप- वित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिद- स्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārt. 12: III.1.77 Vārt. 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Uddyota thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः Uv.

on R. Pr. XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārt.12 cf. also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārt. 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārt. 1, also 114 Vārt.1.

अनर्थान्तरम् synonym, synonymous, conveying no different sense, e.g. सङ्घः समूहः समुदाय इत्यनर्थान्तरम् । M.Bh. on P. V.1.59; अपि च बुद्धिः संप्रत्यय इत्यनर्थान्तरम् M.Bh. on P.I.1.56.

अनर्थान्तरवाचिनः not conveying any different sense, अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ अनर्थकौ M.Bh. on I.4.93.

अनल्विधि opp. of अल्विधि; an opera- tion not concerning a single letter, e.g. स्थानिवदादेशोsनल्विधौ P.I. 1.56 and M. Bh. thereon; cf. स्थानिवदादेशो ह्यवर्णविधौ Kāt. Pari.39.

अनवकाश having no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: cf. अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति- rules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Par. Śek. on Pari. 64.

अनवकाशत्व absence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness con- sidered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity cf. अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अन- वकाशत्व is slightly different from अप- वादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्य- विधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।

अनवगतसंस्कार (a word) whose forma- tion and accents have not been ek- plained; cf. Nir. IV.1 ; V.2.


अनवयव lit. having no parts; impar- tite; without any concern with the individual component parts; appli- cation in totality; cf. सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possi- ble; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.

अनवस्था fault of having no end: end- lessness; cf. एवमप्यनवस्था स्याद्या मूलक्षय- कारिणी Kāv. Pr.; cf.अवश्यं ह्यनेन अर्थानादि- शता केनचिच्छब्देन निर्देशः कर्तव्यः स्यात् । तस्य च तावत्केन कृतो येनासौ क्रियते । अथ तस्य केनचित्कृतस्तस्य केन कृत इत्यनवस्था । M. Bh. on II.1.1.

अनवस्थान indefiniteness; cf. उच्चनीच- स्यानवस्थानात्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः M. Bh. on I. 2.30 Vārt 1.

अनवस्थित undetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted above on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । M. Bh. on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhā- tuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective applica- tion of the ārdhadhātuka affix be- fore its actual application.

अनह्व tech. term used by the writers; of the Prātiśākhya works for fre- quentative formations such as रीरिष:, चाक्लृपत् etc.; cf A. Pr. 4.86.

अनाकाङ्क्ष not depending on another for the completion of its sense: cf. न यद्यनाकाङ्क्षे P. III.4.23, and Nyāsa thereon which explains अनाकाङक्षे as न विद्यते आकाङ्क्षा अपेक्षा यस्य तस्मिन्.

अनाकृति not capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible

form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: cf. अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः M. Bh. on I.1.1.

अनादर absence of consideration; dis- regard: cf. षष्ठी चानादरे P.II.3.38.

अनादि non-initial. e.g. अनादेश्च मुङ्वचनम् P. III.4.102, Vārt. 4; also M. Bh. on VII.1.3.

अनादिष्ट not replaced as a substitute; e. g. यः अनादिष्टादचः पूर्यस्तस्य निधिं प्रति स्थानिवद्भावः M.Bh. on I.1.57 Vārt. 1, III.2.3 Vārt.2, and VI.1.12 Vārt.10.

अनादेश (1) original, not such as is sub- stituted: e.g. युष्मदस्मदोरनादेशे P.VII. 2.86; (2) absence of statement, अनि- र्देश e.g. कर्तरि कृद्वचनमनादेशे स्वार्थविज्ञानात् P. III.4.67, Vārt. 1: cf the Pari. अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति Par. Śek. Pari. 113.

अनानन्तर्य not a close relation; dis- tance: cf. क्वचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्य शास्त्र- कृतमनान्तर्ये क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतम् । M. Bh. on VIII.3.13.

अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता that saṁhitā text which has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-pāṭha, and which appears appropriate accor- ding to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succcession of words in the Pada-pāṭha, quot- ed in the R.Pr. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितं सहस्रात् Rk. Saṁ. V.2.7, नरा वा शंसं पूषणमगो- ह्यम् Rk. Saṁ. X. 64.3; नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rk. Saṁh. IX. 86. 42. cf. एता अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिताः । न ह्येतेषां त्रयाणां पदानुपूर्व्येण संहितास्ति Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. II.78.


अनान्तर्य absence of proximity, ab- sence of cognateness; cf. इह तर्हि खट्वर्श्यो मालर्श्य इति दीर्घवचनादकारो न, अना- न्तर्यादेकारौकारौ न । M. Bh. on Śiva Sūtras 3-4.

अनाप्य having or possessing no āpya or object; intransitive (root): cf. चालशब्दार्थाद् अनाप्याद् युच् Cāndra I.2 97 standing for चलनशब्दार्थाद् अकर्मकाद् युच् P. III.2.148.

अनार्ष (1) non-vedic: not proceeding from any Ṛṣi, or Vedic Seer, cf. संबुद्धौ शाकल्यस्येतौ अनार्षे P. I.1.16, also Kāś. on the same: cf. किमिदमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्ष इतिकरणः M.Bh.on VI.1.129: (2) pertaining to the Padapāṭha which is looked upon as अनार्ष i, e. not proceeding from any Vedic Seer; cf. अनार्षे इतिकरणः । स च द्व्यक्षर आद्युदात्तश्च, Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. III.23; cf. also A. Pr. III. 1.3.

अनि kṛt affix in the sense of curse, e.g. अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; cf.आक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः;cf. Kāś, on VIII.4.29.

अनिच् samāsānta affix after the word धर्म and some other words pre- scribed by P. V. 4.124-6, e. g. कल्याणधर्मा, सुजम्भा, दक्षिणेर्मा.

अनिट् (l) not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhā- tuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has be- come customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhā- tuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily be- cause they are possessed of an

anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् etc. as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, etc. which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhānta- kaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्व- नतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु- ....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient gram- marians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.

अनिट्कारिका (1) name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the aug- ment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.

अनिट्कारिकाविवरण a short commen- tary by Kṣamāmāṇikya on the work Aniṭkārikā, which see above.

अनिङ्ग्य not separable into two padas or words by means of avagraha; cf. संध्य ऊष्माप्यनिङ्ग्ये: R. Pr. V.41; cf. also R. Pr. IX.25, XIII.30. See इङ्ग्य below.

अनित्य (l) not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or pari- bhāṣā whose application is volun-


tary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obliga- tory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be used. On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see M. Bh. on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been appli- ed, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of ex- ceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.

अनिर्दप्रथम an underived word: an ancient term used by writers of the Prātiśākhyas to signify 'original' words which cannot be subjected to निर्वचन.

अनिपात्य not necessary to be specifi- cally or implicitly stated, as it can be brought about or accomplished in the usual way: e. g. द्वन्द्वम् । लिङ्गम- शिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य । तत्र नपुंसकत्वमनि- पात्यम् M. Bh. on VIII.1.15. See also M. Bh. on VII.2.27 and VI. 1.207.

अनिमित्त not serving as a cause, not possessing a causal relation; e. g. संनिपातलक्षणे विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Par. Śek. Pari. 85. See also M. Bh. on I.1.39.

अनियत not subject to any limitation cf. प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a res- trictive rule or statement ) a limi- tation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.

अनियतपुंस्क whose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight; small insects which are so. The term क्षुद्रा in P. IV.1.131 is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as क्षुद्रा नाम अनियतपुंस्का अङ्गहीना वा M. Bh. on P. IV.1.131.

अनिर्दिष्टार्थ whose sense has not been specifically stated ; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any speci- fic sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got: cf. अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति -affixes, to which no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to which they are added; cf. Par. Śek. Pari. 113; cf. also M. Bh. on III.2.4, III, 2.67, III.3.19, III. 4.9, VI.1.162.

अनिष्ट an undesired consequence or result; cf. अनिष्टं च प्राप्नोति इष्टे च न सिध्यति M. Bh. on I.3.1 , also cf. नानिष्टार्था शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः M. Bh. on VI.1.2.

अनिष्टिज्ञ ignorant or inattentive to what the Grammarian intends or desires to say. cf. तत्र सौर्यभगवतोक्तम्- अनिष्टिज्ञो वाडव: पठति । इत्यत एव चतुर्मात्रः प्लुत: M. Bh. on VIII.2.106.

अनीयर् kṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. pass. part. of a


root; cf. तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. e.g. see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,

अनुकरण (l) imitation; a word utter- ed in imitation of another; an imi- tative name: cf. अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; cf. also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imi- tative name is like its original Par. Śek. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onoma- topoetic word; cf. एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् M. Bh. on I.3.48. cf. also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nir. IX. 12.

अनुकर्षण dragging (from the preced- ing rule) to the following rule tak- ing the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as अनुवृत्ति; cf. अनुकर्षणार्थश्चकारः Kāś. on II. 4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48: cf also the Paribhāṣā; चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र -that which is attracted from a preced- ing rule by the particle च is not valid in the rule that follows; Par. Śek. Pari. 78.

अनुकृष्ट attracted from a previous rule as is frequently done in Pāṇi- ni's rules. See the word अनुकर्षण above.

अनुक्त not actually stated or expressed in a rule; cf. चकारोऽनुक्तसमुच्चयार्थ: Kāś. on II.4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48; also cf. Nyāsa on P.II.2.9

अनुक्रम right or regular order in a Vedic recital, called क्रम. e. g. वायव: स्थ.

अनुक्रमण enumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते M. Bh. on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very

frequently; e.g. यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the p.p.p. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र lit. that which follows Tantra i.e. Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;cf. सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is ex- plained as Vārtika by the com- mentator.

अनुत्तम other than उत्तम or the first person; cf. विभाषितं सोपसर्गमनुत्तमम् P. VII.1.53 and Kāśika thereon.

अनुत्पति non-production of an ele- ment of a word such as an affix or an augment or the like; cf. वावचने चानुत्पत्त्यर्थम् P.III.1.2 Vārt. 7, तत्रो- त्पत्तिर्वा प्रसङ्गो यथा तद्धिते P. III.1.94 Vārt. 2, also कृष्यादिषु चानुत्पत्तिः (णिचः) P.III.1.26, Vārt. 3.

अनुदात्त non-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyapra- yatnas or external efforts to pro- duce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.i.e. अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमे- कवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accent- ed ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was call- ed अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable suc- ceeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः cf.


उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;cf. उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśi- kāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठ- विवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः cf. अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य M. Bh. on I.2.29,30. Cf. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायाम- विश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ R. Pr. III.1. The term anudātta is trans- lated by the word 'grave' as oppo- sed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circu- mflex' (svarita); (2) a term appli- ed to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).

अनुदात्ततर quite a low tone, comple- tely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately follow- ed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corres- ponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; cf. उदात्तस्वरित- परस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; cf. also M, Bh. on I.2.33.

अनुदात्ता a term meaning 'having a grave accent,' used by ancient grammarians.Cf. किमियमेकश्रुतिरुदात्ता उत अनुदात्ता M. Bh.on I. 2.33.

अनुदात्तेत् lit. one whose mute signifi- catory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, etc.; cf. अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: etc. provided the root begins with a consonant; cf. अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.

अनुदात्तोपदेश (a root) pronounced ori- ginally i. c. pronounced in the Dhātupāṭha with a grave accent; see the word अनुदात्त above: cf. अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि ङ्किति P. VI.4.37. See also the word अनिट् above.

अनुदेश (1) reference, mention, state- ment referring to a preceding ele- ment. cf. यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P.I. 3.10; cf. आसिद्धवचनात् सिद्धमिति चेद् उत्सर्ग- लक्षणानामनुदेशः M. Bh. I.1.57, Vārt. 3. (2) declaration, prescription : the same as अतिदेश. cf. स्थान्यादेशपृथक्त्वादेशे स्थानिवद् अनुदेशो गुरुवद् गुरुपुत्र इति यथा P. I.1.56 Vārt. 1; (3) a grammatical operation cf. यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् ! समसंबन्धी विधिर्यथासंख्यं स्यात् Sid. Kau. on P.I. 8.10. See the word अनुद्देश in this sense cf. संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथा- संख्यम् V, Pr.I.143.

अनुनाद a fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also utter- ed before initial aspirates or visarga. cf. घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः R. Pr. XIV.18,19.


अनुनासिक (a letter) uttered through the nose and mouth both, as differ- ent from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. cf. मुखनासिका- वचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and M. Bh. thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( i.e. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( e.g. अँ, आँ, etc. or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ etc. in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः etc.) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be con- sisting of three mātras. cf. अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुना- सिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति R. Pr. I.63.64; cf. also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kāt. Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चा- न्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवल- नासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञे- यमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ etc. are silent ones i. e. they are not actu- ally found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a com- plete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध etc. cf. उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; cf. also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.

अनुन्यास a commentary on न्यास (काशि- काविवरणपञ्जिका by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि). The work is believed to have been written by इन्दुमित्र. It is not available at pre-

sent except in the form of refer- ences to it which are numerous especially in Siradeva's Paribhā- ṣāvṛtti.

अनुपपत्ति discord, absence of validity, incorrect interpretation; cf.प्रथमानुपप- त्तिस्तु M.Bh on I.4.9.

अनुपपद्यमाना impossibility of being explained; cf. तत्र सिद्धायां अनुपपद्यमा- नायां इतरथा उपपादयिषेत्, Nir II.2.

अनुपपन्न impossible to be explained, not consistent , cf. अथाप्यनुपपन्नार्था भवन्ति । ओषधे त्रायस्वैनम् । Nir. I.15.

अनुपरिपाद्य (संहिता) the Pada text of the Vedic Saṁhitā.

अनुपसर्जन not subordinated in word- relation, principal member; cf. अनु- पसर्जनात् P. IV.I.14 and M.Bh. thereon; cf also Par. Śek Pari. 26.

अनुप्रदान an effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु etc. which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the produc- tion of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; cf. स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on T. Pr. describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articu- late sound cf. अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa on R. Pr. XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.


अनुप्रयोग subsequent utterance; lit. post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphra- stic perfect forms; cf. आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.

अनुबन्ध a letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् etc.) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their preven- tion. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (lit. going or disappear- ing) by Pāṇini (cf. उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् etc. I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, cf. अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Par. Śek. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the ana- logy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughtered.

अनुभूतिस्वरूपाचार्य a writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written

धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The gram- mar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.

अनुम् not allowing the addition of the augment नुम् (i.e. letter न् ) after the last vowel; The term is used, in connection with the present part. affix, by Pāṇini in his rule शतुरनुमो नद्यजादी VI.1.173.

अनुमान inference,suggestion, cf. अशक्या क्रिया पिण्डीभूता निदर्शयितुम् । सासामनुमानगम्या M. Bh. on I.3.1.

अनुलोम in the natural order (opp. to प्रतिलोम ), cf. तेऽन्वक्षरसंधयोनुलोमाः in R.Pr.II.8. अनुलोमसंधि is a term applied to Saṁdhis with a vowel first and a consonant afterwards.

अनुलोमसंधि combination according to the alphabetical order; a kind of euphonic alteration ( संधि ) where the vowel comes first. e.g- हव्यवाट् + अग्निः where ट् is changed to द्; एषः देवः= एष देवः cf. R. Pr. II. 8. (Sce अनुलोम ).

अनुवर्तन continuation or recurrence of a word from the preceding to the succeeding rule; the same as anuvṛtti; cf. अनुवर्तन्ते नाम विधयः । न चानुवर्तनादेव भवन्ति। किं तर्हि । यत्नाद्भवन्तीति M. Bh. on I.1.3.

अनुवर्त्य to be observed, to be obeyed; cf. न लक्षणेन पदकाराः अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारिर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.

अनुवाद repetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made cf. प्रमाणान्तरावगतस्य अर्थस्य शब्देन संकीर्तनमात्रमनुवाद: Kāś. on II.4.3.

अनुविधि operation in conformity with what is found. The expression छन्दसि दृष्टानुविधिः is often found in the Mahābhāṣya: cf. M. Bh. on I.1.5, I.1.6, I.1.21, III.1.9, III.1.13, VI.1.6, VI.1.77, VI.1.79, VI. 4.128,VI.4.141, VIII.2.108.


अनुवृत्ति repetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the sub- sequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intend- ed interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is gene- rally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a pre- vious rule when it is called अपकर्ष.

अनुशासन traditional instruction; treat- - ment of a topic; e.g. अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M. Bh. I. 1.1 where the word is explained as अनुशिष्यन्ते संस्क्रियन्ते व्युत्पा- द्यन्ते अनेन इति अनुशासनम्.

अनुषङ्ग (I) lit. attaching, affixing: aug- ment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; cf. अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् cf. P.I.1.47 Vārt.2 and M.Bh. there- on; cf. थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kāt. II.1.12.

अनुसंहार independent mention, a second time, of a thing already mentioned,for another purpose; cf. 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति स्थाने विज्ञातस्यानुसंहारः P.I.1.53 Vārt. 1.

अनुसंहितं according to the Saṁhitā text of the Vedas: cf.एतानि नोहं गच्छन्ति अध्रिगो अनुसंहितम् Bhartṛihari's Mahā- bhāṣyadīpikā p. 9; cf. also R. Pr. XI.31, also XV.33, where the

word is explained as संहिताक्रमेण by Uvaṭa.

अनुस्वार see above under अं

अनूक्त said afterwards, generally in imitation; cf. अनूक्तवान् अनूचानः । अनू- क्तमित्येवान्यत्र M.Bh. on III.2.109.

अनूक्ति statement with reference to what has been already said the same as anvādeśa.

अनूद्देश statement or mention imme- diately afterwards; the same as the word अनुदेश used by Pāṇini in I.3.10, cf. संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथासंख्यम् । अनूद्देशः पश्चादुद्देशः Uvaṭa on V. Pr. I. 143.

अनेकशेष having no ekaśeṣa topic in it; a term applied to the Daiva Gram- mar which does not discuss the ekaśeṣa topic to which Pāṇini has devoted ten rules from I. 2.64 to 73.

अनेकस्वर having many vowels or syllables in it; the same as अनेकाच् of Pāṇini; cf. Hem. III. 4.46

अनेकाक्षर having many syllables in it; cf. अनेकाक्षरयोस्त्वसंयोगाद्यवौ Kāt. II.2.59.

अनेकाच् having many vowels (two or more) in it; opp. to एकाच् : a term frequently used in Pāṇini's gram- mar meaning the same as अनेकस्वर or अनेकाक्षर, which see above; cf. P. VI.3.42,VI.4.82

अनेकान्त (1) not forming an integral part, the same as अनवयव; cf. अने- कान्ताः अनवयवा इत्यर्थः Par. Śek. Pari 4. (2) absence of any definite view cf. अनेकान्तत्वाच्च । येषां चाप्यारभ्यते तेषामप्यने- कान्तः । .. मामहान उक्थपात्रम् । ममहान इति च । M. Bh. on VI.I.7

अनेकार्थ (l) possessed of a plural sense referring to many things. cf. अनेकार्थे युष्मदस्मदी M. Bh. on P.II. 2.98 also अनेकार्थाश्रयश्च पुनरेकशेषः P. I. 2.64 Vārt. 15; (2) possessed of


many senses, cf. अनेकार्था अपि धातवो भवन्ति M. Bh, on P.III.2.48; also cf. यान्यनेकार्थानि एकशब्दानि तान्यतोनु- क्रमिष्यामः Nir. IV.1.

अनेकाल् possessed of many ietters; lit. possessed of not one letter, cf अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य P. I.1.55.

अनेजन्त not ending in a diphthong: cf नानुबन्धकृतमनेजन्तत्व म् Par. Śek. Par.7

अनैकान्तिक undetermined, indefinite एतद्प्यनैकान्तिकं यदल्पप्राणस्य सर्वोच्चैस्तन्महा- प्राणस्य सर्वनीचै: M. Bh.on I.2.30, also M. Bh. on VI. 1.37; not invari- able, cf. अनैकान्तिकं ज्ञापकम् M. Bh. on VII.2.102, VIII.3.34

अनैमित्तिक not possessed of any defi- nite cause; अनैमित्तिको ह्यनुबन्धलेाप: M. Bh. on I. 1.20 also on I. 1.59 and I. 2.64.

अन्त final, phonetically last element remaining, of course, after the mute significatory letters have been dropped. cf. अनुत्तरलक्षणोन्तः M. Bh. on I. 1.21 Vārt, 6.

अन्तकरण lit. bringing about as the final; an affix (which is generally put at the end); ancient term for an affix: cf.एतेः कारितं च यकारादिं चान्त- करणम्। अस्तेः शुद्धं च सकारादिं च । Nir. I.13

अन्तःकार्य lit. interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.

अन्तःपादम् inside a word; explained as पदस्य मध्ये by उव्वटः cf. नुश्रान्तः पदेऽरेफे V.Pr.IV.2 cf. also अन्तःपदं विवृत्तयः R. Pr.II.13.

अन्तःपात insertion of a letter or pho- netic element such as the letter क्

between ङ् and a sibilant, or the letter ट् between ण् and a sibilant; cf. प्रत्यङ्क् स विश्वा, वज्रिञ् च् , छ्र्थिहि; cf. Pān. VIII.3.28, 29, 30, 31: cf. तेऽन्तःपाताः अकृतसंहितानाम् R. Pr.IV.20

अन्तःपादम् inside the foot of a verse explained as पादस्य मध्ये by Uvvaṭa; cf. प्रकृत्याऽन्तः पादमव्यपरे. P.VI.I.113.

अन्तःस्थ, अन्तःस्था f., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था f., semivowel; cf. अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; V. Pr. VIII.14-15: cf. चतस्रोन्तस्थाः ex- plained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः T. Pr. I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः f. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था f. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is ex- plained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।

अन्तर interval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another; hiatus, pause; वर्णान्तरं परमाणु, R.T. 34; also विरामो वर्णयोर्मध्येप्यणुकालोप्यसंयुते Vyāsaśikṣā; (2) space between two phonetic ele- ments, e. g. स्वरान्तरे explained as स्वरयोरन्तरे (between two vowels) by Uvvaṭa cf. अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभा- षितगुणः Nir X.17.

अन्तरङ्ग a highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himself. The Vārti- kakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārt. 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārt. I) evidently in the sense of imme-


diate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occur- rence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequ- ently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the pro- cess of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen above, it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barr- ing of course अपवाद rules or excep- tions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtika- kāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a pari- bhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken place. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग be- ing caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order

of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) de- pending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as oppos- ed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).

अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा the phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहि- रङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described above. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.

अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्व the strength which an antaraṅga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supersedes all other rules or ope- rations,excepting an apavāda rule, when or if they occur simultane- ously in the formation of a word.

अन्तरङ्गलक्षण characterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it.

अन्तरतम very close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्य- युवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥

अन्तर्गण a group of words mentioned inside another group of words (गण);


cf. पुषादिदेवाद्यन्तर्गणो गृह्यते, न भ्वादिक्रया- द्यन्तर्गणः Kāś on III.1.55; also काण्वादिगर्गाद्यन्तर्गणः Kāś on IV.2.111.

अन्तर्भाव inclusion of an element (of sense) in what has been actually assigned. e.g. देवदत्तमुपरमति । उपरमय- तीति यावत् । अन्तर्भावितण्यर्थोत्र रमिः Kāś on P. I.3.84, अन्तर्भावितण्यर्थो युधिः सकर्मको भवति । राजयुध्वा Kāś on P.III. 2.95.

अन्तर्हित separated by a dissimilar element; cf. यूनि चान्तर्हित अप्राप्तिः P.IV. 1.93 Vārt. 5. व्यञ्जनान्तर्हितोपि उदात्तपरः अनुदात्तः स्वरितमापद्यते T. Pr.XIV.30; cf. also R. Pr. III.9.

अन्तवद्भाव supposed condition of be- ing at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. cf. अन्तादि- वच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.

अन्तस्था f. also अन्तस्थः semi-vowel; see under अन्त:स्थ.

अन्तादिवद्भाव condition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; cf. उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also M. Bh. on I.2.48.

अन्ताम् affix of the impera. 3rd pers. plur. Ātm., substituted for the original affix झ, e. g. एधन्ताम्.

अन्ति affix of the pres. 3rd pers. pl. Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.

अन्तु affix of the impera. 3rd pers. pl. Paras. substituted for the original affix झि. e.g. भवन्तु, कुर्वन्तु

अन्ते affix of the pres. 3rd pers. pl. Ātm. substituted for the original affix झ, e g. एधन्ते वर्तन्ते.

अन्तोदात्त a word with its last vowel accented acute. Roots, crude : noun bases and compound words gene- rally have their last vowel accent- ed acute; cf. फिषः (प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् Phiṭ Sūtra 1-1; धातोः (P. VI.1.162} अन्त उदात्तः स्यात्; समासस्य ( P.VI.1.223) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् ।

अन्त्य (1) final letter; अन्ते भवमन्त्यम् (2) final consonant of each of the five groups of consonants which is a nasal अन्त्योनुनासिकः R.T. 17.

अन्यतरतः optionally, lit. in another way; cf. वर्णसंख्ये अन्यतरतः V.P.V.15.

अन्यतरस्याम् optionally; lit. in another way. The term is very common in the rules of Pāṇini, where the terms वा and विभाषा are also used in the same sense.

अन्यपदार्थ another sense, sense differ- ent from what has been expressed by the wording given; cf. अनेकमन्य- पदार्थे P.II.2.24; also अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः M. Bh. on II.1.6.

अन्ययुक्त connected with the word अन्य; connected with another : e.g अन्यो गवां स्वामीति न ह्यत्र गावोन्ययुक्ताः । कस्तर्हि । स्वामी. M.Bh. on P.II.3.22.

अन्यसदृशाधिकरण an object which is different from what is mentioned, yet similar to it cf. नञिवयुक्तमन्यसदृशा धिकरणे तथा ह्यर्थगति; । अब्राह्मणमानयेत्युक्ते ब्राह्मणसदृश आनीयते । नासौ लोष्टमानीय कृती भवति । M. Bh. on P. III.1.12

अन्याय्य irregular; cf.सूर्यविश्रामा भूमिरि- त्येवमादिकं प्रयोगमन्याय्यमेव मन्यन्ते; Kāś. on P.VII.3.34.

अन्यार्थ (1) having another purpose or signification: cf. अन्यार्थं प्रकृतं अन्यार्थं भवति M. Bh. on l.1.23; (2) another sense which is different from what is expressed cf. अन्यार्थो बहुव्रीहिः Cān. II.2.46.


अन्योन्यसंश्रय reciprocally dependent and hence serving no purpose; same as इतरेतराश्रय which is looked upon as a fault. cf अन्योन्यसंश्रयं त्वेतत् । स्वीकृतः शब्दः शब्दकृतं च स्त्रीत्वं M.Bh. on IV.1.3.

अन्वक्षरसंधि a combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्व- क्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant pre- cedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the conso- nant ट् precedes the vowel अ.

अन्वय (1) construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continu- ance, continuation;cf. घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति M. Bh. on P.II. 1.1.

अन्वर्थक given in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a tech- nical term which is found in ac- cordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e. g. सर्वनामसंज्ञा, cf. महत्याः संज्ञायाः करणे एतत् प्रयोजनमन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत M. Bh. on P. I.1.23.

अन्वर्थसंज्ञा A technical term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts; e. g. सर्वनाम, संख्या, अव्यय उपसर्जन,कारक, कर्मप्रवचनीय, अव्ययी-

भाव, प्रत्यय, उपपद etc. All these terms are picked up from ancient gram- marians by Pāṇini: cf. तत्र महत्याः संज्ञाया एतत् प्रयोजनम् । अन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत । संख्यायते अनया संख्येति । cf. M. Bh. on I.1.23; also cf. M.Bh.on I.1.27,I. 1.38,I.2.43, I.4.83, II.1,5, III. 1.1, III.1.92 etc.

अन्ववसर्ग relaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. cf. अन्ववसर्गः गात्राणां विस्तृतता Tait. Pr. XXII.10.

अन्वाकर्षक a word attracting a previ- ous word such as the word च, in the Sūtra texts.

अन्वाचय aggregation of a secondary element along with the primary one: यत्रैकस्य प्राधान्यमितरदप्रधाने तदनुरोधे- नान्वाचीयमानता अन्वाचयः Nyāsa on P.II 2.29. One of the four senses of च, e.g.भिक्षामट गां चानय; cf. प्लक्षश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्सापेक्षोयं प्रयुज्यत इति |

अन्वादेश (1) lit. reference to the ante- rior word or expression: cf.अन्वादेशेा- न्त्यस्य (निःशब्दस्य in T.Pr.VII.3, अकारस्य in V-8) T. Pr. I.58: (2) reference again to what has been stated pre- viously: cf. इदमोन्वादेशेशनुदात्तस्तृतीयादौ अन्वादेशश्च कथितानुकथनमात्रम् P.II.4.32 and Vārt. 2 thereon; एकस्यैवाभिधेयस्य पूर्वं शब्देन प्रतिपादितस्य द्वितीयं प्रतिपादनमन्वा- देशः Kāś on the above.

अन्वादेशक a word capable of attract- ing a word or words from previous statements; cf चापीत्यन्वादेशकौ T Pr. KKII.5; same as अन्वाकर्षक.

अप् (I) kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ etc. mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. e.g. करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, cf. P.III,


3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः cf. P. V. 4.116, 117.

अपकर्ष (1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; cf. स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, R. Pr. XIV.2; (2) draw- ing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; cf. "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, M. Bh. on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।

अपत्य a descendent, male or female, from the son or daughter onwards upto any generation; cf तस्यापत्यम् P, IV.1.92.

अपभ्रंश degraded utterance of standard correct forms or words: corrupt form: e. g. गावी, गोणी and the like, of the word गो, cf. गौः इत्यस्य शब्दस्य गावी गोणी गोता गोपोतलिका इत्येवमादयः अपभ्रंशाः M. Bh. on I.l.l ; cf शब्दसंस्कारहीनो यो गौरिति प्रयुयुक्षिते । तमपभ्रंशमिच्छन्ति विशिष्टार्थनिवेशिनम् Vāk. Pad I.149: सर्वस्य हि अपभ्रंशस्य साधुरेव प्रकृतिः com. on Vāk. Pad I. 149.

अपवर्ग achievement; cf, फलप्राप्तौ सत्यां क्रियापरिसमाप्तिः अपवर्गः see Kāś. on अपवर्गे , तृतीया P.II.3.6.

अपवर्ण a letter which is phonetically badly or wrongly pronounced. cf. कुतीथादागतं दग्धमपवर्णं च भक्षितम् । न तस्य पाठे मोक्षोस्ति पापाहेरिव किल्बिषात् Pāṇ.Śik.50.

अपवाद a special rule which sets aside the general rule; a rule forming an exception to the gene- ral rule. e.g. आतोनुपसर्गे कः III.2.2 which is an exception of the general rule कर्मण्यण् III.2.1; cf. येन नाप्राप्तो

यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, तदपवा- दोयं येागो भवति; Pari. Śekh. Par 57; for details see Pari. Śekh. Pari. 57-65: cf न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् । न्याया उत्सर्गाः महाविधयः । अपवादा अल्प- विषयाः विधय: । तानुत्सर्गेण मिश्रानेकीकृताञ् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः । R. Pr. I. 23 and com. thereon ; (2) fault; cf. शास्त्रा- पवादात् प्रतिपत्तिभेदात् R. Pr. XIV. 30 on which उव्वट remarks शास्त्राणाम- पवादा दोषाः सन्ति पुनरुक्तता अविस्पष्टार्थता, कष्टशब्दार्थता...

अपवादन्याय the convention that a rule laying down an exception supersedes the general rule; cf. सिद्धं त्वपवादन्यायेन P. I.3.9 Vārt. 7

अपवादबलीयस्त्च the convention that a special rule is always stronger than the general rule.

अपवादविप्रतिषेध a conflict with a spe- cial rule, which the special rule supersedes the general rule: cf. 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति उत्सर्गः । तस्य 'आदेः परस्य' 'अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य' इत्यपवादौ अपवादविप्रतिषेधात्तु सर्वादेशो भविष्यति । M. Bh. on I.1.54 Vārt. 1.

अपवृक्त that which has already happened or taken place; cf. न्याय्या त्वेषा भूतकालता । कुतः । आद्यपवर्गात् । आदि रत्रापवृक्तः । एष च नाम न्याय्यो भूतकालो यत्र किंचिदपवृक्तं दृश्यते M.Bh. on III.2.102

अपशब्द corrupt form of a correct word, called म्लेच्छ also; cf. म्लेच्छो ह वा एष यदपशब्दः M. Bh. on I. 1.1. अस्तु वापि तरस्तस्माद् नापशब्दो भविष्यति । वाचकश्चेत्प्रयोक्तव्यो वाचक्श्र्चेत्प्रयुज्यताम् ॥ M. Bh. on V.3.55.

अपाणिनीय not in conformity with the rules of Pāṇini's grammar; cf. सिध्यत्वेवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति M. Bh. on I. I.1.

अपादान detachment, separation, abla- tion technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्


in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; cf. अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.

अपाय (1) point of departure, separa- tion; cf. ध्रुवमपायेपादानम् P.I.4.24; (2) disappearance; cf. संनियेागशिष्टानामन्यत- रापाये उभयोरप्यपायः । तद्यथा । देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्या- मिदं कर्म कर्तव्यम् । देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तेपि न करोति M. Bh. on IV.1.36.

अपार्थक without any purpose or object, useless; cf. ततोनिष्टादर्शनादपार्थक- मेतत् Nyāsa on P.I.4.80.

अपि also in addition to; अपि is used sometimes to mean absolute of or ungualified by any condition; cf. अन्येभ्येपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभि- चारार्थः । निरुपपदादपि भवति । धीवा पीवा । KS. on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.101, VII. 1.38; cf. अपिग्रहणे व्यभिचारार्थम् ) Durgasiṁha on Kāt. II.3.64.

अपित् not marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ cf. सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.

अपूर्व (l) not existing before; cf. आगमश्च नाम अपूर्वः शब्दोपजनः M. Bh. on I.1-20, I.1.46; (2) not preceded by any letter or so, cf अपूर्वलक्षण अादिः M. Bh. on I.1.21: (3) a rule pres- cribing something not prescribed before; cf. तत्र अपूर्वो विधिरस्तु नियमोस्तु इति अपूर्व एव विधिर्भविष्यति न नियमः M.Bh. on I.4.3., III.1.46, III.2. 127, III.3.19.

अपृक्त lit. unmixed with any (letter); a technical term for an affix consist- ing of one phonetic element, i.e. of a single letter. cf. अपृक्त एकाल्प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.

अपेक्षा relation of dependance; cf. अयुक्तैवं बहुनोपेक्षा M. Bh. on IV.2.92.

अपोद्धार disintegration of the consti- tuent elements of a word; analysis; अपोद्धार पृथक्करणम् com. on Vāk. Pad. II. 449: cf. अपोद्धारपदार्था ये ये चार्थाः स्थितलक्षणः Vāk. Pad.I.24.

अप्पयदीक्षित, अप्पदीक्षित A famous ver- satile writer of the sixteenth cen- tury A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅan- taśeṣasaṁgraha are the two pro- minent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.

अप्रकृतिस्वरत्व non-retention of the ori- ginal word accents; cf. तत्र यस्य गतेर- प्रकृतिस्वरत्वं तस्मादन्तेादात्वं प्राप्नोति M. Bh. on VI.2.49. See the word प्रकृतिस्वरत्व.

अप्रातिपत्ति (l) impossibility to obtain the correct form; (2) absence or want of apprehension, cf शब्दानां चाप्रतिपत्तिः प्राप्नोति M. Bh. on I.1.1, I.1.44 Vārt. 8.

अप्रतिषेध useless prohibition; unneces- sary prohibition; cf. अनर्थकः प्रतिषेधः अप्रतिषेधः M. Bh. on I.1.6: I.1.20. I.1.22 etc.

अप्रत्यय (1)lit. absence of any affix: an affix such as क्विप् or क्विन् which wholly vanishes; cf. पिपठिषतेः अप्रत्ययः पिपठीः M.Bh. on I.1.6. कण्डूयतेरप्रत्यय: कण्डूः M.Bh. on I.1.58; (2) that which is not an affix. cf. अप्रत्ययस्यैताः संज्ञा मा भूवन् M. Bh. on I.1.61, I.1.69; (3) that which is not pre- ' scribed, अविधीयमान,अप्रत्याय्यमानः M.Bh. on I.1.69.

अप्रधान (1) non-principal, subordi- nate, secondary, cf. अप्रधानमुपसर्जन-


मिति, M. Bh. on I. 2.43; (2) non- essential, non-predominent, cf. सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने P. II. 2.19 and the instance पुत्रेण सहागतः पिता । Kāś. on II.2.19.

अप्रयुक्त not found in popular or cur- rent use, e.g. the words ऊष, तेर, चक्र etc. यद्यप्यप्रयुक्ता अवश्यं दीर्घसत्त्रवल्लक्षणेनानु- विधेयाः M. Bh. on I.1.1, also यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते M. Bh. on I.I.24

अप्रयेाग (1) non-employment of a word in spite of the meaning being available: cf. संभावनेलमिति चेत्सिद्धाप्रयोगे P.III.3.154; (2) non-employment cf. उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः a standard dictum of grammar not allowing superflu- ous words which is given in M.Bh. on P.I.1.4 Vārt. 16 and stated in Cāndra and other grammars as a Paribhāṣā.

अप्रयोगिन् not-found in actual use among the people although men- tioned in the śāstra-texts; a mute indicatory letter or letters. cf. अप्रयोगी इत् Sāk. I.1.5 Hem I.1.37 Jain.I.2.3 and M.Bh. Pradīpa on III.8.31.

अप्रसङ्ग non-application of a rule of grammar or of a technical term; cf. अन्यत्र सहवचनात् समुदाये संज्ञाsप्रसङ्गः M. Bh. on P.I.1.1. Vārt. 11.

अप्रसिद्ध Not well-known: secondary (used in connection with sense) cf. एवं चाप्रसिद्धत्वं गौणलाक्षणिकत्वं चात्र गौणत्वम् Par. Śek Pari. 15

अप्रसिद्धि absence of clear sense or interpretation; cf इतरेतराश्रयत्वादप्रसिद्धि: M. Bh. on I.1.1. Vārt. 8, I.1.38 Vārt. 4.

अप्राप्तविकल्प same as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional appli- cation of a rule; cf. त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । M. Bh. on P. I. 1.44 Vārt. 20; optional appli- cation of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा

I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।

अप्राप्तविधान prescription of a new thing. cf. तत्राप्राप्तविधाने प्राप्तप्रतिषेधः M. Bh. on VI.4.17 Vārt. 2.

अप्राप्तविधि prescribing an operation which otherwise cannot be had. अग्रादिष्वप्राप्तविधेः समासप्रतिषेधः P.III. 4.24 Vārt 1.

अप्राप्तविभाषा see above अप्राप्तविकल्प.

अप्राप्ति ( i ) non-occurrence for non- realization of a grammatical operation or rule- अप्रतिषेधः M. Bh. on I.1.56 Vārt. 8; (2) pro- hibition of the occurrence of a rule or operation, cf. अप्राप्तेर्वा । अथवानन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M. Bh. on I.I.43, I.1.63.

अप्लुत non-protracted vowel cf. अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुप्ते P.VI.1.113.

अबाघक not coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announc- ed forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Pari- bhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.

अभक्त not-forming an integral part of another; quite independent (used in connection with aug- ments). cf. किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्त आहोस्वित् परादिराहोस्विद् अभक्ताः M. Bh. on I.1. 47, 1.1.51. एवं तर्ह्यभक्तः करिष्यते M. Bh on VI.1.71, VI.1.135, and VII.2.82.


अभयचन्द्र a Jain grammarian , who wrote प्रक्रियासंग्रह, based on the Śabdā- nuśāsana Vyākaraṇa of the Jain Śākatāyana.His possible date is the twelfth century A. D.

अभ्यतिलक a Jain writer of the thirteenth century who wrote a commentary on the Śabdāśā- sana Grammar of Hemacandra.

अभयनन्दिन् a reputed jain Gramma- rian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैने- न्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name.

अभाव absence; absence of any following letter which is technically called avasāna. cf. विरामोऽवसानम् । वर्णानामभावोऽवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S. K. on P. I.4.110.

अभाषितपुंस्क that which does not convey a masculine sense; a word which is not declined in the masculine gender; a word possess- ing only the feminine gender e.g- खट्वा, लता etc.cf. अभाषितपुंस्काच्च P. VII. 3.48.

अभिकृति a variety of long metres called अतिच्छन्दस्; it consists of 100 syllables. cf. अभिकृतिः -देवा अग्निः स्विष्टकृत् R. Pr. XVI.60.

अभिक्रम the first of the two utter- ances of a word which chara- cterise the krama method of recital; e. g in the krama recital of प्रण इन्दो etc. प्र णः । न इन्दो । the first recial प्र णः is called अभिक्रम, or प्रथम- वचन while न इन्दो is called द्वितीयवचनः cf. अभिक्रमे पूर्वविधानमाचरेत् पुनर्ध्रुवंस्तूत्तरकारितं क्रमे R. Pr. XI.21.

अभिघात depression or sinking of the voice as required for the utterance of a circumflex vowel.

अभिधान designation, denotation, ex- pression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. M. Bh. on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, cf. नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( R. Pr. XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन.

अभिधेय object or thing denoted by a word; sense of a word; cf. अभि- धेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति M. Bh. on II.2.29.

अभिनिधान lit. that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa conso- nant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; cf. अघो- षादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( T. Pr. XIV. 9. ) explain- ed by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभि- निधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; cf. अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने R. Pr. VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभि- निधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.'


The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । R. T. 21.

अभिनिर्वृति development of an acti- vity; manifestation; cf. द्रव्येषु कर्म- चोदनायां द्वयोरेकस्याभनिर्वृत्तिर्भवति M. Bh. on VI.1.84.

अभिनिविष्ट that which has already entered on functioning or begun to function; cf. स्वभावत एतेषां शब्दानां एतेष्वर्थेषु अभिनिविष्टानां निमित्तत्वेन अन्वाख्यानं क्रियते M. Bh. on II.1.1. cf. पूर्वमपवादा अभिनिविशन्ते पश्चादुत्सर्गाः, M. Bh. on II.3.46; Pari. Śek. Pari. 62.

अभिनिष्टान Resonance (of a visarga utterance).

अभिनिहित used in connection with a सन्धि or euphonic combination in which the vowel अ, as a first or a second member, is absorbed into the other member. e. g. रथेभ्यः + अग्रे = रथेभ्योऽग्रे also दाशुषेऽग्रे, where अ of अग्रे is absorbed or merged in ओ of रथेभ्यः or ए of दाशुषे; cf. अथा- भिनिहितः संधिरेतैः प्राकृतवैकृतैः । एकीभवति पादादिरकारस्तेत्र संधिजाः; R. Pr. II. 13 to 25; cf.एङः पदान्तादति P.VI.1.109.

अभिनिहितस्वार name given to the circumflex vowel which is the resultant of the अभिनिहितसंधि.

अभिप्राय (1) अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasa- lised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; cf. तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; M. Bh. on I.1.27; cf. also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.

अभिविधि inclusive extension to a par- ticular limit; inclusive limit cf. आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः P.II.1.13, अङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योरिति वक्तव्यम् M. Bh. on I.4.89; (2) full or complete exten-

sion cf. अभिविधौ भाव इनुण् । अभिविधिर- भिव्याप्तिः । सांराविणं वर्तते Kāś on P. III. 3.44.

अभिव्यादान absorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together e.g. ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronuncia- tion. cf. आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on R. Pr. XIV. 27.

अभिव्याहार expression; cf. यदेव समाने पादे समानाहभिव्याहारं भवति तज्जानि भवति । हिरण्य- रूपः स हिरण्यसंदृक् Nir X.16.

अभिसारिणी name of a metre in which two feet have ten syllables and the other two have twelve sy- llables; cf. वैराजजागतैः पादैर्यो वाचेत्य- भिसारिणी R. Pr. XIV. 43.

अभिस्वरित provided with a svarita or circumflex accent.

अभिहित expressed (used in connection with the sense of a word) एतेनैवाभिहितं सूत्रेण M. Bh. on I.2.64 , 1.3.1 ; ex- pressed actually by a word or part of a word, same as कथित M. Bh. on I.4.51.

अभूततद्भाव being what it was not before, cf. च्विविधौ अभूततद्भाग्रहणम् P. V.4.50 Vārt. I.

अभेदक not bringing about a differ- ence; not making different; non- discriminant; cf. गुणाः अभेदकाः Par. Śek. Pari. 109 cf. ननु च भो अभेदका अपि च गुणा दृश्यन्ते M. Bh on I.1.1.

अभेदसंसर्ग a connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which pro- duces the sense.

अभेदान्वय relation of non-difference as stated by the vaiyākaraṇas


between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e, g. नीलमुत्पलम् is explained as नीलाभिन्न- मुत्पलम्.

अभ्यन्तर interior; contained in, held in; cf. अभ्यन्तरश्च समुदाये अवयवः । तद्यथा वृक्षः प्रचलसहावयवैः प्रचलति M. Bh. on I.1.56.

अभ्यंकर ( BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. ) an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a num- ber of Sanskrit scholars in Gram- mar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhā- ṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhya- kar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commen- taries on books in several Sans- krit Shastras, has written a com- mentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dic- tionary of Sanskrit Grammar.

अभ्यम् substitute for dat. and abl. pl. affix भ्यस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् ; cf भसोsभ्यम् P. VII.1.30.

अभ्यस्त repeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, cf. उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.

अभ्यावृत्ति inclination towards an action; tendency to do an act; cf. संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणनं कृत्वसुच् । P. V. 4.17 अभिमुखी प्रवृत्तिरभ्यावृत्तिः (M. Bh. on V.4.19) is the explanation in the Mahābhāṣya,while पौनः पुन्यमभ्या- वृत्तिः (Kāś. on V.4.17) is the one given in Kāśikā

अभ्यास lit, doubling or reduplica- tion technically the word refers to the first portion of the redupli- cation, which is called the redu- plicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; cf. पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; cf. दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; cf. अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.

अभ्याहत omission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semi- vowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: cf. अं विकारस्य T. Pr. I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकार- स्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) sub- stitute tor Ist pers. sing. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. sing. case affix अम् .

अमर called अमरसिंह an ancient grammarian mentioned in the कविकल्पद्रुम by बोपदेव. He is believed to have written some works on grammar such as षट्कार- कलक्षण his famous existing work, however, being the Amarakoṣa or Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana.


अमरचन्द्र a Jain grammarian who is believed to be the writer of स्यादिशब्दसमुच्चय, परिमल etc.

अमु tad. affix अम् applied in Vedic Literature to किम्, words ending in ए, indeclinables and the affixes तर and तम: e. g. प्रतरं नयामः प्रतरं वस्यः cf. अमु च च्छन्दसि P. V. 4. 12.

अमृतभारती a grammarian who is believed to have written सुबोधिका, a gloss on the सारस्वतव्याकरण.

अमृतस्मृति called also अमृतस्तुति, a com- mentary on the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी of रामचन्द्रशेष.

अमोघवर्ष A Jain grammarian of the ninth century who wrote the gloss known as अमोघावृत्ति on the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭā- yana; the वृत्ति is quoted by माधव in his धातुवृत्ति.

अमोघा also अमोघावृत्ति, a gloss on the grammar of Sākaṭāyana. See अमोघ- वर्ष above.

अम्बाकर्त्री a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāsenduśekhara named so, as it commences with the words अम्बा कर्त्री etc.

अम्बूकृत utterance (of words) accom- panied by water drops coming out of the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; मुखात् विप्रुषो निर्गमनम् . It is explained diffe- rently in the Rk. Prātiśākhya; cf. ओष्ठाभ्यां नद्धं अम्बूकृतम्म्वृ (R. Pr. XIV.2.) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; cf.ग्रस्तं निरस्तमविलम्बितं निर्हतं अम्बूकृतं ध्मात मथो विकम्पितम्. MBh. I. 1. पस्पशाह्निक.

अय् (l) substitute for the causal sign णि before अाम्, अन्त, अालु etc. by P, VI.4.55 (2) substitute for ए before a vowel by P.VI.1.78.

अयङ् the substitute अय् for the final ई of the root शी by P. VII.4.22.

अयच् tad. affix अय substituted op- tionally for तय after द्वि and त्रि by P. V.2.43. e.g. द्वयम् द्वितयम्; त्रयम् त्रितयम्.

अयाच्,अयाट् substitutes for inst. sing affix टा in Vedic literature e. g. स्वप्नया, नावया.

अयावन non-mixture of words where the previous word is in no way the cause of (any charge in) the next word. अयावनं अमिश्रयम् Uv. on R. Pr. XI. 12 e. g, अग्निमीळे where the क्रमपाठ is अग्निं ईळे ।

अयुज् a term applied to the odd feet of a stanza; cf. युग्मावष्टाक्षरौ पादवयुजौ द्वादशाक्षरौ । ना सतोबृहती नाम R. Pr. XVI. 39.

अयोगवाह the letters or phonetic ele- ments अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; cf. अकारादिना वर्णसमा- म्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;cf.अयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । M. Bh. on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.

अर् a technical term for Ārdhadhā- tuka affixes in the Mugdhabodha grammar.

अरक्तसन्धि a word, the coalescence of which is not nasalized, as the word आ in मन्द्रमा वरेण्यम् as contrast- cd with अभ्र आं अपः cf. R. Pr. XI.18.

अरङ् a Visarga which is not rhotaciz- ed; the term अरिफित is used in the same sense.

अरिफित not rhotacized: not turned into the letter र; cf. विसर्जनीयोsरि्फितो दीर्घपूर्वः स्वरोदयः आकारम् , R. Pr II. 9.


अरीहणादि a group of words given in P. IV.2.80 which get the taddhita affix घुञ् ( अक ) added to them as a cāturarthika affix e. g. अारीहणकम्, द्रौघणकम् etc.see Kāśikā on P.IV.2.80.

अर्क the strong blowing of air from the mouth at the time of the utte- rance of the surd consonants; cf Vāj. Śikṣā. 280.

अर्थ (I) lit.signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: cf. प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः R. Pr. XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an indepen- dent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; cf. अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; cf. also अर्थः पदम् V. Pr. III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थो- नेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (preposi- tions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Al- though Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conju- gational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or ele- ments of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practi- cally nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to

prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, pre- sents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य i.e. a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be call- ed अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no case- affix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārti- kakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and ab- sence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and inde- clinables on the other hand, Bhar- tṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not direct- ly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are


attached; cf. also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetori- cians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or conven- tion which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; cf. 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.

अर्थगति comprehension of sense; cf. अर्थगत्यर्थः शब्दप्रयोगः अर्थे संप्रत्याययिष्या- मीति शब्दः प्रयुज्यते M. Bh. on P. I. 1.44, III.1.7 etc.

अर्थग्रहण use of the word 'अर्थ'; cf. अर्थग्रहणं करोति तज्ज्ञापयत्याचार्यः M. Bh. on I.1.11.

अर्थनिर्देश mention or specification of sense. cf. अवश्यमुत्तरार्थमर्थनिर्देशः कर्तव्यः M. Bh. IV.1.92.

अर्थवद्ग्रहणपरिभाषा a well known maxim or Paribha of gramma- rians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थ- कस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'

अर्थाभिधान conveyance or expression of sense, cf. अर्थाभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् P. I.2.64 Vārt. 38. It is only a nature of words that they convey their sense.

अर्धक a fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. अर्धह्रस्वम् ex- plained as ह्रस्वस्यार्धम्-half the utter- ance of the short vowel; cf. तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P. I.2.32. cf. also तस्यादिरुच्चैस्तरामुदात्तादनन्तरं यावदर्द्धे ह्रस्वस्य Tai. Pr. I.44.

अर्धजरतीय a queer combination of half the character of one and half of another, which is looked upon as a fault; cf. न चेदानीमर्धजरतीयं लभ्यं वृद्धिर्मे भविष्यति स्वरो नेति । तद्यथा । अर्धं जरत्याः कामयते अर्धं नेति; M.Bh. on IV. 1.78; cf. also अर्ध जरत्याः पाकाय अर्धं च प्रसवाय ।

अर्धमात्रा half of a mātra or 'mora'., cf. अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utter- ance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.

अर्धमात्रिक taking for its utterance the time measured by the utterance of half a mātrā or mora; a conso- nant, as it requires for its utte- rance that time which is measured by half a mātrā (mātrā being the time required for the utterance of short अ); cf. R. Pr. I.16, T. Pr.I.37, V. Pr. I.59.

अर्धर्चादि a group of words given in P.II.4.31 which are declined in both the masculine and the neu- ter genders; c.g. अर्धर्चः,अर्धर्चमू, यूथः, यूथम्; गृहः गृहम्, etc.; cf अर्धर्चाः पुंसिं च P.II.4.31.

अर्धविसर्ग a term used for the Jihvā- mūliya and Upadhmāniya into which a visarga is changed when followed by the letters क्, ख, and the letters प्, फ् respectively.


अर्धह्रस्वोदात्त the acute (उदात्त) accent which becomes specially उदात्त or उदात्ततर when the vowel, which posseses it, forms the first half of a स्वरित vowel.

अर्शआदि a class of words which take the taddhita affix अच्(अ) in the sense of the affix मतुप् i. e.in the sense of possession; cf अर्शति अस्य विद्यन्ते अर्शसः । उरस:। आकृतिगणश्चा- यम् यत्राभिन्नरूपेण शब्देन तद्वतोभिधानं तत् सर्वमिह द्रष्टव्यम् Kāś. on P. V.2.127.

अल् a प्रत्याहार or a short term signifying any letter in the alphabet of Pāṇini which consists of 9 vowels, 4 semi- vowels, 25 class-consonants, and 4 sibilants.

अलक्षण that which is not a proper लक्षण i. e. Sūtra; a Sūtra which does not teach definitely; a Sūtra which cannot be properly applied being ambiguous in sense. cf व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदह्यादलक्षणम् Par. Śek. Pari. I.

अलाक्षणिक (1) not used in a secondary sense; (2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule: cf.निपातनैः सह निर्देशादत्रापि किंचिदला- क्षणिकं कार्यमस्ति Kāś. on III.2.59.

अलिङ्ग (1) not possessed of a definite gender; cf. अलिङ्गमसंख्यमव्ययसंज्ञं भवति M. Bh. on I.1.38; II.4.82;(2)अलिङे ह्युष्म- दस्मदी (Sid. Kau. on P.VII.2.90)

अलिङ्गवचन not possessed of a definite gender and number; a term gene- rally used in connection with अव्ययs or indeclinables.

अलुक् absence of elision or omi- ssion.

अलुक्समास a compound in which the case-affixes are not drop- ped. The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24.

अलोन्त्यविधि an operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; cf. नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे M. Bh. on I.1.65, cf. अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्या- देशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.

अलोप absence of clision of an affix etc. cf. सुपः अलोपः भवति वाक्ये । राज्ञः पुरुष इति । M. Bh. on II.1.1.

अलौकिकविग्रह the dissolution of a compound not in the usual popu- lar manner. e. g. राजपुरुष: dissolved as राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु, as contrasted with the लौकिकविग्रह viz. राज्ञः पुरुष: । see also अधिहरि dissolved as हरि ङि in the अलौकिकविग्रह.

अल्प्रग्रहण (l) the word अल् actually used in Pāṇini's rule e. g. अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः P.I.2.41.(2) the wording as अल् or wording by mention of a single letter e.g. अचि श्रुधातुभ्रुवांय्वो P, VI.4.77.

अल्पतर feebler effort required in the production of sound or in the utterance of a letter cf. तैरोव्यञ्जनपाद- वृत्तयोरल्पतरः (प्रयत्नः) Tait. Pr.XX.12.

अल्पप्रयोग not of frequent occurence in the spoken language or literature the term is used in connection with such words as are not fre- quently used; cf. सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैक- पदिकाः । व्रंततिर्दम्नाः जाटय आट्णारो जागरूको द्विर्धिहोमीति Nir I.14.

अल्पप्राण (1) non-aspirate letters let- ters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as oppo- sed to mahāprāṇa; (2) non-aspira- tion; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters.

अल्पाच्तर having a smaller number of vowels in it; such a word is gene- rally placed first in a Dvandva compound; cf अल्पाच्तरम्, P.II.2.34.


अल्पाच्तरे पूर्वं भवति प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ अपाच्तर is the same as अल्पाच्क used in the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी or अल्पस्वरतर in Kātantra (Kāt, II.5.12).

अल्पापेक्ष am operation requiring a smaller number of causes, which merely on that account cannot be looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग. The anta- raṅga operation has its causes occurring earlier than those of another operation which is termed बहिरङ्ग cf. बहिरङगान्तरङश्ङ्गशब्दाभ्यां बह्वपेक्षत्वाल्पा- पेक्षत्वयोः शब्दमर्यादयाsलाभाच्च । तथा सति असिद्धं बह्वपेक्षमल्पापेक्ष इत्येव वदेत् ॥ Par.Śek. Pari. 50.

अल्लोप elision or omission of a single phonetic element or letter; cf. अल्लोपोsनः P. VI.4.134.

अल्विधि an operation prescribed with reference to one single letter; cf. स्थानिवदादेशोs नल्विधौ P.I.1.56.

अवकाश occasion; possibility of appli- cation; cf. इको गुणवृद्धी इत्यस्यावकाशः। चयनं चायकः लवनं लावकः इति । इहोभयं प्राप्नोति | मेद्यति । मार्ष्टीति । M. Bh. on I.1.3. Vārt. 6.

अवग्रह (1) separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Pada- pāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitā- pāṭha; e.g. पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitā- pāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writ- ing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originated. The Atharva- Prātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (A. Pr. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are utter-

ed separately, there is a momen- tary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utter- ance of a short vowel. (See for de- tails Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded to- gether. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; cf. also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; cf. छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(M. Bh. on IV.2.36); also cf. यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (M. Bh. on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definite- ly stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coale- scence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ e.g. शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the consti- tuent elements of a compound word are shown separately; cf. समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (V. Pr. V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.

अवग्रहविराम the interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas.


अवङ् substitute अव् for the final ओ of the word गो; cf. अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य, P. VI.1.123,124.

अवचन something which need not be specifically prescribed or stated, being already available or valid; cf तृतीयासमासे अर्थग्रहणमनर्थकं अर्थगतिर्हि अवचनात् P. II.1.30 V.1.

अवचूरि a short gloss or commentary on a standard work.

अवच्छेद exact limitation: cf. उपदेशत्वा- वच्छेदेने एकाजित्यर्थाच्च, Par.Śek. 120.3.

अवधारण restriction; limitation; cf. अवधारणमियत्तापरिच्छेदः । यावदमत्रं ब्राह्मणाना- मन्त्रयतस्व Kāś. on P.II.1.8.

अवधि limit,which is either exclusive or inclusive of the particular rule or word which characterizes it: cf. सर्वश्च हल् तं तमवधिं प्रति अन्त्यो भवति M. Bh. on I.3.3.

अवधिमत् object of limit; cf. दूरे चेदव- धिमान् अवधेर्भवति Kāś. on P.V.3.37.

अवयव member or portion, as oppo- sed to the total or collection (समुदाय) which is called अवयविन्; cf. अवयवप्रसिद्धेः समुदायप्रसिद्धिर्बलीयसी Par.Śek. Pari. 98. The conventional sense is more powerful than the deriva- tive sense.

अवयवषष्ठी the genitive case signify- ing or showing a part: cf. वक्ष्यत्यादे- शप्रत्यययोरित्यवयवषष्ठी M.Bh. on I. 1.21.

अवर्ण the letter अ; the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising all its varieties caused by grades, ( ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत) or accents of nasa- lization. The word वर्ण is used in the neuter gender in the Mahā- bhāṣya; cf. सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णम् M. Bh. I.1.9, मा कदाचिदवर्णं भूत् M.Bh. I.1.48 Vārt. 1; cf also M. Bh. on I.1.50 Vārt. 18 and I.1.51 Vārt. 2: cf. also ह्रस्वमवर्णं प्रयोगे संवृतम् Sīradeva Pari. 17. 6

अवशंगम name of a Samdhi when a class consonant, followed by any consonant is not changed, but retained as it is; cf. स्पर्शाः पूर्वे व्यञ्जनान्युत्त- राणि अास्थापितानां अवशंगमं तत् R.Pr.IV. l; eg. अारैक् पन्थाम् R.V. I.113.16, वषट् ते (R.V.VII.99.7) अजानन् पुत्रः (R. V. X.85.14).

अवशिष्टलिङ्ग (v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग) a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' i.e. possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclin- ables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes i.e. potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).

अवश्यम् necessarily; the expression अवश्यं चैतदेवं विज्ञेयम् is very frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya when the same statement is to be empha- sized.

अवसान pause, cessation, termination; cf. विरामोऽवसानम् । वर्णानामभावः अवसान- संज्ञः स्यात् S. K. on P.1.4.110.

अवस्था stage, condition; stage in the formation of a word; e. g. उप- देशावस्था, लावस्था, etc.

अवस्थित of a uniform nature; cf. सिद्धं त्ववस्थिता वर्णाः, वक्तुश्चिराचिरवचनाद् वृत्तयो विशिष्यन्ते, M. Bh. I.1.70 V. 5.

अवाक्षर deficient in one or more syllables. The word is mostly used in connection with a Vedic Mantra.

अवाग्योगविद् one who is not conver- sant with the proper use of lang- uage: cf. अथ योऽवाग्योगविद् विज्ञानं तस्य शरणम्; M. Bh. 1.1.1.

अविघातार्थ meant for not preventing the application (of a particular


term) to others where it should apply. The word is frequently used in the Kāśikā; cf अजाद्यतष्टाप् । टकारः सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः । Kāś. on P. IV.I.4, also see Kāś. on III.1. 133; III.2,67,73 IV.1.78.

अविचालिन् immutable. The term is used frequently in the Mahābhā- ṣya, in connection with letters of the alphabet which are consi- dered 'nitya' by Grammarians; cf. नित्येषु च शब्देषु कूटस्थैरविचालिभिर्वर्णैर्भ- वितव्यमनपायोपजानविकारिभिः M. Bh. I. 1. Āhn 2: cf also नित्यपर्यायवाची सिद्ध- शब्दः । यत्कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M. Bh. on I.1.1.

अविधि non-application, non-pres- cription (अविधान); cf. अङ्गवृत्ते पुनर्वृत्तौ अविधिर्निष्ठितस्य M. Bh. on VII.I.30; Par. Śek. Pari. 92.

अविभक्तिक without the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commenta- tors as an archaic usage; cf. अवि- भक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । M. Bh. I 1. Āhn. 2; also M. Bh. on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 etc.

अविभागपक्ष a view of grammarians according to which there are words which are looked upon as not susceptible to derivation. The terms अखण्डपक्ष and अव्युत्पन्नपक्ष are also used in the same sense.

अविरविकन्याय a maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actu- ally put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim

shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use cf. द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थ- योरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविर- विकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविक- शब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । M. Bh. on IV.1.88; cf. also M. Bh. on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.

अविलम्बित name of a fault in pro- nouncing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utter- ance; 'अविलम्बितः वर्णान्तरासंभिन्नः' Pra- dīpa on M.Bh I.1.1. There is the word अवलम्बित which is also used in the same sense; cf. ग्रस्तं निरस्तमव- लम्बितं निर्हतम् ० M. Bh on I.1.1.

अविवक्षा non-intention: connivance; cf. सतोऽप्यविवक्षा भवति । अलोभिका एडका । अनुदरा कन्या । also cf. प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिका क्रिया.

अविवक्षित (1) not taken technically into consideration, not meant: cf. अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read with- out that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.

अविशेष absence of specification; cf. गामादाग्रहणेष्वविशेषः M.Bh.I.1.20 Vārt 1; Par. Śek. Pari. 106.

अविशेषित not specified, mentioned without any specific attribute; cf. एवमपि प्रयत्नः अविशेषितः भवति M.Bh. on I.1.9; cf. also Kātan. VI.1.63.

अवृत्ति absence of, or prohibition of, a vṛtti or composite expression; mon- formation of a composite express- ion; cf. समानाधिकरणानां सर्वत्रावृत्तिरयोगादेकेन M.Bh. on III.1. 8.


अवृद्ध lit.not beginning with the vowel अा, ऐ or औ; a word which has got no अा or ऐ, or औ as its first vowel, as for example ग्लुचुक, अहिचुम्बक etc. इरावती, नर्मदा यमुना etc; cf. प्राचामवृद्धात् फिन् बहुलम् P.IV.1.160. also अवृद्धाभ्यो नदीमानुषीभ्यस्तन्नामिकाभ्यः P.IV. 1.113.

अव्यक्त (1) indistinct; inarticulate; cf. अव्यक्तानुकरणस्यात इतौ P. VI.1.98 also P.V.4.57; अव्यक्तं अपरिस्फुटवर्णम् Kāś. on P. VI.1.98; (2) a fault of pronunciation cf. नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्त- मेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् ।

अव्यपवृक्त unseparated, undivided, inseparable, mixed; cf. नाव्यपवृक्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिः यथा द्रव्येषु M. Bh. on Siva-sutra 4.V.9 whereon Kai- yaṭa remarks व्यपवृक्तं भेदः । अव्यपवृक्तं अभिन्नबुद्धिविषयमेकत्वालम्बनज्ञानग्राह्यं समुदा- यरूपम् ।

अव्यय indeclinable, lit. invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; cf. सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभ- क्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.

अव्ययसंग्रह name of a treatise ond- eclinable words attributed to Sāka- ṭāyana.

अव्ययार्थनिरूपण a work on the mean- ings of indeclinable words written in the sixteenth century A. D. by Viṭṭhala Śeṣa, grandson of Rama- candra Śeṣa the author of the Pra- kriyā Kaumudi.

अव्ययीभाव name of a compound so called on account of the words for-

ming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् etc.; cf. अन- व्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः M. Bh. on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; cf. पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः M. Bh. on II.1.6.

अव्यवधान absence of intervention between two things by something dissimilar; close sequence cf. अतज्जातीयकं हि लोके व्यवधायकं भवति M. Bh. on I.1.7. Vārt. 8; cf also येन नाव्यवधानं तन ब्यवहितेपि वचनप्रामाण्यात् M. Bh. on VII.3.44, VII.3.54, VII.4.l, VII.4.93. The term अव्यवाय is used in the same sense.

अव्यवस्था absence of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regard- ing the application of a rule: cf. पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराडिति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति M. Bh. on I.3.60 V. 5.

अव्याप्ति insufficient extension, as opposed to अतिव्याप्ति or over applica- tion; cf.सर्वौपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम् । अव्याप्त्यति- व्याप्त्यसंभवादिदोषपरिहारार्थम् Padamañjarī on II.1.32.

अव्याप्य an intransitive root; a techni- cal term in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa (C. Vy. I.4.70 ) as also in Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana; cf. अव्याप्यस्य मुचेर्मोग् वा । मुचेरकर्मकस्य सकारादौ सनि परे मोक् इत्ययमादेशो वा स्यात् । न चास्य द्विः । मोक्षति मुमुक्षति चैत्र: । मोक्षते मुमुक्षते वा वत्सः स्वयमेव Hem. IV.1.19.

अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष the view held generally by grammarians that all words are not necessarily susceptible to ana- lysis or derivation, an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists or Nairuktas that every word is derivable; cf. पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्ति- पक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम् Pari. Śekh. Pari. 22; वाचक उपादान: स्वरूप- वानिति अव्युत्पत्तिपक्षे Vyāḍi's Saṁgraha.


अव्युत्पन्न underived, unanalysable; cf. उणादयोऽव्युत्पन्नानि प्रा तिपदिकानि M. Bh. I. 1.61 Vārt. 4: Par. Śek. Pari. 22.

अव्युत्पन्नपक्ष same as अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष. See above the word अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष.

अश् (1) Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semi- vowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibi- lants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginn- ing with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the tad. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the gen. sing. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.

अशक्ति incapacity to pronounce words correctly; cf. अशक्त्या कयाचिद् ब्राह्मण्या ऋतक इति प्रयोक्तव्ये लृतक इति प्रयुक्तम् M.Bh. on Śiva-sūtra 2.

अशिष्य unnecessary to be prcscribed or laid down.; cf.तदशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वात् P. I.2.53; also लिङ्गं अशिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वा- ल्लिङ्गस्य M.Bh. on II.1.36.

अश्मादि a class of words headed by the word अश्मन् to which the taddh- ita affix र is applied in the four senses specified in P.IV.2.67 to 70; e.g. अश्मरः, ऊषरम् , नगरम् , पामरः गह्वरम् etc. cf. P.IV.2.80.

अश्वघासादि compounds like अश्वघास which cannot be strictly correct as चतुथींसमास, but can be षष्ठीसमास if the word तदर्थ in the rule चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थ- बलिहितसुखरक्षितैः be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it: cf. विकृतिः प्रकृत्येति चेदश्वघासादीनामुपसं- ख्यानम् M.Bh. on II.1.36.

अश्वपत्यादि a class of words headed by अश्वपति to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule तेन दीव्यति० P.IV.4.2, which are

technically called the Prāgdīvya- tiya senses. e g. अश्वपतम्, गाणपतम्. गार्हपतम् etc.

अश्वत्थनारायण a commentator who wrote a gloss on Pāṇini's Aṣṭā- dhyāyī in the Tamil language.

अश्वादि (1) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren etc.); e.g.आश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः etc.; cf. P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circum- stance; e.g. आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् cf. P. V.1.39.

अष्टक another name for the famous work of Pāṇini popularly called the Aṣṭādhyāyī; cf. अष्टावध्यायाः परि- माणमस्य सूत्रस्य अष्टकं पाणिनीयम् । दशकं वैया- घ्रपदीयम् । त्रिंकं काशकृत्स्नम् । Kāś on P.IV. 1.58; (2) students of Pāṇini's grammar, e. g. अष्टकाः पाणिनीयाः; cf. सूत्राच्च कोपधात् । Kāś. on P.IV. 2. 65.

अष्टम a term used by ancient gram- marians for the vocative case.

अष्टमङ्गला name of a commentary on the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa by Rām- akiśoracakravartin.

अष्टाध्यायी name popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the tra- ditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhā- ṣya and two are found in Gaṇap- āṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of read- ings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text


was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the auth- ors of the Kāśika,as observed above, has traditionally come down to the present day. The Aṣṭādhyāyī is believed to be one of the six Ved- āṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Aṣṭādhyāyī is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; cf. शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी M. Bh. on VI. 3.109.

अष्टाक्षरा a metre having eight sylla- bles in a foot;cf.गायत्री सा चतुर्विंशत्यक्षरा । अष्टाक्षरास्त्रयः पादाः चत्वारो वा षडक्षराः R. Pr.XVI.9.

अष्टि name of a metre of four feet consisting of 64 syllables in all, 12 syllables in the odd feet and 20 in the even feet; e. g. त्रिकद्रुकेषु महिषः etc. R.V. II.22.1.

अस् (1) case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ab- lative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compound- ending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् etc.(5) ending syllable अस्, with or with- out sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; cf. P.VI.4.14; cf. also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.

अस affix अस mentioned in the Niru- kta in the word अवस ( अव् + अस ) cf. असो नामकरणः । तस्मान्नावगृह्णन्ति NirI.17.

असंख्य not possessing any notion of number; the word is used in con-

nection with avyayas or indeclina- bles; यथैव हि अलिङ्गमव्ययमेवमसंख्यमपि M. Bh. on II.4.82.

असंज्ञक a term used for the Cāndra Grammar,as no saṁjñas or techni- cal terms are used therein; cf.चान्द्रं चासंज्ञकं स्मृतम्.

असंज्ञा not used as a technical term or name of a thing; cf. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्त- रापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् P.1.1.34.

असंनिकर्ष (।) separatedness as in the case of two distinct words;(2) absence of co-alescence preven- ting the sandhi; cf R.T. 68,70.

असंनिधान the same as असंनिकर्ष; see above; e. g. भरा इन्द्र; तमु अभिप्रगायत.

असंप्रत्यय failure to understand the sense; cf. इतरथा ह्यसंप्रत्ययोऽकृत्रिमत्वाद्यथा लोके M. Bh. on I.1.23 Vārt. 3.

असंभव Impossibility of occurrence (used in connection with an operation); cf नावश्यं द्विकार्ययोग एव विप्रतिषेधः । किं तर्हि । असंभवेपि । M. Bh. I.1.12 Vārt. 3; (2) impossibi- lity of a statement, mention, act etc. cf. असंभवः खल्वपि अर्थादेशनस्य M. Bh. on II.1.1.

असंयोग absence of the conjunction of consonants; cf. असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् P.I.2.5.

असंहिता absence of juxta-position, absence of connectedness; cf. यदि तावत्संहितया निर्देशः क्रियते भ्वादय इति भवितव्यम् । अथासंहितया भू अादय इति भविंतव्यम् M. Bh. on I.3.1.

असत्त्व(l) absence of सत्त्व or entity; (2) other than a substance i. e. property, attribute, etc. cf. प्रादयः असत्त्ववचना निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति M. Bh. I. 4.59; cf. also सोऽसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गणः M. Bh. on IV.1.44. cf. also चादयोऽ सत्त्वे P.I.4.57.

असमर्थ (1) syntactically not con- nected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2)


unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in con- nection with a word which can- not be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with an- other word: cf. सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति M. Bh. II.1.1.; e.g. the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.

असमर्थसमास a compound of two words, which ordinarily is in- admissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः M. Bh. on II.1.1.

असमस्त not compounded, not en- tered into a compound with an- other word; cf. समासे असमस्तस्य Hem. II.3.13.

असमास ( 1) absence of a compound. उपसर्गादसमासेपि णोपदेशस्य P. VIII.4.14; (2) an expression conveying the sense of a compound word al- though standing in the form of separate words: चार्थे द्वन्द्ववचने असमासेपि वार्थसंप्रत्ययादनिष्टं प्राप्नोति । अहरहर्नयमानो गामश्वं पुरुषं पशुम् M. Bh. on II.2.29.

असरूप not having the same out- ward form or appearance; e. g. the affixes अण्, अच्, ण, अट्, ञ्, and the like which are, in fact, सरूप as they have the same outward form viz. the affix अ. अण् and यत् are असरूप; cf. वाऽसरूपोऽस्त्रियाम् P.III. 1.94.

असर्वविभक्ति not admitting all case- affixes to be attached to it; cf. तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्ति: P.I.1.38: यस्मान्न सर्वविभक्तेरुत्पत्तिः सोसर्वविभक्तिः । ततः यतः तत्र यत्र । Kāś. on I.1.38.

असामर्थ्य absence of a syntactical con- nection cf दध्ना पटुः । घृतेन पटुः । असामर्थ्यादत्र समासो न भविष्यति । कथम- सामर्थ्यम् । सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवतीति । न हि दध्नः पटुना सामर्थ्यम् । केन तर्हि । भुजिना । दध्ना भुङ्क्ते पटुरिति । M. Bh. on II.1.30.

असारूप्य dissimilarity in apparent form (although the real wording in existence might be the same) e. g. टाप्, डाप् , चाप्; cf. नानुबन्धकृतमसारूप्यम् । Par. Śek. Pari. 8.

असि (I) Uṇādi affix अस्; (2) tad. affix अस्. See above the word अस्.

असिच् samāsa-ending affix अस्. See above the word अस्.

असिद्ध invalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been inva- lidated. Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the


second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Aṣṭādhyāyī invalid when any pre- ceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescrib- ed in the Ābhīya section begin- ning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invali- dity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, cf. षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of inva- lidity given above. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it be- came necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of in- validity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are strong- er than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.

असिद्धत्व invalidity of a rule or ope- ration on account of the various considerations sketched above. See असिद्ध.

असिद्धपरिभाषा the same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga ope- ration. See the word असिद्ध above. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam anta- raṅge' Par. Śek. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some gram- marians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.

असुक् the augment अस् seen in Vedic Literature added to the nom. pl. case-affix जस् following a noun- base ending in अ; e.g, जनासः, देवासः etc. cf आज्जसेरसुक् P. VII.1.50,51.

असुड् substitute अस् for the last letter of the word पुंस् before the सर्वनाम- स्थान affixes i. e. before the first five case affixes,e.g. पुमान् पुमांसौ etc.; cf. पुंसोsसुङ् P.VII.1.89

असुन् Uṅādi affix अस् ( असुन् ) by सर्व- धातुभ्योSसुन् वक्तव्यः Uṅ. Sū.628; cf. न वेत्तीति नवेदाः। वेतिरसुन्प्रत्ययान्तः Kāś. on P.VI.3.75.

असे kṛt affix in the sense of the infini- tive (तुमर्थे) in Vedic Literature,e.g- जीवसे; cf. तुमर्थे सेसेनसेo P.III.4.9

अस्ताति tad. affix अस्तात् in the sense of the base itself, but called विभक्ति, prescribed after words in the sense of 'direction', e. g. पुरस्तात्, अधस्तात् etc. cf. दिक्शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्येा दिग्देशकालेषु अस्तातिः P. V.3.27.

अस्थ अ, अा and अा३. This term is used in Ṛk Tantra cf. अस्थनामिनी सन्ध्यम् R.T.94, अस्थ possibly means 'belonging to अ i. e. all the three grades ह्रस्व, दीर्घ and प्लुत of अ'.


अस्पष्ट less in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hem. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.

अस्पृष्ट not in contact with any vocal organ; the term is used in connec- tion with the effort required for the utterance of vowels, अनुस्वार and sibilants when no specific contact with a vocal organ is necessary: cf. स्वरानुस्वारेाष्मणामस्पृष्टं करणं स्थितम् R. Pr. XIII. 3.

अस्मद् first person; the term is used in the sense of the first person in the grammars of Hemacandra and Śākaṭāyana. cf. त्रीणि त्रीण्यन्ययुष्मदस्मदि (Hem. III.3.17);

अस्वपदविग्रह a term used for those compounds, the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the members of the compound: e. g. सुमुखी; cf. भवति वै कश्चिदस्वपदविग्रहोपि बहु- व्रीहिः । तद्यथा । शोभनं मुखमस्याः सुमुखीति । M.Bh. on V.4.5.

अस्वयंदृष्ट A term used for the per- fect tense; cf. कृ चकारमस्वयंदृष्टे (R.T. 19l).

अस्व not homogeneous: asavarṇa. cf. इवर्णादेः अस्वे स्वरे यवरलम् Hem. I.2.21, also अस्वे Śāk.I.1.73.

अस्वरक untoned; a word without an accent, as different from a word which has an accent,but whi- ch is not uttered with that accent: cf अक्रियमाणे ह्युपदेशिवद्भावे...अान्तर्यत अांदेशा अस्वरकाणामस्वरकाः स्युः M.Bh. on VII. 1.2, VII. 1. 89.

(1) the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit e.g. अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (M. Bh. on I.1.14.) (4) indeclin- able आ in the sense of remem- brance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; cf. ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् M. Bh. on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद etc. cf. M. Bh. VI.1.12 Vārt. 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substi- tute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the tad. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश etc.; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns end- ing in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः etc.

आँ indeclinable आ pronounccd nasa- lized, e. g. अभ्र आँ अपः M. Bh. I.3.2.

आक् see above the word आ sense(5).

आकम् the substitute आकम् for साम् of the gen. pl. after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् e. g. युष्माकं, अस्माकम् cf. P.VII.1.33.

आकर्षक ( a word ) attracting ano- ther word stated previously in the context e. g. the word च in the rules of Pāṇini.

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