मुद्राराक्षसम्/Notes

विकिस्रोतः तः
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NOTES

Act I. P. 47. As remarked by the commentator, the equivocations of the first stanza (with which may be compared those at Sarasvati kanthabharana, P. 130), are intended to indicate the crooked policy on which the plot of the play is based; while the second stanza is said, by the same authority, to foreshadow the difficulties of that policy, occasioned by Chanakya's desire to avoid the total destruction of Rakshasa. नाम, in the second line of the first stanza, does not mean proper name as it does in the first, It means simply a "word which signifies’ a particular thing, as when the Nirukta, P. 6, (see also P. 18, &c.) says गौ: &co, are पृथ्वीनामधेयानि. For कस्य हेतोः see Siddh. Kaun I.295, and for नारीं पृच्छामि नेन्दुम् . Ibid I, 254. विजया is a female attendant of Parvati. In the drama, called Parvatiparinaya (cf. also Kumara. VIII. 49), she is represented as one of P.'s attendants in her father's house before marriage. For the quotations in the commentary cf. Sahitya Darpana, P. 261, or Kuvalayananda, P. 180. रक्षतः == avoiding. Cf. Kathasaritsagara, P. 203, Kadambari P. 148 [Not exactly parallel.] As to नृत्त see Dasarupa, P. 5, and cf. Malatimadhava, P. 181. The metre of the two stanzas is Sragdhard.

P. 54-57. As to नान्द्यन्ते see the remarks in Jagaddhara's commentary on the Malatimadhava, pp. 5-6. यत्सत्यम् is a very common expression, of inter alia, Kadambari, p. 80, Venisamhara, p. 13, Anargha Raghava, pp. 42 115, Malatimadhava, p. 165. The meaning of the expression is, "indeed” “to be sure". For स्तम्बकरिता the commentator cites Siddh. Kaum. II.329. The metre of stanza , 8 is Anushtub. The plural form गृहाः (p. 55) is a very common one, cf. Viracharita, p. 2, Anargha Raghava, pp.7, 12, Sakuntala, p. 264, and Ganaratnamahodadhi, p. 113. The हुंकृत, referred to in stanza 4, (p. 56, is the indistinct sing-song sound which accompanies such mechanical work as that here spoken of. Grinding with the millstones, for instance, has the same accompaniment. The metre of the stanza is Aupachchhandasika. On stanza 5 (p. 57), the commentary has drawn out the equivoque. उपायनिलय, as applied to the नटी, seems to mean "clever at expedi- ents in household management." For the quotations in the com- mentary on pp. 52-56, See Das'arûpa, pp. 9, 112, 113, 181 and for that at p. 57, See Kuvalayananda, p. 88. The metre of the stanza is Årayâ. P. 58-61. तिष्टतु तावत्-Or आस्तां तावत् --is an idiomatic expression, equivalent to the English 'never mind'. As to the invitation to Brâhmanas on account of the eclipse, cf. Dharmasindhu, pp. 51-53 (Bomb. ed. with Marathi translation).चतुः षष्ट्यङ्ग :(p. 59), see these in Târânâth's Vachaspatya, p. 74. There are 24 Angas and 40 Upângas mentioned in the quotation from Garga there given, all of which are here spoken of as Angas. The double entendre on stanza 6 is explained by the commentator. As to standing for मलयकेतु comp. S'ârîraka Bhâshya, p. 929. For the quotations in the commentary, see Kuvalayânanda, p. 163. The fuller reading of the first speech behind the scenes (p. 60) seems to fit better with the speech of the Nați. But the reading adopted by the majority of our MSS: is not unintelligible. And see Sahitya-Darpana, p. 132, where this passage is quoted as an instance of the Udgha- tyaka mode of पात्रप्रवेश. The metre of the stanza is Arya. As to कौटिल्यः कुटिलमतिः (p. 61), see infra, p. 188. For the quotations in the commentary, see Das'arûpa, pp. 55, 113. सनानः means “having the same name." As to the name चन्द्रगुप्त see Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 289. द्विषदभियोग=attack by an enemy. Cf. pp. 169-172 infra. The metre of the stanza is Praharshiņi.

P. 62-64.मुक्तां शिखाम् . Chânakya had declared that he would not tie up his hair until he had completed the task he had undertaken. He ties it up at the end of the play. The loosening and tying up of Draupadi's braid in the Venisamhâra may be compared. And cf. also Mřichchhakatika, p. 40. The significance of the expressions in stanza 8, as stated in the commentary, should be noticed. The metre of stanza 8 is Vasantatilaka. For the quotations in the commentary, see Das'arûpa, p. 11, and Kuvalayam nanda, p. 46. धूमलता in stanza 9 finds a parallel in the Venisamhâra, p. 33, where Draupadi's braid is similarly described. The metre of the stanza is Âryâ In stanza 10 धूमकेतु-merely-means fire. In the Sarvadars'anasangraha, p. 4. (Cf. Kadambari p. 40), fire is called धूमध्वज, which means the same thing. कुलकाननधूमकेतु occurs in the Uttararâmacharita, pp. 2, 97, and Chandakaus'ika, p. 33. शालभेन विधिना=in the same way as the s'alabha does, viz., by being burnt up in the fire. Cf. Bhartřihari. (Vairâgya), stanza 21. For quotations in commentary, see Kuvalayananda, p. 4. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka.

P. 65-68. दुःशीलता. The tradition of this is still kept alive by the ordinary Pantoji. The passage cited in the commentary at p. 65 is to be found in the Das'arúpa, p. 12. The reading of A। M.,&c., instead of न समर्थः किम् ought to have been kept in the text. [The necessary change has been made in the present edition.] The syntactical construction of the passage from कुतः: (p. 65), to येन मया, &c., on p. 67. is not quite regular. यस्य मम seems to have nothing answering to it in the preceding sentence in consequence of the intervening कुतः, and nothing in the following sentence in consequence of the intervening stanza 12, which is not syntactically co-ordinate with stanza 11. The metre of stanza 11 is Sragdhara, of stanza 12 S'ârdûlavikridita. सोऽहम् &c.=under these circumstances, I, &c. वृषलापेक्षया (p. 67)=out of regard for Chandragupta. शास्त्रं धारयामि= retain office as chief minister. Cf. p. 312, infra, where Châņakya offers the शास्त्र to Rakshasa. The metre of stanza 13 is S'ikharini. In तदभियोगं प्रति, अभियोग must be inter- preted to mean devotion, devoted work (for the Nanda family ). अवस्थापयितुं शक्यः= it is possible to make him steady, to manage him. अनयैव बुद्ध्या= in this belief. तपस्वी is commonly used as a term of pity. Cf, inter alia Mâlatimâdhava, p. 117, and Mrichchhakatika 79, S'âkuntala 150, Kirâta XIII., 58. प्रत्यक्षवत् &c.-looking into space before him as if Rakshasa was there present in the flesh. Cf. Murâri, p. 91. अर्थत:=for the sake of gain. अनु is here a Karma- pravachaniya, see Siddh. Kaum. I. 263, et seq. तत्प्रतिष्ठाशया=in the hope of their master's restoration to prosperity. Cf. Magha II. 34. प्रलय =ruin, adversity. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdalavikridita as also of stanza 15. As to न शयानेन and commentary on it Cf. Raghu IV. 8, and Mallinâtha's commentary there.

P. 69-73. विषकन्या= A woman, intercourse with whom was supposed to be fatal, see Kathâsaritsagara, p. 292.लोकप्र्ययर्थम् &c. The rumour circulated would become more credible by reason of


28 Chânakya’s not destroying Malayaketu, though apparently in his power, and letting him escape. It seems doubtful whether the commentator's explanation of the next phrase is correct, the escape of Malayaketu with the help of Bhagurayana having but a very indirect connection with Malayaketu's being imposed upon in the mode suggested. As to व्युत्तिष्ठमानः (p. 70) see Siddh. Kaum. II., 243, and cf. Mâgha II., 10, Viracharita, p. 25.अस्य निग्रहात् goes, ofcourse, with प्रमार्ष्टुम्. See as to all this p. 136 infra. Ti is not easy to interpret. It would mean literally movements, and आचारसंचार therefore would seem to mean manners and modes of proceeding or dealing. व्यञ्जन=disguise, Cf Murari, p. 57, Magha II., 56. निपुणम् seems rather to mean skilfully and to go with अन्विष्यते than as the commentator takes it. प्रचारगरम्= Movements, doings. तत्तत्कारणम् &c. (p. 70),=Bhadrabhata and others, the companions of Chandragupta, have been kept well satisfied by making opportunities (for keeping them so ) from time to time. With सहोत्थायी may be compared सहाध्यायी and व्युत्तष्ठमानः supra It means an adherent whose prosperity follows the prosperity of him whose adherent he is. तिक्ष्णरस =poison.परीक्षितभक्ति=of tried loyalty औशनसी दण्डनीति=the science of politics according to S'ukra. Cf. Panchatantra IV., p. 74 and note. As to ज्योतिःशास्त्रं see p.59 supra लिङ्ग=marks, guise. Cf. Raghu. VIII., 16, Kirâta. I, St. 1. महत्प्रयोजनम् See pp. 229-233 infra. नपरिहास्यते=nothing will be deficient on our side. Cf. Pârvatipariņaya, pp. 122-136. प्राधानप्रकृति-chief. minister, Cf. Mâlatîmâdhava p. 367, and Viracharita, p. 131. राज्यतन्त्र=(p. 71), administration of a kingdom. Cf. p. 108,S'âkuntala p. 187. उदास्त्ते=is apathetic; takes no interest in public affairs). अथवा, &c,=or no wonder; for only then does sovereignty conduce to happiness when it is uncoupled with the troubles (not shared with others) of application to work; as to अथवा see Bhartrihari (Niti) st. 10, as to अभियोग see p. 169 infra; as to the whole idea cf. S'âkuntala p. 189. The metre of stanza 16 is Anushtub.यमपट=a series of representations of the exploits of Yama, something, pro- bably, like the boxes of sacred pictures which are shown about to this day. See Harshacharita, p. 121. विषम Cf. the similar though not identical sense of विषम at Bhartrihari (Niti.) at. 79. The metre of both is Arya. सुगृहीतनाम्नः: (p. 73) is a common expression applied to various classes of persons entitled to respect or veneration. Cf. Mrichchhakatika, pp. 66,286; Chandakaus'ika, p. 42, and elsewhere. For a definition of it see Das'arûpa, p. 109.धर्मभ्राता is an expres- sion which occurs at Yâjnavalkya II., 137. In the Uttararâma- charita pp. 168-175, Janaki Parinaya, p. 10, and Murâri Nataka, pp. 36-80, also similar expressions occur. The meaning is one who is in a similar relation as that of a brother, by learning with one guru, &c. The commentator's explanation is not incompatible with this. P. 74-79. चोरयितुम् here means to deny; it generally means to possess as in Mâgha I., 16. In the Chandikâs'ataka (Ind. Ant. 1., 112), it means remove, take away. This passage ( with different readings ) is quoted in the Das'arûpa (p. 120 ) as an example of Nalikâ. As to कमल and चन्द्र Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 212. The metre of the stanza is Arya. [कमलाणां मणहराणं was the reading of the previous editions, the present reading is required by the Metre and hence is the right one] उपक्षिप्त (p. 75) see Mâlatímâdhava p. 21.(?) The meaning is something like that of the English phrase " throwing out," hinting, indicating. विराग (p. 76 ) discontent. In अस्त्यत्र नगरे &c., (p. '77) अस्ति is an अव्यय. See Siddh. Kaum, I., p. 92, and cf. pp. 80-124 infra, and Venîsamhâra, p. 213, among other passages. As to चन्द्रश्रियः Cf. Mâlatimâdhava p. 365 and note there. [P. 78. The speech of चर beginning with 'जॅवसिद्धी णामसो' presupposes a question'किंनामधेयो हिस् सः' ; and hence the reading of H, noted in the footnote is to be preferred.] As to न युक्तम्, &c., (p. 79 ) Cf. Prabodhachandrodaya, p. 39. The Kayasthas appear to have been much looked down upon in old days. Cf. Mrichchhakatika, pp. 175-367, and Hindu Theatre, Vol. I. p. 92. The name S'akatadâsa is to be noted. It seems to belong to Eastern India where the Kâyasthas are still a large and important class of the population, and Dâs is still a prevailing surname. Chandanadas--a Vanik-may be either a Bengalee or a Gujarathi name.

P. 80-86. अङ्गुलिप्रणयी Cf. हस्ततलगतः at P. 202 infra. अववरक= inner apartment, window, as in Viddhas'âlabbanjikâ, p. 17. See Halâyudha, 32, and cf. Transactions of Oriental Congress, p. 334, inter alia, पञ्चवर्षदेशीय (p. 81)= about five years of age. The passage, cited in the commentary at p. 83, is to be found in Das'arúpa, p. 21. गृहीतो जयशब्दः=(p. 84), scil that in जेदु coming directly after जेतव्यः This is a common thing in our dramas. See Uttararâ macharita, p. 25, Murâri, p. 90, Chandakaus’ika, p. 1 Prasanna Raghava, p. 56, Någânanda, p. 140, and Cf. pp. 87- 189 infra: According to the Das'arðpa, p. 119, this is technically called गण्ङ पारलौकिकम् means, of course, funeral ceremonies उच्यxमस्मद्वचनात् is a common expression. Cf. Venisamhâra, p. xx S'âkuntala, p. 53, Vikramorvas'i, pp. 135-155, Raghu, XIV., (xx. The grammatical explanation of it is to be found at Siddhi, Kau I., 288. उत्तरो लेखार्थः See the लेख at pp. 237-238 infra. Txx latter part is about the ornaments, which the three brothers xx here sent to receive from Chandragupta.

P. 86-92. चित्रगुप्तः प्रमार्ष्टुः. Cf. Milton's phrase, “ blotted out fryx the book of life." The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. अनभिष्टx = vague, without persons and things being definitely named.अद वाह्यनाम (p. 87)=in which the name of the addressee is not written उपतिष्टस्व=come back to me. For the Âtmanepada see Sidध। Kaum. II., 244. हन्त is an expression of joy. आप्त (p. 88)= Very friendly cf. Mâgha III., 23.प्रयोजनम् see p. 221 et seqदोषं प्रख्याx &c., (p. 89 ) see p. 69 supra. निकर=disgrace, ignominy, (x Bhartrihari stanza 37 (Nîti.) and note. शुलमारोप्यताम्. See the manner of doing this at p. 306 infra and in the Mrichchhakatika p. 334. अपि नाम (p. 90) indicates a wish, and introduces a question as to whether it will be satisfied. Cf. Mâlatîmâdhava 21 as a comment, S'âkuntala p. 29. It has a different sense in the Jâna Parinaya, p. 236, where it introduces a question, but does not involve the wish as it does here, and also generally. चाणक्कहतx (p. 92). Cf. as to this Prasanna Raghava, p. 150, Bhartrihari x 94 (Nîti.), and our note there. In the Viddhas'alabhanjikâ, p. 7x the form is हतकहिमांशो, which reverses the usual order of the words in such cases.

P. 93-95. संभावितम्, &c. The reading in the notes is easier interpretation. The commentator's explanation of the reading our text seems to make it mean, " This is mere outward civility towards you from one like me." But the true meaning seems to be " This is mere ordinary civility from one like me towards you that is to say, it is not more than is usual and proper in such case. अपक्षिप्तं-- commenced, set on foot. Cf. Venisamhâra, p. 19 and see references on p. 74 supra. वृद्धिलाभा (p. 94 ), earning x interest. Hemchandra, p. 161, and Halâyudha p. 81, give वणिज्य not वाणिज्या as the correct form, and the former occurs not unfre- quently in कथसरितसागर. As to अत्यादरः &c., Cf. the Italian proverb alluded to in Bacon's Advancement of Learning, p. 358. See, too, S'âkuntala, p. 88, अतिक्रान्त &c. =do not the shortcomings of Chandragupta now remind the people of the virtues of the former king? As to the grammatical construction see the commentary and cf, with it, Siddh. Kaum. I., 257-259. प्रतिप्रिय=benefit in return. Cf. Raghu V., 56. As to नन्दस्यैव, &c. Cf. Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 289-296, on the cupidity of the Nandas. Cupidity seems to be attributed to the Mauryas also (Cf. Goldstucker's Panini, p. 229).

P. 96-102. यत्वमद्यापि seems to be a better reading than यस्त्वमद्यापि। The latter is grammatically explicable, apparently, only as a continuation of भवानेव तावत्, &c. अयमिदृशो, &c., being treated as a mere parenthesis. वाक्छलम् (p. 97)=dishonesty in words. The meaning is that the dishonesty is merely apparent, being in words only. अछलं भवतु भवतः=Get clear of all dishonesty. उपरि घनम्, &c. (p. 98.) For the idea of the first line. Cf. Meghaduta, stanza 3, and Raghu. XIII., 28, दिव्यौषधयः herbs of great efficacy, soil for curing snake-poison. This stanza is quoted in the Sarasvatikanthâbharan p. 195 (with readings which are in none of our MSS.) as an example of उत्तरवक्रनिदर्शनः। . The metre of the stanza is विक्रान्तैः &c. (p. 99). The meaning is that if good minister eminent in peace and war, failed to preserve against Chandragupta's attack the sovereignty of the Nandas when they were alive and their name could rally people round their banner, nobody could destroy the sovereignty which has passed to Chandragupta xxx when the line of the Nandas is extinct. One element favourable to the enemies of Chandragupta is removed by the destruction of the Nandas, and the other elements are still the same. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita, तिक्षणदण्ड (p. 100), Cf. S'âkuntala p. 254.पथ्य =beneficial, wholesome. Cf. Janaki Parinaya, p. 114 Mâgha II, 10,सुलभेषु (p. 102). As to S'ibi see pp. 288-304, Kaaasaritsagara, p. 82, Mahâbhârata, Vana Parvan, ch. 197 and CF Cunningham Arch. Surv. XV., 8. S'ibi's is a common story among Buddhists, See inter alia Cunningham's Geography, p. 82. For Hian, pp. 29, 206, Burgess and Bhagvânlal's Cave Inscriptions of Western India, p. 87. सम्वेदन=giving. निवेदन is often used in , ' sense, e. g. Jânakî Pariņaya, p. 92, Raghu, XIV., 70. The metre of the stanza is Anushțub.

P. 103-106.दुर्गपालक. In the reading in the text this means the keeper of the fort or prison, apparently. In the other reading it would be proper name. See, too, p. 316, infra. सार=valuables. पुरुषदोष=a fault of the individual, viz., himself.हन्त see p. 87 supra The whole plot is now perfected in Châņakya's mind and he sees how it is to end. The metre of the stanza is Anushtub. समपक्रांतः (p. 104)=ran away.गृह्यताम्(p. 105)= apprehend. तन्त्रमाकुलीभूतम्= the whole arrangement is gone out of order, as to तत्र see the quotation in the commentary at p. 108 infra. For प्रथमतरम् Cf Kadambari, pp. 351-68. प्रधार हृदये=some deep motive in their minds. Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 41. गता एव ते =they are gone for ever। साधनविधौ(p. 106)=in the work of accomplishing the end desired. The meaning of the stanza is this, "So long as my own mental strength is intस्थूलाक्षरैः युक्तः भागःact, I do not care what deficiencies there may be in my external helps to accomplish my purposes.” The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita. एकचर=living by oneself alone apart from those who represent the Nanda family to which Râkshasa's homage is due. Cf. Kirâta XIII., 3. विगाहमान, as applied to the elephant, seems to mean wandering about in the forest. प्रगुणिकरोमि=refine and improve and break in for the work to be done by him. Cf. Prasanna Râghava, p. 103, Malatimaadhava p. 33. The figure of the elephant is repeated at p. 178 infra. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka.


'Act II'

,

P. 108. The quotation area,अभूताहरणम्. &c, contained in the commentary is taken from Das'arUpa, p. 28, where, and on follow- ing pages, the various terms are explained. The double meanings of the various words of the first stanza are explained in the com- mentary, and Cf. Mâgha II., 88. The मण्डल is the charmed circle, which the snake-charmer draws round a snake to prevent his going beyond certain limits.मन्त्र =charms and state secrets. The metre of the stanza is Gîti. For the quotations in the commentary see Das'arûpa p. 38. जितकाशी (p. 110)=one who likes to assert bimself against all opposition, see p. 165 infra, and cf. S'âhitya. Parichaya, p. 47 (Part I.), where Prof, Nilamani Mukarji explains it thus-जितं जयः भावे क्तः।तेन काशते उल्लसति जितकाशी जयोद्धत इत्यर्थः। पेटकसमुद्गक=baskets, boxes, see S'âkuntala, p. 151, and Mâlatî- madhava, p. 206, note. संस्कृतमाश्रित्य (p. 111), seems to be rather uncalled for, as the Prâkți was not the proper language for Virâdhagupta, but only for his assumed character. As to these changes of language, see the rule at Das'arûpa, p. 109, and Cf. Mâlatîmadhava, p. 81, and S'akuntala, p. 105. चाणक्यमतिपरिगृहीत= guided by the counsels of Châņakya, see p. 124 infra, and for the grammar, Siddh, Kaum. I., 4-20.

P. 112-115.मूर्ति means body here, as at Raghu. XIV., 54, for instance. As to मौर्य see Max Müller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature pp. 285-297. The metre of the stanza is Upajâti. As to संशयिता Cf. Prasanna Raghava, p. 151.गजवशा =she-elephant. Cf. Vikramorvas'ı, p. 117, Kathâsaritsâgara, p. 70.गतागतैः :=the she-elephant now goes to the one side and now to the other, as the one or the other happens to be superior for the moment, and hence she gets wearied by these movements. Cf. the somewhat different figure at Raghu XII, 93. For the quotations in the commentary see Das'arûpa, p. 58. The metre of the stanza is Ruchirå. भित्तिं विना (p. 113) see Maitri Upanishad, p. 55, Mâgha IV., 53, Kathåsarit- sågara, p. 64. चित्रकर्म, here means, of course, primarily painting. The explanation given by the commentator gives the meaning divested of the figure. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdala- vikridita, as also that of the next stanza. अथवा, &c. Having said that all his activity is without the main object which should support it, he, in the next stanza, proceeds to justify that activity, which is shown in serving others than his original masters, and shows that even now, though serving others, his object is to do something for his old masters. विस्मृतभक्ति=forgetting the loyalty due to the Nandas. विषय, &c.=with a heart fixed on (रूढ V L . ) the enjoyment of worldly pleasures.आत्मप्रतिशष्तार्थी=wishing to be in occupation of a high position. शात्रवशत्रु. See Kirâta XIV., 2, and Mallinâtha's commentary on that, and Cf. also Venisamhâra, p. 178, Dhananjayavijaya, p. 7. For the grammatical rule see Siddh. Kaum. I., 726. शत्रु falls under the गण प्रज्ञादि Pânini V., 4-38.गन्धगज(p. 114) is a superior species of elephants so called from the smell which they are supposed to give out. As to चपला Cf. Raghu. VI., 41. The metre of the stanza, is Vasantatilaka. अनभिजात=low-bred. कुलहीन soil, he being a वृपलः। As to पुरन्ध्रीणाम् &c. Cf. Milton's Samson Agonistes, v. 1010. The metre of the stanza is S'ikhariņi. त्वामकामां करोमी=I will disappoint you in your wish, namely, to remain with Chandragupta. परकृत्योपजाप (p. 115)=secretly communicating the doings of the enemy. At p. 145 the meaning of उपजाप is kindred, but slightly different. [प्रकृत्युपजापार्थम् the reading of H, gives a good meaning ] संहति combination. The text should have read अदृश्यरूपम्, instead of अदृश्यमानम् . The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka.

· P. 116-118.क्रमेण=by degrees, gradually. प्रतिष्ठा Cf. p. 68 supra. As to अनु see Siddh. Kaum. I, 265. With the reading अपि, there is a difficulty if construing तं जयाय यतते. लब्धान्तर=getting an opportunity. Cf. Janaki Pariņaya p. 108, and the parallel phrases लब्धावकाश, लब्धावसर. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita. The इति in इत्याभरणानि, &C., (p. 117 ) should, perhaps, be not taken as part of the stage direction.पक्षपात often means partiality as in Malavikâgnimitra p. 12, for instance; but it also means, as here, merely liking. Cf. for other instances, Uttararâmacharita p. 148, Viracharita p. 81, Ratnâvalî p. 23, Prasanna Raghava, p. 113, Kirâta III., 12 सुगाङ्ग is is the palace at Pâtaliputra, see p. 149 infra. इदम् is used to indicate that Râkshasa had the throne of Malayaketu as it were then before his eyes. The metre is S'ikbariņi. प्रतिमान्यताम्, &c. (p. 118). Cf. Mrichchhakatika, pp. 115, 374 and p. 315 infra. The meaning is-show respect to this first token of affection or friendship by accepting it. साधयामि=I am going. Cf. S'akuntala, p. 19, Sahitya Darpana p. 171. सर्पदर्शन.(p. 119) is held to be inauspicious. Cf. Mſichchhakatika, p. 306. दर्शनकार्य-that which would have resulted from the दर्शन, viz।, some present, गाथा (p. 121 ) means merely a stanza here. See inter alia Ratnâvali, p. 22. The metre of the stanza is Âryâ. संस्कृतमाश्रित्य (p. 122) see p. 111 supra. पीडित=pressed, Cf. Kirâta III., 54. For the quotations in the commentary, see Kuvalayananda, p. 84. The metre of the stanza is S'årdûlavikridita. The commentator's explanation of विराध seems rather forced.

P. 123-126. भुजंगैः &C. This is a blunder--not the poet's--as Virâdhagupta is called in not for his भुजंग, but for his सुभाषित. See the introduction on this. स्वाधिकारम्, &c. Cf. Sakuntala, p. 75,

Mâlavikâgnimitra, p. 17, Jânakî Pariņaya, p. 334. The meaning is-Do you, too, attend to your own duty. As to शक्यवन , &c (p. 124) see introduction. प्रतिद्विप =hostile elephants, elephants of the enemy. Cf. Kirâta XVII, 45. मया सहैकमनसः: (p. 125). Cf.अस्माभि: सहैककार्याणाम् P. 115 supra. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûla- Vikridita, अन्तं नयतु -let him destroy. The true reading, however, is probably that in A. P. meaning, "Let him place himself at the head of.” अज्ञासीः:=believed, as in मया पुनर्ज्ञातम् six lines above. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. उपरोदवैशस-the hardships of a siege. पौरजनापेक्षया =out of regard for the citizens, see p. 67 supra. सुरङ्गा subterranean passage. सवार्थसिद्धिः (p. 126). See p. 68 supra. The commentator's explanation of जयघोषणा, &c. seems not to be correct. It is clear from p. 179 infra that जयघोषणाव्याघत was done by Rakshasa's adherents even after the city had yielded to Chandragupta. That is what is alluded to here. The presence of these adherents, it is here said, could only be inferred from the जयघोषणाव्याघात, that is to say, obstructions to the proclamation of Chandragupta's victory. नन्दराज्यप्रत्यानयनाय, see p. 273 infra कर्णेन, &c., see Mabâbhârata, Drona Parvan Adhyâyas, 179-180. The same allusion is to be found in Mrichchhakatika, p. 69. हैडिम्बेय is घटोत्कच and विष्णु, of course, is Krishna. आत्यान्तिकश्रेयस् because it not only does not destroy Vishnugupta's protege, but does destroy his enemy. The metre of the stanza is Sârdûlavikridita. P. 127-134. प्रकाशिते =announced, proclaimed, सांवत्सरिक= astrolo- ger. In चाणक्यबटुना the word बटु is used as a depreciatory term. Cf. Viracharita, p. 46, and see, too, Kumâra. V., 83, Jânaki Parinaya, p. 258 inter alia. परितुष्टेनेव (p. 128)-looking well- pleased, but not really being so. [परितुष्तेन without इव would give a better meaning, as the परितोप of चाणक्य was thought to be real by the people and by Râk. also, as appears from his speech immediately following.] विकल्प=suspicion. किंवा (p. 129). As to वा see our note on Bhartrihari, st. 32 (Niti).अतिसृष्टः =given. Cf. Vikramorvas'i, p. 17, Mſichchhakatika, p. 374 and p. 133 infra. उपांशुवधमाकलय्य=having determined on some mode of secretly making away with him. उपकिता=corroborated or strengthened the popular idea. As to वैकक्षक see Halâyudha II. 398 and cf. Kadambari pp. 74, 110. And as to वारवाण see Ganaratnamahođadhi, p. 102. चन्द्रगुप्तोपवायां, &c., (p. 130)=the she-elephant who was the riding elephant of Chandragupta, see p. 112 supra and cf.Kadambari, p. 112. (यस्यैव वाह्मतामुपयास्यसि) according to Pânini,III., I. 102, however, the correct form seems to beवह्य not वाह्य. कनकदण्डिका seems to have been a golden sheath for the little sword or poniard which the man had. उत्प्रेक्षमाण seems to mean literally looking up to, anticipating. Cf. the somewhat similar use of the same word at Murâri, p. 115, Viracharita, p. 55.प्रतमगति, &c.= dropped down according to calculations with reference to the previous speed. प्रभ्रष्टलक्ष्यम् (p. 131)=wide of the mark. लोष्टघातं हतः See Siddh. Kaum. II., 471. (III. 4. 27. Pân. ) योगचूर्न (p. 132 )=powder of magical virtue. See Das'akumara, (Bom. Class. ), p. 57, ( Bom, ed. ), p. 49, and commentary there, and Hindu Theatre, Vol. I. p. 64. According to the Buddhistic story, Chandragupta was fed on poison, and thus made proof against it by Châuakya, see Max Müller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 294-5.वाक्यभेदानगमत् (p. 133)=gave divergent accounts. विचित्र &c. Cf. Das'akumâracharita, p. 43. प्रथमविहित (p. 134) is the reading which should have been printed in the text. As it stands,प्रथमम् remains out of the compound, but the sense requires it to be included in the compound. [we read in this edition प्रथमपिहित & onit द्वारं]. तैरेव Scil, by the शस्त्र रस; शस्त्रेषु प्रणिहित, &c., means here appointed to make use of the weapons, &c.मन्नीतयः :=my devices of state-craft. The metre of the stanza is S'ardûlavikridita

P. 135. प्रारभ्यते &c. The stanza is quoted in the Das'arûpa as belonging to Bhartribari. See introduction supra. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka, and that of the next is Sardàlavikridita. This stanza also occurs in some copies of Bhartạibari's Nitis'ataka, see pp. 31-2. That the S'esha does not throw off the earth-—is it because the burden of it does not afflict his body? Or that the sun does not sit down unmoved-- is it because he is not fatigued ? Not so. But a praiseworthy man is ashamed to throw up, like a wretched helpless man, what he has taken charge of.Cf. Kathagaritsågara, Taranga XVIII., st. 188.कृपण , see pp. 160,254 infra, and cf. inter alia, Janaki Pariņaya, p. 358, and Meghaduta st. 51.निर्व्यूढ=completed, carried to a proper end. Cf.Uttararâmacharita, p. 20, Priyadars'ikå, p. 53, Viracharita, p. 136,Malatimadhava, p. 50 and note on it. गोत्रव्रत, cf. कुलधर्म at p. 302 infra. As to व्रतः, see our note on Bhartřihari (Niti ), p. 10, st. 28.प्रत्यक्षमेवैतत् , &c.= You see it clearly yourselves that I have not deserted what I have taken in hand. एतदीदृशम्, such things as have now been referred to--the attempt to poison, &c. निगृहीत =imprisoned.निष्पर्तिग्रह=without belongings, anything to call one's own. स्वस्मिन् &c. The reading of B. is the only one which makes a metrically correct आर्या. [and it has been adopted in the present edition. ] But none of the other copies agree with it. It is possible that the stanza was intended to be of the आर्यागीति sort, of which we have examples in Halâyudha's com- mentary on Pingala, p. 66, et. esq. But this stanza, differs from those in having 20 instead of 19 mâtrâs in the 2nd line, while the 3rd and 4th are here as in an ordinary आर्या, not in the आर्यागीति । But see Mâgha IV., 48, and Kielhorn's Report on Sanskrit MSS. for 1880-81, p. 17. [all the remarks apply to the reading of the previous edition which was स्वस्मिन् परिहृत &c. with omitted.]. अर्धराज्य is generally considered to be contrary to grammatical rule Siddh. Kaum. I., 249. But see this point discussed in Halâyudha's commentary on Pingala, pp. 44-5. यस्य तव is again difficult to construe like येन मया at p. 67 supra. But these forms यस्त्वम् सोऽहम्, &c., are not always used with the strictest accuracy of syntactical construction.अयुक्तरूप =undeserved. Cf. S'akuntala, pp. 15-17. अस्माभिः &c., construe कृघ्नैरस्माभि: (यत्) परलोकवतो देवो नानुगम्यते (तत्) अमुमेवार्थमालम्व्य न जिजीविषाम् (आलम्व्य)। It is because I want to do something for my masters that I do not abandon life ; it is not merely out of a desire to live. The metre is Apushtub. ननु वक्तव्यम् &c. In truth you ought to say, &c. Cf. P. 103 supra.

P. 139. भवितव्यता=destiny, Cf. Kathâsaritsagara, p. 440, Kirâta XI., 47, and भवितव्य in S'âkuntala, p. 20.प्रतितिष्ठितपद as applied to the शूल, means planted, fixed; as applied to Chandra- gupta, established on the throne. धरित्र्यास्तले would seem to be a clearer reading than on, स्थले which, though it might suit the शुल, is not at all appropriate to Chandragupta. चेतनाप्रमथिनीं =destroy- ing consciousness. मूर्द्धवबद्धस्त्रजू=the garland tied round the neck of a man who is to be sent to the gallows. Cf.वध्यस्त्रक् at p. 303 infra, and Mſichchhakatika p. 334, where Chârudatta is described as दत्तकरवीरदामा, see also pp. 344, 376. The reading of the commentary was apparently र्घ्नावबध्य स्त्रजम्, which goes well with दृष्ट्वा and श्रुत्वा. If the reading of the majority of our MSS. is correct, स्रजम् must be governed by दृष्ट्वा. In favour of this reading it may be said that there is a certain symmetrical division in suggesting that the heart should have been broken by "seeing," on the one hand the greatness of the foe, and "hearing," on the other, of the downfall of the patron. On the whole, however, I am in favour of the other reading, as it also agrees with the construction adopted in the reading of the other group of MSS. [ऊढ्षाच वध्यस्त्रजम् found in H. gives the best sense as ऊढ्षा is very symmetrical with दृष्टा and श्रुत्वा.] अपरोप-dethronement. रौद्भविषम-terrible, and full of dangers. The distinction seems to be that रौद्र refers merely to the feelings roused, विषम् rather to the outward realities to be faced. Târânâth’s rendering—उग्र and दुःश्रव्य-marks no distinction. As to the sense attributed to विषम् Cf, our Bhartrihari (Niti.), st. 97 and note. आघाततूर्य=musical instrument to be beaten, like a drum, &c. प्रथमाभिघातकठिन=hardened by previous strokes (of misfortune). The word अभिघात is applied to the strokes of affliction in the Sânkhyakârîkâ, st. 1. The sense of the stanza is this:--"That my heart did not break by seeing and hearing, what I saw and heard was due to the fact of its having become callous by previous miseries." The metre of the stanza is S'årdûlavikridita.

P. 140. क्षीणेऽपि नन्दे=though the Nandas have been destroyed. स्वाम्यार्थमुद्वहन्=adhering to the cause of his masters. Cf. p. 135 supra'( the reading in the notes). The metre is Anushtub. गोचरगत means, in effect, gone into the power of. Cf. Mâlatîmadhava, p. 183. अस्य प्रियस्य (p. 141)=for this favour (done by you). As to the ornaments, see pp. 88, 250-1. अत्र प्रथमप्रविष्ट=for the first time come to this place. ब्राह्मण्या (p. 142)=Rakshasa's wife. Cf. Mrichchhakatika, p. 356, Ratnâvalî, p. 36. उत्कण्ठाअविनोदार्थम्=as a token of her husband, to be used during the period of separation, Cf. the use of the ring in the S'âkuntala. अत्र किं युजयते (p. 143) Siddharthaka seems, in this speech, to be fishing for some further information about Rakshasa and his friends and family. स्वाधिकारे &c., his duty seems to have been that of a manager of Rakshasa's affairs, see p. 147, and cf. 252 infra. As to the name पाटलिपुत्र, see the legend at Kathasaritsagara Lambaka I., Taranga III. स्वदभिप्राय &c=This request, which should have been made by us to you, was prevented by our ignorance of your intentions. - विश्रामय, (p. 145)=Make arrangements for S. taking rest and refreshing himself. Cf, Uttararâmacharita, p. 9.क्षमन्तेऽस्मदुपजापम्=do' they receive well our overtures ? उपजाप, secret negotiations with the enemy's adherents. Cf. Kirâta XVI., 42, and Mâgha II., 99. यथाप्रकाशम् &c. They act in pursuance of such overtures as things are coming to light, e. g. the desertion of Bhadrabhata and others (see p. 172 infra), is due to these overtures. जितकाशितया see p.109 supra. वैतालिकव्यञ्जनः (p. 146), see p. 70 supra. उपश्लोकयितव्यः: Cf. Viracharita, p. 128, Murâri, p. 4. As to करभकहस्तेन cf. Kâdambarî, Part II., p. 109.अलंकारसंयोगाः Cf. Mâlatîmâdhava, p.207, "Sets of ornaments." These are the ones alluded to at p. 85 supra, and to be referred to at p. 254 infra. अपि. नाम (p. 147), see p. 90 supra, भिद्येत Cf. p. 159 infra. जतस्मयः= full of self- sufficiency or pride. कृतजृत्यता-each having got what he wanted and therefore no longer standing in need of the other. लब्धान्तर see p. 116 supra. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdülavikridita.


Act III

P. 148.निर्वेदे=despondency; this seems to be always attributed to कञ्चुकी in our plays, करण=organs. आत्मलाभ=birth. Cf. p. 260 infra. स्वार्थ=इन्द्रियार्थ, the objects of the external world corresponding to the organs--of sight, sound, taste, &c. क्रियाः हतः= the operation of perceiving the objects referred to is now impaired, owing to the weakness of the organs through old age. अङ्ग further one refers to the organs of action, करण being the organs of perception. आज्ञाविधेय-obedient to your commands--that is, the powers which used to be so, are now losing their energy. The meaning is that the desires for material good which, in my old age, still stick to me, are now only painful, they cannot be satisfied, as the active and perceptive powers are both enfeebled by age. As to विधेय Cf. Gitâ II., 64, and Mâgha III., 20. For the quotations in the commentary, see Das'arûpa, p. 37. सुगाङ्ग (p. 149)=Chandragupta's palace, see p. 117 supra, अधिकृत. Cf. Kirâta VI., 46 inter alia. कौमुदीमहोत्सव, see the Mâlatî- madhava, p. 316, and note on it, and Cf. Dharmasindhu, p. 161. भूमयः=floors. किं व्रूथ This is a common contrivance in our


29 dramas, see Das'arûpa, p. 58. दैवोपहताः:- ill-fated, Cf.p.274, infra. कथोपोद्धात- mentioning such a thing as this. Cf. Viracharita, p. 78. The meaning of the following stanza is this:---"Let the pillars of the palace be fumigated and have white Châmars and flowers put on them, and let the floors be sprinkled over with flowers and sandal-water." For the quotations in the commentary, see Kuvalayânanda, p. 77. सिंहाङ्कासन is Chandragupta's throne, the weight of which is supposed to be the burden on the earth, for which a sprinkling of sandal-water and flowers is the remedy suggested. सुविश्रब्धैरङ्गैः (p. 150)=with limbs showing no nervous fluttering but self-confidence. दम्य =youthful, requiring training and experience. The double meaning of the words as applying to a young bullock and Chandragupta should be noticed. The metre of the stanza is S'ikhariņi. राजधर्मा &c.=one who wishes to be true to the duties of kings. The sequence of ideas down to the end of the second line of the following stanza is clear. In the third and fourth lines the idea is this: if a king's function is properly to pay more regard to others' interests than to his own, then he becomes a servant or dependent, and how can one dependent on another get a taste of happiness? The metre of the stanza is Sikhariņi. आत्मवान्=possessed of self-restraint. Cf. Gîtâ II., 45 inter alia. संतिष्टते, see Siddh. Kaum. II., 243. विद्वत्सु, &c. Cf. Vikramorvas'î. p. 162. एकान्तभीरु=always timid. लब्धप्रसर-who has acquired a considerable field for her occupation. प्रसर is interpreted to mean प्रकर्प by Mallinâth on Mâgha III., 35, and see Kâdambarî, p. 106. दुःखोपचया-difficult to serve. Cf. दुराराध्या four lines above this, and cf. Kâdambarî, p. 104. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita.

P. 152. कृतक=literally artificial; here sham. Cf. Kirâta VIII. 46. कालान्तरं-interval of time. कथमपि=with difficulty, see the note on किमपि at Malatîmâdhava, p. 13. पातक-- Cf. Chandakaus'ika, p. 5. I am inclined to differ from the commentator's explanation of the stanza, which follows. अतः परतरम् seems to me to mean, as to any independence beyond this, viz., beyond the sort explained in the third line. To take it to mean independence other than the temporary one proposed by Chânakya, is to disconnect the stanza from the observation अथ वा at &c., with which it is connected by कुतः. Chandragupta, by that observation and its corroboration in the following stanza is endevouring really to satisfy his own mind about the पातक, which he supposes himself to have committed in agreeing to become स्वतन्त. And his explanation is, that he is always स्वतन्त्र in the way stated in this stanza, and therefore there is no पातक in consenting to be स्वतन्त्र, as suggested by Châņakya. The metre of the stanza is Hariņi. श्यानीभूता: Cf. Bhartrihari (Nîti) st. 44. The double meanings here are explained by the commentator. The ablative in नभस्तः, when it means the month of S'râvana, must be taken to mean "in consequence of." नक्षत्रकुमुद- a similar figure occurs in the Vîracharita, p. 127. As to the commentator's note on the intention of this anya, Cf. Raghu IV., 24, and as to the quotations, see Kuvalayananda, pp. 5-13. The metre of the stanza is S'ikhariņi.

P.154.उद्वृनामपात्ताम्=waters in flood (figuratively, going astray). Cf. Mâgha VIII., 18.दंस्थितिप=the proper basin for their flow (the right path).अवनति-bending down (humility), Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 194, मयूर Cf. Mâgha VI., 31, 44, 45, Ritusamhâra, III., 12, Kirâta III., 25, and Kâdambarî, p. 189. The figurative explanations justify the sentiment of the last line. विनय=regulation, Cf. Raghu II. 8, Kâdambarî, p. 163. The metre of the stanza is S'ikhariņi. कलुपिता=offended, whose jealousy is roused. Cf. Raghu, V. 64. Uttararâmacharita, p. 68. सर्वात्मना should, I think, be construed with any, and interpreted to mean completely pleased, or reconciled to her lord the ocean (Cf. Raghu VII., 12). As applied to the river, the sense is that the water becomes quite clear, the mud and detritus being no longer mixed with the water in the शरद् season. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. स्खलिष्यति (p. 155)-is disobeyed, see p. 170 infra. As to धूर्त, see Das'arûpa, pp. 128-130, it means generally gay fellows. स्फुट, &c.=well-versed in free clever conversation. वेश in व्वेशनारी means hire, see Das'arûpa, p. 128. मुक्तशङ्का =without misgivings (in consequence of the king's orders).पार्वण-the observance कौमुदीमहोत्सव falls on a Parva day--the full moon of Âs'vina. As to अभिलषित, see p. 199. infra, The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. कोपानुविद्ध चिन्ता (p. 157) anxious thought mixed with anger, as to अनुविद्ध, Cf. S'âkuntala,p. 24, Das'akumâra, p. 121, Meghaduta, 66 or Mâgha, IX., 94. कृतागाः does not here mean one who has committed an offence, but one against whom an offence has been committed. The metre of the stanza is S'ikhariņi. P. 158.दुर्व्यसन , devotion to an evil pursuit. अत्सिक्त conceited. Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 176 साधर्म्यम्, &c. The only resemblance between your imitation of my deeds, and those deeds themselves, is enmity, to the principal personage. The metre of the stanza is Praharshiņi. मद्भृत्यैः प्रविष्टान्तरैर्व्याप्तः=circumvented by my servants who have, as it were, entered into his heart. Cf. p. 258 infra. भेत्स्यामि, &c. (p.159)=I will, by my cleverness, separate him who is acting against me, viz., Rakshasa, from my enemy, viz., Malayaketu. The metre of the stanza is S'êrdîlavikrițita. लब्धप्रसादा विटा:=voluptuous companions who have obtained the favour of the king. Cf. Bhartřihari (Vairâgya), st. 27. उन्मुखा &c. = looking upwards, as in case of entreaty, and concealments, scil. of his own feelings, I think, not of the king's secrets as the commentator takes it. Cf. Bhartřihari (Vairâgya), st. 27. fars=food, sustenance, Cf. Vira- charita., p. 93. लाघवकारिणी=degrading, humiliating. कृतधियः= men of refined intelligence, wise men, Cf. Gîtâ II., 54, and Mâgha, II. 79. श्ववृत्ति, Cf. Manu IV., 6. The metre of the stanza is Şârdêlavikriậita.

P. 160.विभूति:=splendour. The sentence is, of course, ironical उपल, &c, = Here is a bit of stone to break cow dung cakes. स्तूप= heap. This is the word used for the Buddhist "Tope," but is not confined to that sense. Cf. Muråri, P. 145, and see Aufrecht's Unadi Sutras, p. 70. पटल=roof. The metre of the stanza is Malinî. वृपलोद्य: &c.=it is fit that Chandragupta should be called Vșishala by him. Siddh. Kaum. II., 304, seems, however, to be against such a use of the compound as we see here. And see, too, the remark there at p. 307. For the genitive Cf, वीरो न यस्य भगवान्भृनन्दनोऽपि in Uttararâmacharita, p. 157. अभूतै:=non-existent, imagined. Cf, the use of भूतार्थ as in S'akuntala, p. 4, or Raghu X, 33, where it is contrasted with स्तुति. As to कार्पण्य, see p. 135 supra, अप्रतिभिन्नकालम् (p. 161 )=simultaneously. पर्याय &c=in succession. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. For the quotations in the commentary, see Kuvalayananda, p. 74. प्रणत, &c. (P. 162). The reading in the note is clearer and easier to interpret. The reading of the text must be analysed into two adjectives प्रणत and ससंभ्रमोच्चलित, both going with भूमिपाल; or प्रणत might be taken as equivalent to प्रणमन, and then the sense will be the same as in the other reading, अकृतº=without causing any interruption of work. अन्तरा=secretly. प्रद्वेषं, &c. (p.163)=feelings of hatred. Cf.III Kirâta III. 21.राजराज, , the commentator interprets to mean Kubera; it might also mean kings of kings--that is, of course, kings subordinate to the Nandas. This would make the phrase an amplification of उत्सिक्तः: which occurs at P. 167 supra. सदृश=Worthy, fit. Cf. Raghu XIV., 61. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka.

P. 164. From the great mountain cooled by showers of the spray of the Ganges playing about amongst its rocks, to the shores of the southern ocean marked by the brilliance of jewels flashing with various colours."चूडारत्न , &c.=filled with the rays issuing from the jewels on their heads. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. अधिकारवन्तः (P. 165 )=officers.विज्ञापयित्यौम्=to make a representation. Cf. the contrast between विज्ञापन and आज्ञापन- at inter alia Vikramorvas'î, p. 36, Ratnâvali, p. 7. विज्ञापनीय, further on means one who is the subject of विज्ञापन, not आज्ञापन, like any ordinary servant. स्वैररुचयः:=uncontrolled tastes. प्रव्वृत्ति=action, proceeding. प्रश्नावकाशः -there is room for my question, although the guru's tastes are to be allowed full scope. The expressions here and in शुश्रूषा, &c., on the next page are, it will be noticed, particularly respectful. गृहीतवान्, &c. (p. 166). You have well comprehended the fact that, &c. As to प्रयोजनमन्तरा Cf. Siddh, Kaum. I., 262. अर्थशास्त्र is generally contrasted with धर्मशास्त्र and means the science of practical life, and also politics as here. Amara gives दण्डनीति and अर्थशास्त्र as synonyms. राजायत्त, &c. =the transaction of business is either with the king alone, or the minister alone, or both king and minister. Cf. Kathâsaritsagara Lambaka I., Taranga 15, st. 58-9. The distinction is, in essence, the same as that between a despotic monarch, a constitutional monarch, and a monarch who reigns but does not govern. वेत्स्याम: is not the reading of the commentary. It is the reading of the MSS. Thich we have not generally followed, but is indirectly supported by that of two of those which we have followed, viz. R. M.; on the whole, however, I think the reading वर्त्स्याम: is correct. If the विढू in the Anit Kârikâs is only in the 4th and 7th conjugations, the forın वेत्स्यामः would be grammatically wrong also; see Siddh. Kaum. II., 30, note, and Cf. Id., p. 121. As to airfh: see Siddh, Kaum. II., 79. The meaning on this reading is, "I who am the responsible officer will act in this matter," on the other, "I who am the responsible official know all about this matter." The Vaitâlikas generally appear in pairs in our plays. In the Murári Nataka, however (P. 16), only one appears.

P. 167.छविमभिभवता =of superior brightness.भस्मना शुक्लयन्ती , Cf, Ritusambara III., 4. As applied to as it stands for the भस्म, which Siva is represented as having always on his body. Cf. Kumâra V., 69. As applied to शरद् it seems to refer to the white clouds, which are like भस्म. I do not think the commentator's explanation suits the construction, though it probably indicates the intended sense, in this double entendre. The काशुपुष्प is spoken of as making the earth white in the Ritusamhâra III., 2, ऐभीकृत्ति as applied to ऐशीतनु, is the skin of Gajâsura which Siva is represented as wearing. Cf. Kumâra V., 67, and here जलधरमलिन- must mean darkish like a cloud. In the other case, apparently the sky itself is to be understood by ऐभिकृत्ति, like which it may be supposed to look, and जलं-darkish by reason of the clouds. क्लिश्नती=literally afflicting, it means counteracting the impression of the darkish colour. कापाली, &c., refers to the wreath of skulls which S'iva wears. Kumâra V., 178, and Cf. Bhartſihari (Vairagya), st. 29, and note. The इव here goes with कौमुदी=moonlight. In the other case, the construction must be, bright moonlight like the wreath of skulls. According to the usual course with such stanzas the double meaning in the previous lines should be expressed as they are in the third line. But as above stated the construction of those previous lines does not apparently suit this, though the com- mentator's explanation is based on that view. इत्यपूर्वा=extraordi- nary in the way stated. हास्य, &c=the beauty of the smile in which is like the Râjahamsa—alluding to the bright white colour of the teeth; as applied to शरद्=the Râjahamsas in which are like a beautiful smile, i. e. white. As to the Râjahamsa in शरद् .Cf. Ritusamhâra III., 2. ऐशित्तनुः:=the body of Is'a or S'iva. The metre of this stanza is Sragdharâ, as is that of the next also. प्रत्यग्र , &c.—May you be ever protected by the half-closed eyes of Hari, who is desirous of leaving his broad bed, the body of S'esha, having for its pillow his group of hoods--the eyes which look side-long owing to their recent opening after sleep, which avoid for an instant the flames of the jewel-lamps, which are slow at performing their functions, in which drops of water have been produced by yawnings accompanied with a stretching out of the limbs, and which are reddish at the sides in consequence of the sleep being broken. As to आकेकर Cf. Mâlatîmâdhava, p. 145, Mallikâmâruta, p. 45, Kirâta VIII. 53 and commentaries there and Kâdambarî, p. 81. As to Vishnu's leaving his bed, Cf. Meghaduta, st. 99, Raghu X., 6. It is to be remarked that one of the two stanzas recited by the Vaitâlíka alludes to S'iva, and the other to Vishụu. The second stanza is quoted in the Sarasvatikanthâbharana with this remark अत्र दृष्टे प्रत्यग्रोन्मेपजिह्मतादिभिःप्रबोधो नाद्यापि निष्पद्यत इति प्रतीयते। The following various readings occur there जम्भितैः,नागाङ्गम्,& अरिताम्रा, (नागाङ्गम् ,is a better reading than नागाङ्कम्).

P. 168. दंष्ट्राभङ्ग Cf. p. 63 supra. It is difficult to distinguish between मान and अवलेप , if we take the compound, with the com- mentator, as a द्वन्द्व. Perhaps it might be allowable to take it thus, “whose pride about the respect due to them is well-known.' Cf. Bhartrihari (Níti). st. 29. As to सार्वभौम see Sidha. Kaum. I., 636. The metre of this stanza is Sragdharâ, and of the next Anushtub. विशिष्ट, &c.=in the form of praise of a specific divinity, i. e. with reference to specific characteristics of the deity. प्रवृत्त. (p. 169)=set in, commenced. जागर्ति Cf, p. 69 supra and p. 312 infra. किम् &c=for what is this large expenditure of money on an unworthy object? निरुद्ध, &c. (p. 169)=the course of whose activity is restrained. बन्धनम्, &c.=sovereignty to me is like imprisonment not like sovereignty. The commentator's explanation of the next sentence seems hardly correct. These evils---namely, the evils of feeling sovereignty like captivity-overtake those who do not apply themselves to their own duties. एते, &c.=Here I am ready to apply myself to my own duties. ममाज्ञाव्याथात: (p. 170).=The first reason is obedience to my command (आज्ञा+अव्या° ). In Chanakya's speech अ is not to be understood. As to तमालश्याम् and तिमि Cf. Raghu XIII., 15, Vîracharita, p. 123, Prasanna Râghava, p. 141. The four oceans are a commonplace of Sanskrit literature. Cf. Kâdambari, p. 1, and Raghu II., 2. For the comparison of आज्ञा with a flower, Cf. inter alia Kirâta I., 21. The commentator explains उह्यते to mean a future state of things according to the rule at Siddh. Kaum. II., 284. But this is scarcely necessary (see p. 164 supra), and it certainly detracts from the force of the words. If the command was at that time already accepted by all kings, a breach of it by Chânakya would then properly be spoken of as it is here. स्खलन्ती see p. 155 supra. The last words may be rendered:-"Proclaims that in you the character of sovereign is adorned by humility." प्रमाणलेख्यपत्रम्= writing showing the numbers.

P. 172. राजाध्यक्ष-Master of the elephants, the leader of the troops who ride on elephants. स्व्वजनसंबन्धी=bearing some con- nexion of kinship. As to कुमारसेवक Cf. Das'akumâra, p. 145. क्षत्रगणमुख्य=head of a tribe of Kshatriyas. On the reading adopted in the text, Chandragupta must be supposed to know all, and reading the words एते वयम्, &c., to speak for the purposes of the कृतककलह as if he did not know. [It is preferable to omit this sentence which is quite out of place. So also it is more reasonable that the paragraph should be read out by Châuakya to Chandragupta. No propriety is served by Chandragupta's reading it to himself.] एतवत्, &c. is as much as to say, "Well I have read this letter, what next?" स्त्री &c., are three of the four vices enumerated in Raghu IX. 7. See, too, Manu, chap. VII., st. 58. अनभियुक्तौ= inattentive. अधिकाराभ्याम्, &c.=removed from their offices, and put on mere subsistance allowance. स्वेन &c. (p. 173)=on their respec- tive duties. कोशहस्त्यश्व =money, elephants, and horses. इत्युत्पाद्य=- getting up this story. स्वदोपाशङ्क्या=baving misgivings or fears with reference to his own misconduct i. e. anticipating punish- ment for it,कृतज्ञातामनुवर्तमानेन (p. 174 )=following the path of gratitude, अनन्तरम् =very close. दायाद is literally those entitled to inherit, hence generally relatives (competing with one another for the inheritance). Cf. with the idea involved here Prabodha- chandrodaya,, p. 12, Prasanna Raghava, p. 91, and Bbartrihari (Niti) st. 21 and note.प्रतिविहितम् =adopting å remedy. प्रयोजनापेक्षया=- with reference to, in consequence of, some special cause. अनुग्रहो निग्रहश्च-Reward or punishment. व्यसन=evil habit. राज्यस्य मूलभू-the mainstay of empire. दायादमसमानयोः. This phrase is not common, but Cf. Kathâsaritsagara, p. 255, Raghu, XIV. 63. The other readings present no difficulty, पूर्वः पक्षः = अनुग्रहपक्षः प्रधानपुरुषवर्गम्=the number of our men of high position, as in Malavika- gnimitra, p. 12, and Viracharita, p. 131. The answer to the second alternative seems to be that the adherents and friends of the Nandas would become disaffected, and would have no confidence " T of fair treatment by Chandragupta, if Chandragupta's own adherents and friends were punished as suggested, and thus the gradual subsidence of old memories and quieting of the kingdom would be delayed. अनुग्रहीतास्मत्पक्षः:=who has taken our adherents into his own favour. व्यायाम्=exertion. As to द्वयीगतिः: Cf. Vîra- charita, p. 81. It means two courses.

P. 177. स्वहस्ते दत्तः : Cf. Malatîmâdhava Notes, p. 66. (L. 304). In the Venisamhâra, p. 77, the phrase दत्तहस्ता occurs, where it seems to mean rather giving help," than "giving proof." But probably this is a later development of meaning. In some of the copper-plate grants recently deciphered, we have the phrase स्वहस्तो मम in reference to the signmanual of the grantor. See inter alia Journal B. B. R. A. S, Vol. X. p. 27.प्रतिपादन = handing over. Cf. Bhartrihari (Niti ), stanza 16.कृतच्नतामात्रओहल:=the only result of which is that the sin of ingratitude lies at our door ---the only temporal advantage which was to be obtained by perpetrating the act of ingratitude, being sacrificed, if the course suggested is adopted. एकत्रवासात्, &c.;=having lived in one place with these subjects of Nandas, enjoys their perfect confidence. पुरुपकार=manliness, bravery. Cf. Kirala V., 52, and Nallinâth on it. सहायसंपदा=by means of his possession of friends. As to कोश see p. 173 supra. अन्तःकोप (p. 178)-internal disaffection. Cf. Das'akumâra. p. 81. हृदयेशयः शङ्कु: =a dart rankling in the heart. विक्रम्य गृहीतः=captured by bravery, force, राक्षसः खल्वसौ. C. the phrase at Viracharita, p. 24, and the similar Marâti phrase राक्षस च तो अभियुक्त bears here the same sense as at p. 172 supra. Cf. Jánakî Parinaya, p. 310. वियुक्तः, &c.=If he were destroyed you would lose a man so good as he is. अथ=or if. Cf. inter alia. Viracharita, p. 31, Kiráta I., 44 and Kâdambari, p. 160. वनराज, &c. Cf. p. 106 supra. The metre of the stanza is Malini, तेन for येन makes the syntax clear and easy. On our reading the construc- tion is like that noted at p. 66 supra, or येन must be taken to continue the speech from प्रशस्यतर:. The reading of the com- mentry evidently included न तावत् after वाक्यशेपः, The majority of MSS. are in favour of something of that sort; and that, there- fore, ought to have been in the text. As to मा तावत् or न तावत् which would both mean no more of that, Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 230. कृत्वा पदं नो गले=in defiance of us. व्याघातो, &c. Cf. P. 126 supra. अस्मद्वलांनाम्=made by our soldiers. स्वेषु वर्गेषु=our own adherents. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita. आरूढम् , &c.=The, declaration in making which the knot of hair was loosened by fingers, whose tips were out of order owing to the flashing of the anger that was rising within me. The words given in the foot- notes as being here contained in R. and M., are from the com- mentary of Dhundhiraj, and show that the originals from which R. and M. were copied probably included a copy of the commentary as well as the text. As to अग्राङ्गुली see the remark of Mallinâth on Kirâta XVII., 38, and Cf. Mrichchhakatika, p. 115. दीर्घा the commentator takes to mean long with reference to the time taken in destroying the enemy. It seems to me rather to refer to length of space, the figure in the mind of the poet being, probably, the same as at p. 65 supra, where the glass is spoken of as a सरित and the length of water to cross is great owing to the number of enemies sworn to be destroyed. As to नव , &c., Cf, Kathâsarit- sâgara, Lambaka, I., and Taranga, IV., stanza 95, and the quota- tion at Max Miiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 204. The Nandas were supposed to be extremely wealthy. पर्यायभूताः= successively. पश्यतो, &c. See Siddh. Kaum, I, 370. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ.

P. 181, आबद्धचक्रं विचलितै:=moving about in circles. Cf. the description of the श्मशान in Chandakaus'ika, p. 66. प्रित्रुवन=श्मशान. See Das'akumâra, p. 123. It is called पितृसद्म at Kumâra V. 77. The creatures living there may be seen described at Mâlatîmâdhava p. 168, et seq. The main sentence leaving aside the adjectives, is as follows:-"Behold these fires are not even yet extinguished, which are entertaining these creatures living in the cemetery with a feast on the Nandas, and which are making all the quarters of heaven look clouded in consequence of the smoke-like vultures that, with their large and unmoving wings, are wheeling round in circles in space. For एते and एतान्, Cf. सिंहासनमिदसू at p. 117, supra, and note thereon. He speaks as if both Chandragupta and himself could see the whole thing before their eyes as they were speaking. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. दैवम्, &c.=only the ignorant respect destiny as an authority, trust to destiny alone. Cf. Kirâta III., 24. आरोढुभिच्छसि =you wish to treat with contempt, according to the commentator. The primary meaning, however, seems to be, to exercise power on, to bring under one's control. Cf. Das'akumâra, p. 143 (Calc.) and the use of the syno- nymous अवस्कन्द at Vîracharita, pp. 42-7. As to शिखां मोक्तुम् see P. 45, st. 63, and p. 63 supra, and note there. [मुक्तामपि for वद्धामपि is a better reading, as the शिखा was not tied up as yet.] For the phrase प्रतिज्ञामारोडुम्. Cf. p. 182 supra. परित:=literally surrounded, brought under power or control. The metre of the stanza is Sikharini. "His eyes, which are turbid in consequence of being washed by the clear water pouring from them upon the eyelids be- ing opened out in anger, and which are red in colour, are, as it were, flashing forth fire, in which the contracted eyebrows are, as it were, the smoke, and methinks the dashing of his foot was borne with difficulty, and with a terrible quaking by the earth, whom it reminded of Rudra exhibiting in his Tandava dances the sentiment of terror." The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. For the genitive रुद्रस्य see Siddh. Kaum. I., 297. कृतक=factitious, pretended. Cf. कृतककलह at p. 152 supra. उत्तरोत्तरेण=bandying words. शस्त्र Cf. p. 67 supra.

P. 184. बेद:=instrument of dissension. दूषणाय. Cf. p. 258 infra. The result will be your own conviction. The metre is Vasantatilaka. गृहेईतार्था: &c.=let it be announced to the people. निरूपपदम्=-without any epithet of respect, c.gआर्य. Cf. Mřichchhakatika, p. 343.हन्त= Alas. संगृहीतोऽधिकार:=authority has been withdrawn from Chanakya. असत्कुरुते may, perhaps, be taken to mean does wrong, or in the sense proposed by the commentator, which requires सचिवम् to be supplied. व्याल is interpreted by Mallinâth on Mâgha XII., 28, and Kirâta XVII., 25, to mean दुष्टाजः. Cf. also Viracharita, p. 48, and Kirâta XIII., 47. With वाच्यतां याति Cf, Kadambari, pp. 202, 236. वाच्यंगता: in Sakuntala, p. 198, and also Raghu VIII., 84. देवो देव:संवृत्त:=your majesty is now a king, indeed. Cf.वन्धनमिव राज्यं न राज्यमिव, p. 169 supra. एवमस्मासु गृह्यमाणेषु, (p. 185 ) =when I am looked on in this light namely, as having become independent of Chanakya. Cf. the use of गृहीत at S'akuntala, p. 239 (मयापि मृत्पिण्डबुद्धिन तथैव गृहीतम्). सकामो भवत्वार्य:=let Chânakya have his 'wish. This phrase occurs very frequently, See inter alia, Mâlatîmâdhava, p. 224. and the expression अकाअमां करोमी at p. 114 supra.शुष्ककलह =empty, useless quarrel. Cf. Viracharita, p. 37. शयनगृहमादेशय= The usual expression would be गृहमार्कगम् &c. But this expression also occurs again at p. 196. In the S'âkuntala (Calc. ed.. 1871 ), p. 173, we read तत्त्देवादेशय माधवीलतागृहम् . In Williams's edition the reading is तत्तमेव मार्गमादे (p. 238). लङ्घितगौरवस्य. (Cf. p. 202 infra)= overstepping the bounds of respectfulness.भूविवरम् प्रवेष्टुम् . Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 214, Uttararâmacharita, p. 195. But in both those cases the idea is that of a living person being absorbed into the earth; here it is बुद्धि। The meaning is that his intelligence is leaving him, as it were; he cannot judge of what is proper to be done. अतिपातयन्ति seems to mean the same thing as लङ्घित supra, and the figure is the same. Cf. S'âkuntala, pp. 15, 187. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka.

{{c|5em}

Act IV.

P. 186. ही हमाणहे. हीही occurs in the Mrichchhakatika as an expression of wonder (see p. 149 et seq.), and हीमाणहे in Ma- latîmâdhava, p. 290, and Mrichchhakatika, p. 8. See, too, Ganaratnamahodadhi, p. 7, गतागतम् coming and going. Cf. Bhartrihari (Vairagya ), stanza 7.करभगः (p. 187), see p. 146 supra. भाअद्रसुख (p. 188 )=good sir. Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 290, Chandakaus’ika,, p. 94, Mțichchhakatika, p. 345. विधेरविधेयता= unmanageableness of destiny. The metre of the stanza is S'ikharini. कार्योपक्षेप, &c. see Das'arûpa, p. 12. बीज, see Das'arûpa, pp. 8, 11, 18. विमर्श, see Das'arûpa, p. 36, where it is called अवमर्श. As to संहरन्कार्यजातम् , जात=समूह, Cf, the Kos'a cited at Raghu V. 1. See Das'arûpa p. 46, and Cf. stanza 22 at p. 11, where the name उपसंहृति is derived from the same root as संहरन् here, and compare as to all this Dr. Hall's notes at Das'arûpa, Preface p. 10, et seq. A similar figure comparing the work of a poet and a practical administrator occurs at Mâgha XI, 6. It may be remarked, en passant, that Dr. Hall's suggestion about the "fifth articulation" being properly called निवर्हण, instead of निर्वहण, is untenable. The latter word which means carrying to the cnd, completion, is the proper word, instead of the former, which means destruction. In our commentary the word is always written निर्वहण. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. As to spitare (P. 189) see p. 90 supra, and Cf. Mâlatîmadhava, pp. 21, 145 (com- mentary). The sentence is, of course, तादपिनाम दुरात्मा चाणक्यवटुः अतिसंधातुं शक्यः स्यात्. The other interpretation of it, in consequence of the interruption, is given in Råkshasa's speech. Cf. as to this p. 90 supraवागीश्वरी.-such words are supposed to have some superhuman sanction. Cf. Prasanna Râghava, p. 56, Kadambari p. 65, and note in the commentary thereon (Part II., p. 48). प्रस्तावगता I do not know of any authority for the commentator's explanation of प्रस्तावगता by संवादं गता. I take it here to mean as contained in the foregoing conversation. आगतः: is perhaps not exactly in place, but it is capable of explanation.दूरा &c.,=Let alone close proximity, even the sight of kings is difficult to obtain for those who are not blessed by fortune. कल्याणकुलधराणामु-=The double entendre on this seems rather forced; and it is not very necessary to construe कल्याण , &c., with data. The metre of the stanza is Gîtî.

P. 192. For the genitive in तातस्योपरतस्य CF. Raghu II., 25, Kâdambarí, p. 77. , &c. (p. 193)=I formerly made a solemn declaration that I should make the funeral offerings to my father after reducing the wives of my foe to that changed condi- tion which was brought on my mothers by sorrow-the necklaces of pearls broken by the beating of the breast, the outer garment falling off, the hair made rough by particles of dust, and cries of affliction-Alas! alas !-issuing piteously. As to मातृजन compare the rule पितृपत्न्यः सर्वा मातरः. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdula- Vikridita.उद्यक्छता, &c.=either undertaking a task worthy of a person not base, I must go the way of my father by dying in battle, or force away the tears from the eyes of my mothers and carry them to the eyes of my enemy's wives. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. सोत्सेध (p. 194 ), raised high up. Cf. Kumara V 8 खमिव खण्डतयन्त= striking, as it were, against the SAY with their hoofs, alluding apparently to the manner in which a horse raises his foot very high in moving when his speed is vuldebiy checked. मूकघण्टै:=the bells being silent, not ringing as the elephant's speed has been checked. मर्यादाम्, &c. Cf. Raghu XVI., 2, also Gitâ II. 70. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. भ्रद्रभटादुभिः. Bhadrabhata and the others are the men supposed to have deserted Chandragupta, but really emissaries of Chanakya, see p 309 infra. द्वारीकृत्य=through, making him connecting link between us two. दुष्टामात्यपरिगृहीतान्. The construction is the


30 same as in चाणक्यमतिपरिगृहीत at p. 111 supro. For अयम्, &c., signifying "the meaning of these words." Cf. the construction at Uttararâmacharita, p. 199 (एष ते काव्यार्थः:). विजिगीषु=aspiring, ambitious. C£. p. 312 infra. and Murâri, p. 114. आआत्मगुणसंपन्नः= possessed of similar qualities, tastes, feelings, &c., as one's-self. प्रियहितद्वारेण=through the intervention of one who is beloved and friendly. ननु न्याय्य एवायमर्थ:=This is certainly a very proper thing that &c. नन्वमात्य, &c.=but certainly the minister Rakshasa is most beloved by us and most friendly to us. जितकाशी. See p. 109 supra. P. 196. नन्दान्वयः=Chandragupta was a scion of the family of the Nandas, though not a legitimate one. Cf. p. 115 supra. - सुहृजनापेक्षया = out of regard for his friends, संदधीत= might make a treaty with (संधिं कुर्यात्). Cf. Murâri, p. 95.अये स्मृतम् see p. 191 supra,सत्व &c. (p. 197). The suspicion about Rakshaşa is already telling practically on Malayaketu. सत्वभङ्ग=giving offence. विवृतार्येषु &c.=in unrestrained conversation where matters are frankly and openly stated. The use of अन्यता अन्यता should be noticed. It is similar to that of अन्य अन्य, and different from the English- one way, another way, गहन=deep, not easily to be comprehended. परिक्छेत्तुम्=to define, to understand accurately. Cf. Málatîmâdhava, pp. 54-5, and note thereon. मह वअणेन. (p. 198) corresponds to the Sanskrit मद्वचनत् See p. 85 supra. उपश्लोकयितव्यः: see p. 146 supra. मानितो, &c., received with respect by the people. The implication of the stanza is that the one is a चन्द्र in name only, the other is such by his merits, and that the one is acceptable to and gratifies only a small knot of people, the other more generally, The metre of the stanza in Anushtub. परिपाटी (p. 200 ) series-- though here the series consists only of two stanzas. Cf.प्रणामपरिपाटी. in Prasanna Raghava, p. 36, see, too, p. 65. चाटुपरिपाटी in Mallikaamaaarutaa, p. 244. भेदभीज=seed of dissension. सद्यः क्रीडारसक्छेद=- interruption, even for a short time, of the enjoyment of sport or amusement. प्राकृत:-a mean, ordinary fellow. लोकाधिकधाम =power transcending that of all men. Cf. Raghu II., 75, and comment of Mallinâth thereon. एवमेतत्= quite true. Malayaketu applies the sentiment uttered by Rakshasa to his own case.कलुपित (p. 201 ), see p. 154 supra, and Cf. Das'akamaracharita, p. 76, and kiraata III.,6 प्रसङ्गसूचितम् = suggested by the occasion. न तथा, &c. This is further to suggest the view put into Malayaketu's mind at p. 195 et seq.कृतवेदी= कृतज्ञ: grateful. Cf, Kirâta XIII., 32. विश्लेष: (p. 202)=separation, breach. अत्य्न्तिक= lasting. - हस्त तलगत:=in my power. Cf. the Marathi phrase, उद्धरण (p. 203)= dethronement. Cf. Raghu IV., 66. The meaning is that Rakshasa sees no benefit to himself in deposing Chapdragupta, when once the latter has cast off Chanakya. The Rakshasa's cue must be to become minister in Chânakya's place as suggested at. p. 196 'supra. तपोवनम् , &c., is, of course, an interrogatory sentence.

P. 204. देवस्य निकृतिः:=insult offered by the king. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. अलमन्यथा विकल्प्य=no more of these doubts, in a sense contrary to the news brought; in effect, doubts about the truth of the news. राज्ञाम्, &c.=why would Chandragupta, who has at his feet (Lit. whose feet are placed on) the heads of kings, the crests of which are adorned by the brilliance of their moon-like crest jewels, put up with breaches of his orders committed by his own people? Kautilya, too, on the other hand, though wrathful, being personally aware, in consequence of his incantations for killing his foes, of the troubles of a solemn vow, and having fulfilled one by good luck, does not make a vow again, being afraid of inability in future. अभिचार (p. 205)=performing enchantments for destroying enemies, &c. Kâdambarî, p. 217 and Kirâta III., 56. The familiar precept on that is श्येनेनाभिचरन्यजेत। As to तीर्णप्रतिज्ञ: Cf. p. 65 supra. आयति=उत्तर:कालः Cf, Kirâta II.,

14, and comment of Mallinâth there.विश्रस्सम, see p. 145 supra. कुमारस्य &c. The word कुमार would make way for महाराज or अधिराज on Malayaketu's installation. Cf. the similar idea at Murâri, p. 113. अतिरस्क्रृत=not overshadowed, in effect not supplanted. संभृतबलै: (p. 206)=with forces all prepared. उदीक्षमाणै:=expecting, looking out for. प्रतिष्टस्व विजयाय=start for victory.पितृभूतम् (p. 207 )= bearing to him the relation of his paternal family. अपरागामर्षाभ्यां विप्रकृता:=troubled by disaffection and anger, as to विप्रकृत Cf. Kumâra II, 1, where the sense is slightly different। प्रतिपक्षोद्धरणे= rooting out the enemy. Cf. p. 203 supra, and also p. 99 (सभुक्छेत्स्यति)। - संभाव्यशक्तिमू-whose power is believed to be likely ( to uproot, &c.) Cf. for the construction Kirâta XIII., 1. अत्र निदर्शनम् C. Rakshasa, as an old subject of the Nandas, bears no love to Chandragupta but the contrary, and that apart from any fault of Chânakya's. Sucह्, too, says Rakshasa, is the case of other people, now subjects of Chandragupta, but who, having been subjects of the Nandas before, did not belong to the special clique of Chandragupta.

P. 208. प्रतिविधातुम्= resist our attack. तत्संभवति=that is possible, viz., the conduct of the affairs of the kingdom in the mode suggested in Malayaketu's speech. सचिवायत्त, &c.=always having the accomplishment of work entrusted to a minister, and so unfamiliar with the affairs of the world like a blind man. This is to be explained by that मत्सर about Chandragupta which Rakshasa acknowledges in Act VII. (See p. 311), for there Rakshasa also tells us that even in childhood Chandragupta was expected to rise to a high station, and see, too, p. 43, st. 40 supra. अत्युच्छिते, &c.=royal power stands with her legs quite rigid, where there is a king and a minister grown too powerful; it is an abnormal state of things, an unstable equilibrium which is easily broken. The figure is taken from the games of dancers and tumblers, as stated in the commentary. असहा भरस्य=unable to bear the weight, i.e. her own weight, in the abnormal position. As to the construction Cf. Mâgha X., 81, Kirâta VII, 7. अपकृष्टा: (p. 209)=severed. See p. 206 supra.तदर्पण:=one who entrusts all to him. उत्सहते, &c. =is unable to live, or to perform the king's part; for उत्सहते Cf. Kumâra V., 65. अदृष्ट, &c. is identical with अप्रत्यक्ष, &c. at p. 208. तन्त्र affairs of state. Cf. p. 108 and note there. व्यसनमभियुञ्जान =one who applies himself to search out some misfortune of the enemy, and then assails him. Cf. Mâgha II., 57, and commentary thereon. एकान्तिकी-certain, assured: Cf. Bhartrihari (Niti), st. 7, and note. The sentence is, of course, interrogative. चलिताअधिकारविमुखे- is not easy to analyse, though the sense is clear enough "disinclined to the duties of his office, as he had been removed from it.” Probably चलित: अतएवाधिकारविम्ख: is better than चलिताधिकार: अतएव विमुखः. As to मौर्ये नवे, &c. &c. Of. p. 175 supra. स्वाधीने मयिmy services being at your disposal.लज्जा in the stage-direction'is लज्जा for the apparent self-laudation involved in his words. Cf.p. 99 & 309. As to योग=उपाय, as the commentator takes it, Ch. inter alia, our Gîtâ p. 65, Mâgha II., 88.त्वद्वाञ्छा &c.-between us and the accomplishment of our objects, stands simply your Will; do you give the word of command and we start for the attack. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikriđita. उत्तुङ्गा &c. This stanza contains two sets of adjectives indicating qualities generally alike, one set applying to the S'ona river, the other to the elephants of Malayaketu. The metre, which is not a common one, is Suvadanâ, as to which see Pingala, p. 213. रुन्धन्तु=let them besiege. The clouds gathering on the Vindhya are also alluded to at Ritusamhâra II., 27, Raghu XIV., 8, Uttararâmacharita, p. 146, and Cf., as to this Cunningham's Archäeological Survey Report, XIII., 47., and the reference to the Meghaduta there given. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. सांवत्सरिका= astrologer.

P. 212. अनिमित्त=ill omen. The sight of a क्षपणक is considered inauspicious. See p. 220 infra, Mrichchhakatika, p. 238. In Muktes'vara’s Râmâyaua, too (circa 1609), the same idea occurs. See p. 45, st 64. अबीभत्स . The Prabodhachandrodaya, p. 55, gives a description of the appearance of a क्षपनक, which is there characterized as बीमत्स, revolting. Cf. Málatîmâdhava, p. 341, and commentary there. The Kshapanakas are represented in the Prabodhachandrodaya (p. 60), as insisting on the omniscience of the founder of their system on the ground of his knowledge of the stars. As to अर्हन् see the definition given at Sarvadars'anasangraha, P. 33. प्रतिपद्यध्वम् -accept, obey. मुहूर्त , &c. Cf. Gîtâ XVIII, 37. The metre of the stanza is Àryâ. धम्मसिद्धि Cf. Mrichchhakatika, p. 239.श्रावक see Mâlatîmâdhava, p. 367, and note there. भदन्त =a Buddhist mendicant. In the Unâdisutras it is explained to mean प्रव्रजित, (See Şiddh. Kaum. II., 411, and U.S. by Aufrecht p. 229), which word, however, it should be remembered, is applied to the Buddhist mendicant at Mrichchhakatika pp. 243, 361. See also Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, p. 26, and Childers' Lexicon there cited. (आमध्याह्नत् &C.=the full-moon day when the moon is full, is till noon a day of no benefit. The Nakshatra will be unfavourable to you who want to go from north south. गमणम् &e=you should go. तिथिरेव न शुद्ध्यति=the day itself is not unexceptionable, i.e. the full-moon-day. The double entendre should be noticed. It is explained in the commentary. एकगुणा, &c=the virtue of the day of the month is one, that of the Nakshatra as fourfold, and that of the conjunction is sixty-four-fold

such is the conclusion of the science of astrology. The conjunction, though civil, becomes good if under the planet Budha. And

going with the moon's power you will obtain full success. संवाद्यताम्=bring to an agreement, compar. कृतान्त means both शास्त्र or science as in Gila XVIII., 13, and the god of death. Both senses are intended. Soc then explained in the commentary. आविर्भूत, &c. The trees in the garden in the morning cast their shadows towards the west, where the sun is going, hence they are supposed to act, as it were, as the sun's devoted servants. In the evening: the sun goes towards the west, while the shadows lengthen out towards the east, and hence are supposed to desert him in adversity. अपर , &c=when the disc of the sun is tossed down the side of the western mountain. For the last line Cf. Viracharita, p. 21. For quotations, scc Das'arapa, 12, 47, and Sahitya-Darpana, p.16).


Act 7.

P. 219. लेख &c See p. 88 et seq.ही, &c. see p. 186 supra and note there. The figure in this stanza is criticised by Professor Wilson as not "natural to the style of the composition of the period to wbich the dramı belongs." But नीतिपादप and its flowers are spoken of in Kalidasa (Malavikagnimitra, p. 10), and in Bhavabhûti (Viracharita, p. 93), and the further elaboration of the figure here is scarcely open to the criticism bestowed upon it. The metre is Aryâ.अशकुन, &c. (p. 220). Cf. p. 211 supra. संमतम्= acceptable, as he wants his journey to be interrupted, and to fall into the hands of Malayaketu's officers. For the genitive in आर्हतानाम् (p. 221 ) see Siddhi. Kaum. I, 294. लोकोत्तरैर्मार्गै:=by paths which are not accessible to all people. Cf. a summary of the view of the Ârhatas given in the Sarvadars'anasangraha, p. 52. प्रस्थान, &c.=busy in preparing for a journey. शकुनः (p. 222 )=a good omen, which will direct you well on your way. मुण्डित, &c= you ask whether the Nakshatras are proper for shaving, after having shaved. Cf. Sarasvatikanthâbharaṇa, p. 14. There are sundry occasions, now observed as unfavourable for shaving. सावगाणं (p. 223) should be सावगा ण and in the छाया it should be श्रावक न अनिवारितः & c=ingress and egress were quite uncontrolled, free. - अमुद्रालाञ्छितः=not marked by the signet or seal, probably meaning not possessing a passport so marked. At pp. 226, 230, 232, the words indicate that the मुद्रा itself is given. This, however, may mean either the signet or a seal-impression on some other thing. The latter is more likely, having 'regard to the word लाञ्छित used here. गुल्म is a sort of village Police station. Cf." Mțichchhakatika p. 212.. Kâdambari, pp. 127, 132, and the quota- tion from Manu given in the commentary there. See, too, Chandakaus’ika, p. 61 and Ganaratnamáhodadhi, p. 107. मा प्रवेश्यसे= do not let yourself be thrown into. Cf. the similar construction at inter alia Mâlatîmâdbava. p. 281.किं ण &c. (p. 224), without अहम् , the construction of this sentence is not quite complete. It must be supplied in construing the reading in the text. सावगा-the commentator, apparently, reads सावेगम् for this. But none of our MSS. has the reading, and it is not very appropri- ate, as Siddharthaka and the Kshapanaka are both ignorant that each of them is an emissary of Chânakya. Without the भण मे which B. N. insert in the next speech, the meaning must be that the anger of the Kshapanaka might prevent the accomplishment of Siddharthaka's wishes, and so Siddarthaka wishes to mollify him.

P. 225, मुहुर्लक्ष्योद्भेदा -the manifestations of which can be often perceived. Cf. Das'arûpâ, p. 20.मुहु: &c.=often too deep to be comprehended ; often full-bodied (i.e. where all is laid bare); often in consequence of special objects to be accomplished very meagre (i.e. not clear in all its parts); often appearing as if its main purpose was lost, and often again appearing to yield ample fruit. नयविद्= politician. The metre of the stanza is Sikharini. For the quotations in the commentary, see Das'arûpa, p. 55. आस्थानम्मण्डप= pavillion for the assembly or Durbar. The commentator's reading was apparently कष्टं यदस्मासु, but where he read एवमपि is not clear. The commentator's explanation, too, seems hardly correct. The meaning is “Alas! it is indeed, hard to have to deceive this prince Malayaketu, who is kind towards me to this degree,". कुले &c =turning his back on, or blind to his family, all sense of shame, his own reputation, and self-respect. क्षणिकमपि। There seems to be little force in the अपि, the readings in the notes yield a better sense, the reading of G. E. N. being quite clear and appropriate. For the locative C£. p. 255 infra. तदाज्ञाम्=the order of the wealthy man to whom he has sold himself.विचारातिक्रान्तः= one who has gone beyond the stage of reflection. किमिति=why does he consider now? The time for consideration was 358 NOTES, before entering service. The metre of the stanza is Sikha विकल्प=doubts, suspicions. भक्तया, &c=Will he, in consequ of devotion strong by reason of his affection for the family of Nandas, enter into a threat with the clever Maurya, who bel to the family of the Nandas, after he shall have discarded Chala Or will be remain true to his promisereckoning highly firmness of the virtue of devotion ? Thus is my mind perpet whirling about, as if it was mounted on a potters wheel. metre of the stanza is Sardtlavikfaita. [ विगणयन् the 1eadin B, E. N., gives a good meaning; thus the doubt is between भरी bhe one hand, and सत्यसंधत्व on the other]. शुद्धसंपादनसनुतिष्ठ performing the duty of giving passportड. असंचार, &c.=no less, so as to make no noise. The shutting of the eyes here sp of is a form of sport which is still not uncommon. C. Vikramorvas, p. 34, and Yiddhasalabhanjikौ, p. 50. P. 229. राक्षसस्य मित्रम्--'his shows that Chanakya di even tell his various emissaries who were to be co-conspi wibh them. राक्षसस्य प्रयोजनम् , &c=you are not going on business to be done for Rakshas9, are you ? प्रणयकोप is not ange as finally breaks of friendship, but rather a sort of fit complaint. C. Prasanna Raghava, pp. 37, 41, 65, Viddhasalat jika, p. 50, see, too, Murari, p. 57 where रामः सप्रणयरोषस्मितं तं Lakshmapa) पश्यति. हताश seems to be a mere term of abust our Manraphi मेला, or जळला, as to which see oup note on hari (Niti)st. 34. 'or इताश see Ratnavali, p. Vecteam 6. p. 287. अश्रेतव्यम् (p. 230)=something so bad that the heari it even should be avoided. G£ %he slightbly different use . same word at p. 28 &fre. आर्थिने=to one who asks for it therefore will believe it and make that sort of use of it whi desired. इति ब्रुवा is the same thing as इति- Cf. Kadambar 101, 142, and the use of similar form करने as explained ' Siddh. Kaum. II, 488. जीवलोकान्निष्कासिष्ये (p. 232)=I sha bhrown out of the world of living creatures, .e. shall be k {This apparently, is intended to suggest the treason against layalketku for which Chitravarman and others are afterwards des ed; but no further use seems to be made of it in the sequel मधिकृत्य (p. 233)=referring to the enemy. C. Sakuntala, सुहृदू is the friend of the pode. Rakshasa. The comm explanation of Malayalk सुहृद् to mean friend of the speaker, viz. the Kshapanaka himself, though in one respect better than ours, seems, on the whole, not to give the intended sense. The metre of the stanza is Ruchirâ. कृतार्थोऽस्मि= I have accomplished my purpose. See p. 71 supra. His intention appears to have been to get this account communicated to Malayaketu by Bhagu- rậyana. That object has been already secured more promptly and fully.

P. 234. निर्वृत=at ease. Cf. Venisamhâra, p. 174.अन्वर्थओऽपि ननु राक्षस, राक्षसोऽसि=oh Râkashasa! You are a Rakshasa, indeed, in a significant way, i e, your name is significant of your character. A Rakshasa is a wicked character, as in Venîsamhâra, p. 235, or Viracharita, p. 67. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. भावेत्वेवं-well, then, I will do this now. In the commentary of Râghavabhatta on the S'âkuntala, p. 196, where भवतु also occurs in a similar sense, it is said भवत्विति निषेधेअस्तु भवतु पूर्यंत इति निषेधे इत्युक्तैः. See p. 89 of this very useful commentary recently published by Messrs. Godbole and Parab. The meaning is that भवतु indicates something about to be done, contrary to that to which things were tending before. आवेग-excitement. अर्थसशास्त्र- व्यवहारिणाम् &c=with politicians, men dealing with political affairs, the distinction between foes, friends, and neutrals is dependent on tangible gain or interests, not on personal inclinations as with ordinary people. सर्वार्थ &c=Rakshasa who wished Sarvârthasiddhi to be king,अर्थपरिपन्थी=obstacle in the way of his interests. परिपन्थी is a form, according to Pânini, not admis- sible except छन्दसि. See Siddh. Kaum. I., 177, but it is often used. Cf. inter alia Gîtâ III., 34, and also Málatîmadhava, p. 343, Chandakaus’ika, pp. 21, 22, 27, Kathâsaritsagara Taranga XV., 19, Taranga XVII., 47. नीति, &c,=politics lead persons, even while living, into a sort of new life in which previous conduct is all forgotten, i.e. as to friendly or unfriendly conduct towards others, that is forgotten when the interest of the moment requires a contrary course to be adopted. The metre is Indravajrâ. उपग्राह्यः (p. 235)=should be received, should continue to be entertained in service.परतश्च= afterwards, after obtaining the kingdom of the Nandas. As to अधिकृत here, Cf. p. 149 supra. आनयन्त्यै गुणेषु, &c. =bringing all matters commanded to be done into the class of good actions, and making one shut one's eyes to their faults. The metre of the stanza is Gîti. आगन्तुकः:=one recently come, temporary arrival. Cf. for a somewhat similar use of the word, Raghu, V., 62. परिग्रह-attendant. See the Lexicon cited in Râghava. bhatta's commentary on the S'âkuntala, p. 61.

P. 237. कार्यगौरव-importance of the business.मुद्रां परिपालयन्, &c.=open it, preserving the seal. For other letters, see Ga- dyapadyâvali, pp. 10, 41, where three are collected. अवगमयति= informs. कापि-unexpected.. Cf. p. 152, 68 supra. प्रथममुपन्यस्तसंधीनाम् (p. 238)=with whom a treaty has been come to before. पूर्व, &c=by encouragement in reference to the formerly promised exchange for the treaty. What was promised is explained further on, स्वाश्रय-Malayaketu, उपकारिणम्=Cliandragupta. सत्यवतः=the truthful one; apparently the accusative plural. कोषदण्ड=treasure and army. Cf. Murâri, p. 105, Kâdambari, p. 105, Kirâta, II., 12, Raghu, XV., 13. विषयः=domain. As to the instrumental case Cf. Viracharita, p. 67, Venîsamhâra, 241. लेखस्याशून्यार्थम्=In order that this letter might not be unaccompanied by the customary present. वाचिक (p. 239 )=message. कीदृशो लेखः :=what is the meaning of this letter? something like the Marâthî हें कसें काय आहे? As to तिष्ठतु see p. 58 supra. मिश्र See Mâlatîmâdhava, p. 10, (Commentary). एष जानासि-here you shall know at once, i.e. . we shall make you admit that you do know. व्यक्तं चन्द्रगुप्तस्य लेखः =clearly the letter is Chandragupta's, i.e. addressed to him. एष निर्णयते=here we shall determine at once. Cf. एष जानासि just before. परवत: (P. 241)=dependent. Cf. Vîracharita, p. 105, Raghu, II., 56, Kirâta, XI., 33.

P. 242.मलयनगराधिपः I doubt much whether मलयनगर is right. Malaya is the name of a mountain and of the country about it. प्रथमगृहीतः=first mentioned. मह्यम् (p. 243.) See Siddh. Kaum. 1., 278. निरतिशाया=unsurpassed, excessive. यत्सत्यम् See p. 54 supra. परिसुद्धि=ease. Cf. विसाद in S'âkuntala, p. 181. साध्ये &c.-- many of the words here are technical terms of the Nyâya philosophy. See Tarkasamgraha, pp. 30-1. साध्य=major term. अन्वयेन घटित्तम् =capable of being joined in an affirmative proposition. स्पक्ष that with which the major term is ascertained to be always capable of being joined in an affirmative proposition. विपक्ष=that with which the major term is ascertained to be always incapable of being joined in an affirmative proposition. साधन=middle term. सिद्धि=proof of a conclusion. Thus in the ordinary syllogism, this mountain is fiery because there is smoke in it, and all that smokes is fiery; the middle term is smokiness; that is always capable of being joined with the major term fiery in an affirmative proposi- tion (viz. the major promise in a syllogism in the European - method); it is also capable of being joined in an affirmative proposi- tion with a kitchen, of which we know the major term fiery can be correctly predicated; it is always incapable of being joined in. an affirmative proposition with a reservoir of water of which we know the major term fiery can never be predicated. Such a middle term helps us to the proof of the conclusion, this mountain is fiery. But where the middle term is itself the major term, or can be joined in an affirmative proposition with both सपक्ष and विपक्ष, or where it cannot be joined with the पक्ष or minor term, there you can draw no conclusion. In the first case the major premise, to use the language of European logic, would be in truth an identical proposition. In the second case, the major premise would be, in fact, incorrect. In the third, the minor premise would be, in fact, incorrect. The other meaning is given by the com- mentator. The metre is S'ârdûlavikridita. प्राक्परिगृहीतोपजापैः: (p. 244) see p. 145 supro. आपूर्ण=nearly full.परिकल्पितविभागैः=making a proper distribution, as shown in the following lines. Cf. परिकल्पितसांनिध्या in Raghu IV., 6, also Raghu XI., 23.

P. 245. प्रस्थातव्यम्=the forces consisting of the bands of Khas'as and Magadhas should follow me in the van; drawn up in battle array, प्रयत्न: of course means not attempt, but exertion liere, as at Raghu II. 56. कौलूताद्य: &c. and the remaining group of princes, namely, the Kaulûta and others, should remain about Malaya ketu at every part of the way. As to Khas'as &c., see the Introduction. The metre is Sragdbará. क्रीतम् . See p. 147 supra. This helps in the development of the action later on, see p. 255 infra. अधिकारपधम्, &c=an office of authority is a great source of misgivings or fears even to an innocent person. Cf. Priyadars'ikâ, p. 8. This is a sort of anticipation of what is com- ing. भयं, &c. First, the fear of the master always works on the servant; next, the fear of those about him is on his mind. Fur- ther, the position of those in high office produces hatred among evil persons. The condition of those who have risen high finds a fall to be appropriate. The last line means that one who has risen is always very apt to fall. The commentator cites as a parallel, a line which is to be seen at Ch. XXIX, of the Anugîtâ. See our Anugîtâ in the Sacred Books of the East, p. 355. The metre of the stanza is S'ikbarini.पादाग्रे, &c. (p. 277)=fixing his sight, with an unmoving eye, on the tip of his foot, perceiving none of its object in consequence of its being a vacant stare, le supports by his hand his moon-like face bowed down, as it were, by the weight of difficult undertakings. As to शुन्य Cf. Bhartri- hari (Vanâgya), st. 6. and note there. The metre is Praharshiņi. प्रतिविधान (P. 248), here means simply arrangement. विज्ञायते= I understand. किमिव (p. 250)=what, indeed. Cf. Bhartrihari (Niti), st. 32, and note there.परिषोस्थाने =on account of some matter for great joy, ताडयितुम् with अलम् is not a common nor an admis- sible construction in the intended sense. Siddh. Kaum. II., 433. The reading in the note is in that respect better.

P. 252. न खलु, &c.=The emissaries of Chanakya will not say anything which is not quite certain; hence comparison of writing will suit the purpose here. न प्रतिपत्स्यते=will not admit. Cf. संप्रतिपत्ति: at p. 256 infra. प्रतिलिखित=a copy. वर्णसंवाद: the resemblance of the letters will make this clear or prove it. एतम् here is difficult to explain. एतत् is better. As to विभावयिष्यति Cf. Yâjparalkya II., 20, 33, Das'akumâra, p. 64, and commentary thereon, Vikramorvas'î, p. 14, and commentary thereon. शकटदासस्तु , &c. (p. 253)-on the whole, I accept the commentator's explana- tion. The words might mean "but S'akatadása is my friend, and so the letters do not agree." But this does not seem to be appropriate here. , &c "Can Sakatadása, forgetting his faith to his master, have remembered only his wife and sons, coveting transient gains and not everlasting glory?" For the genitive पुत्रदारस्य, see Siddh. Kaum. I., 297. The locative is the वैषयिकसप्तमी. See Siddh. Kaum. I., 307. The metre of the stanza is Anushtub. कराङ्गुलिप्रणयिनी (p. 254)=remaining on his finger. Cf. p. 80 supra. प्रयोगाश्रयम् .-The writing on which the scheme rests is indicated as his, and no one else's, by the other writing. शकतेन mark the omission of the suffix दास from the name. See, too, p. 256. भर्तृ= Rakshasa, or, perhaps, the Nandas are meant. कृपणाम् See p. 135 supra. प्राणार्थिना=desirous of life. Though Sakatadása's life was no longer in danger directly, the captivity of his wife and children might involve danger to it indirectly. The metre of the stanza īs Sârdûlavikriţita. प्रत्यभिजानासि-do you recognise ?

P. 255.भूपणवल्लभ=fond of ornaments, यै: &C.-The ornaments are compared to the Nakshatras, and the face of Parvates'vara to the moon, on an evening in the Sarad season. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. चाणक्यप्रयुक्तेन =employed, set on, by Chanakya. चन्द्रगुप्तस्य, &c. You wicked man have made us the price to be paid for these to Chandragupta, who sells them hoping for a more valuable acquisition in return. As to कल्पित, Cf. p. 132 supra. सुश्लिष्ट:-well put together. See Mâlatîmâdhava, p. 59, and Cf. Murâri, p. 69 (दुःश्लिष्ट). संप्रतिपत्ति:=admission. ग्राम्यमुत्तरम् =not weighty, not satisfactory, defence. Medini gives प्राकृत as a synonym for ग्राम्य. The metre is S'ârdûlavikridita. परिचरणपर: =always attending on you, following your wishes. स्वमतमनुगता: =following your own views. एवमयुक्तव्याहारिणा, &c=you have your- self, in saying these improper things, given the answer to your own question. The answer is, there is nothing to tempt me to such a disreputable proceeding, and that shows you are wrong in thinking I have done it. The metre is Sragdharâ. परिभावधाम (p. 257)=object of contempt. कृतधियाम्-of refined minds. Cf. p. 159 supra.लोकस्य परीक्षका:=good judges of men. क्षाता:-destroy- ed. पुंसां प्रयत्नछिद:-counteracting and frustrating the efforts of man. विषमा=fearful. Cf. Bhartrihari (Niti), st. 97 and note there, विश्रम्भप्रवण:=disposed to be confiding, full of faith. कथाशेपतां नीत: Cf. Kumára, IV., 13. आहितगौरवेण &c. (p. 258)=placing a high value on the counsellorship. प्रलय:=destruction, death. रिपौ goes with विक्रेतुम्. Cf. p. 255 supra. "You have commenced the process of our destruction for the purpose of selling us as so much flesh to the enemy." For the construction Cf. Venîsamhâra, p. 37. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita. गण्डस्योपरि स्फोटः FT: Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 61. हन्त, &c.=alas, the enemy has taken possession of my heart itself. भूमि=my lands, dominions.श्वभ्र (p. 259)=ditch. सर्वात्मना=not half and half, but wholly and entirely.त्रिवर्ग=धर्मार्थकाम. दुर्नयः :=misconduct, Cf. inter alia Priyadars’ikâ, p. 42, Kathâsaritsagara, Taranga 15, st. 50.

P. 260. धूमययन्त:=darkening. क्लिश्नन्त: here is not exactly अभिभवन्त: as at p. 167, as the commentary interprets it; here it seems to mean diminishing the deep darkness of the colour, the


31 dust not being as dark as the hair. पांशुस्तम्बा:=columns of dust, masses of dust. आत्मलाभ=birth, production. Cf. Kirâta III., 32, XVII. 19, XVII, 34. उत्तमाङ्गे=on the head. Cf. Raghu IX., 60. छिन्नमूला: means dissevered from their root, viz. the earth, which has, since the dust was raised, been covered, and so separated from that dust, by the rut water of the elephants. Cf. as to this Raghu VII., 43. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ.चेष्टते=acts. Cf. चेष्टितम् at p. 254 supra, Kirâta, XVI., 19. करवाणि. The impera- tive form here is to be noted. Cf. Bhartrihari (Vairâgya), st. 102, and note there. सवैरम् (p. 261)=full of feelings of animosity. किं भर्तॄननुयामि=shall I follow my masters, the Nandas, in death ? The last two lines, according to our text, may be thus rendered, "Or shall I, with my sword for my companion, fall upon the enemy's forces. That would not be proper either. My heart, anxious for the release of Chandanadasa, would prevent my doing that, if it did not turn ungrateful.” The meaning is that the fear of being ungrateful renders the last idea an improper one to entertain. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita.


Act V1.

P. 262. अलंकृत:=adorned with the ornaments presented to him. See p. 265 infra. As to जअदि Cf. Bhartſihari (Nati), st. 24, and note there, and Ganaratnamahodadhi, p. I. जअक्षणकज्जं, &c.=victorious is the diplomacy of the veverable Chanakya, which has vanquished the party of the enemy, having accomplish- ed all and everything to be accomplished by the instruments of victory_namely, according to the commentary, army, &c. This is rather a round-about mode of interpretation, but the text requires it, while the rival reading seems inconsistent, if taken strictly, with Châņakya's speech at p. 313 infra; see, too, p. 337. The metre of the stanza is Mâlini. संतापे तारेशानाम् =who are like the moon on occasions of vexation and trouble. Cf. inter alia, Malatîmâdhava, p. 55. The metre of the stanza is Gîti, but it seems to be irregular. [The reading of H. given in the footnote, gives a regular metre.] प्रियोदन्त (p. 265) glad tidings, प्रियदर्शन = good to look at. निष्कास्य (p. 266)--See p. 259 supra.असमीक्ष्यकारी =one who acts thought- lessly, or without careful consideration. Cf. the name of the fifth Tantra in the Panchatantra and Nâgânanda, p. 168. अज्झत्वा मलय ...भूमिम्= leaving the dominions of the wretch Malayaketu. It is not easy to understand शेष here. One suspects it should be at अशेष. But, as it stands, we must probably take it to mean, "such as remained." The पार्थिव , as distinguished from the सामन्त , must mean the sovereigns in independent alliance with Malayaketu. They start for their own dominions, while the subordinate chiefs or tributaries are obliged to remain at their posts.

P. 267. The genitive in देवस्य अप्रक्ता: should be noted. Siddh. Kaum. I., 294, affords the always-available explanation. The मुख here mentioned is not the आमुख (see Das'arûpa, pp. 113-4), but the मुखसंधि (see Das'arûpa, pp. 11-2), in which the action of the play commences, as contrasted with the निर्वहणसंधि, in which it is brought to a head at the denouement. See note on निर्वहण p. 188 supra. When the two-the मुख, and निर्वहण or उपसंहार-do not harmonize together, the play, of course, is defective. दैवगत्यै &c=salutations to the policy of Chanakya, the course of which is inscrutable like the course of destiny. This comparison occurs at p. 225. Salutations to the policy=we can do nothing but bow before it. सारसाधन=strong army, as contrasted with the demoralized forces of Malayaketu. Cf. Kâdambari, p. 51. प्रतिपन्न= attacked, overpowered. Cf. Kirâta XVI., 49. उद्भ्रमन्तो नदन्ति= far are roaring and moving about. जातलम्पोत्तरङ्गा :=trembling, and so looking as if they were moving about like waves. गृहीत, &c =horses are gathering together, hearing the sounds of victory. The metre of the stanza is Mâlini. चरितमवगाहितुम्= to enter into and comprehend the proceedings of Chânakya. Cf. the somewhat similar use of प्रविश्य at Kumâra V, 51. भयविलोल seems to be used as a substantive--an unusual use-to mean agitations caused by fear. अनुसन्धीयमान:=followed by. The उदुम्बर named here seems also to be an emissary of Chânakya, as he reports Rakshasa's movements to Chânakya, p. 272. वयस्य तथा, &C. (P. 270 ) is, of course, a question—"Has he come after all ?" मोक्षमिव पक्षे=it looks as if he will get his release. षड्गुण--see these enu- merated and explained in the commentary on Raghu VIII., 21, and Mâgha II., 26. As applied to नीति it means the policy of Chânakya, which is strong in its possession of all the elements that constitute the hightest policy and that are to be used as occasion arises. As applied to the cord, it means "consisting of six strings." उपाय, &c.=the noose of which is made up of a series of schemes. The policy entraps a man by numerous stratagems. अवगुण्ठन=covering. See S'åkuntala, p. 195.

P. 273.अक्छिन्नाश्रयकातरेव =as if she was afraid or perplexed, in consequence of her support being destroyed. Cf. p. 114 supra. तामेव, &c.=the people have followed श्री, 1.e. they desert the old kings to "greet the rising sun," आप्तैः: &c.=the task of putting forth efforts has been given up even by close friends as they have obtained no fruit for their valour. What else, indeed, could they do? They have to remain like bodies without heads. z.e. having no good person to work for. He objects to Malayaketu further on. As to कुर्वन्तु, see p. 260 supra, and as to उत्तमाङ्ग also see p. 260 supra. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikriđita. -The commentary takes this to mean कपट, but the usual meaning of both छिद्र and रन्द्र, its synonym, is weak point, or defect. Cf. S'âkuntala, p. 236, Raghu XVII. 61, Raghu XVII., 11, Kathâ- saritsagara Lambaka I., Taranga, 11, st. 10, Mrichchhakatika, p. 265. The meaning thus is, that श्री has left the Nandas, taking advantage of a defect in them, so to say, and gone over to a Vrishala. But see, too, Raghu IX., 15 and Mallinâth on that. स्थिर=persevering. दैवं द्विपादिव--_Cf. the next stanza. The metre of this stanza is S'ikhariņi. अतद्विधमृत्युयोग्य=not deserving of such a death, scil, as that which fell on him. The reading of the com- mentary is different, and is also good. तद्विध to be understood in the same way as तत्सदृश ( see p. 163). शैलेश्वर=पर्वतक, the father of Malayaketu. अधिकृत्य. See S'âkuntala, p. 102, and supra p. 233. आसिद्धि=want of success. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. बीजनाशं=destroyed down to the very, seed. Cf. Siddh. Kaum. II., 472. शुश्रूषते, See Siddh. Kaum. II., 254. दैवेन, &c.—The idea is nearly the same as that of the familiar Latin adage, quem deus vult perdere prius dementat. The metre of the stanza is S'årdêla- vikridita.. न तु शत्रुवञ्चनपराभूत इति=not the disgrace of having been foiled by the deception practised by the enemy. देव, &c.= the surface of which is rendered holy by the constant walks of his majesty (in these grounds). चित्रम् and प्रजाविततुरगम् are both adverbs. चलेपुः. Cf. S'âkuntala p. 100, and Raghu 1X., 49. अस्याम्, &c.= here they sat, here they held their conversations. Cf. similar reminiscences at Kadambarî, p. 212. भूयसा=excessively. Cf. Raghu VIII., 8. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ. प्रवृत्ति news. Cf. Raghu XII, 60, Viracharita, p. 223. a P. 276. म, &c.=favourable and unfavourable conditions of life. नवेन्दु-the moon is very anxiously looked for even now by many people on the first day of the bright fortnight. Cf. Katha- saritsagara Lambaka, I., Taranga IV., st. 29, Taranga 12, st. 24, &c.वन्ध्यश्रम:=whose efforts have been fruitless. The metre of the stanza is S'ardûlavikridita. इदम् viz. what is described in the first two lines of the preceding stanza. विपर्यस्त= in ruins, dilapidat- ed. In महारभरचन, as applied to कुल, the meaning of आरम्भ is actions, deeds. "Cf. आरम्भ and समारम्भ in the Gitâ passim.। , शुष्कं, &c=the heart is, as it were, parched up. Cf. Wordsworth's "hearts are dry as summer dust," and Kâdambarî, p. 34, and the use of आर्द्र in such passages as Kâdambari, pp. 37, 137, Raghu XIV., 42. विगुणनृप=bad king, like Malayaketu. The whole stanza refers to the case of the Nandas and himself. नया:=efforts of policy politician's schemes.कुनीतैः=crooked policy. नीत is the past parti- ciple, meaning the same thing as नीति or नय . The metre of the stanza is S'ikhariņi. क्षताङ्गनाम् &C. ---As the text stands the con- struction must be तीक्ष्णैरुद्रग्रैः परशुभि: क्षताङ्गानां क्षितिरूहां शाकानाम् , &c. =the branches of trees, the trunks of which have been cut up by large and sharp axes. If the reading उदग्रक्लमभृताम् is adopted, that will be a further epithet of शाखानाम्, in which case, as there is nothing to correspond with the word क्षितिरूहाम्, the first word क्षताङ्गानाम् must also go with शाखानाम्, and must be read क्षताङ्गीनाम्- as in the readings in the note. रौजा, &c=sending forth cries of pain in the shape of the unceasing noises of the pigeons.स्वनिर्मोक, &c.=the serpents, heaving sighs, tie up, as it were, the wounds of the branches with bits of their own sloughs, out of pity for the affliction of those with whom they have been on terms of famili- arity --namely, the trees on which they dwell. The metre of the stanza is S'ikharini. तपस्विन: See p. 126 supra.उदग्रयन्तः is an unusual word. It seems to mean showing forth in an aggravated form. “And these unfortunate trees, which show forth in an aggravated form the drying up within their trunks, which shed tears, as it were, in the shape of the exudations from the openings made in them by worms, which are dark through want of shade, and which are drowned in misery, are, as it were engaged in go- ing to the cemetery." The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka.

P. 278. As regards विषम, &c., I prefer taking it to mean, " which is easy to obtain in an unfavourable condition of life," in- stead of "easy to obtain like an unfavourable condition," as the commentator takes it. The meaning is that this is all that can be got in this condition, though at other times Rakshasa has had a better seat. As to विपम Cf. Kathâsaritsagara, Taranga XXIV., st. 137, Mrichchhakatika, p. 265. भिन्न=broken. पटुपटह=well- sounding drum. नान्दीनाद:=sound of rejoicing. Cf. Kathâsaritsa- gara, Taranga, XXIII., st. 92. असारं=feeble, too weak to bear the noise. The figure of दिशां द्रष्टुं दैर्यम् is applied to the big branches of the tree in the Kâdambari, p. 23. बहुत्वात् of course goes with नाद:. The metre of the stanza is S'ikhariņi.श्रावित: (p. 279 ), &c. I have been made to hear of the enemy's royal splendour, I have been made to see it after being brought here ; and now me thinks the efforts of destiny are directed to making me feel it, viz., in the attempt to get a release of Chandanadâsa from the hands of the enemy. The metre is Anushtub. भवतु See p. 234. It is the Marathi असो व्यसनसब्रह्मचारिन् (p. 280), literally means, "fellow-student in the school of misfortune." Cf. Kadambarî, pp. 79-176.कालहरणम्-loss of time, causing delay in killing myself. परसुदासीनाः=very apathetic or indifferent. प्रत्यादिश्यामहे=we are condemined. Cf.प्रत्यादेशो रूपगर्वितायाः श्रियाः: in Vikramorvas'î, p. 4, and also Kâdambarî, p. 5. मणिकारश्रेष्ठी (p. 281)=jewel-merchant. हन्त here must be taken हर्षे, and विभव means property. अश्रोतव्यम्=what one would not like to hear, Cf. Kadambari, p. 136. उद्ब्ध्य (p. 282)=tying up the neck, for hanging oneself. Cf. Ratnâvali, p. 43. Suicide to avoid hearing of a friend's misfortune may be seen also at Das'akumâracharita, p. 77, (Calc. ed.) किमौषधि, &c. This division of one stanza into several questions, or several separate sentences, occurs in other places also. Cf. inter alia Venisamhâra, p. 103, and Prasanna Raghava, pp. 80-126. किमग्नि, &c. = has he been cast off in consequence of the royal displeasure which is little short of fire or poison ? “ Cast off" here seems to mean cast off from royal favour. नृशंसा प्रतिपत्ति:=wicked proceedings. अभूमिः, &c. (p. 283)=he is not the man for any improprieties, Cf. the analogous use of क्षेत्र and आस्पद in the same sense as भूमि here. The metre of the stanza is Sikhariņi. The reading of A. P. given in the notes on तद्विनाशो (p. 283), viz.सुहृद्विनाशो Tì, is preferable to the one adopted in the text in yielding a clearer meaning. तद्विनाशो must be interpreted in the same way. My heart is, trem, trembling in consequence of the affectionate feelings which I properly entertain on hearing that Chandanadása is his dear friend, and that the destruction of such a friend is the motive to his entering fire. [The reading of H. given in the footnote gives a satisfactory meaning.] मर्तव्ये व्यवसितस्य=of one engaged in destroying him- self. As to शोकदीक्षाT (p. 284) Cf. व्यसनसब्रह्मचारिन् before as contain- ing a somewhat analogous figure. The meaning is this—"Here has destiny opened the door for initiating me into a course of grief." Cf. Viracharita, p. 75, and S'Akuntala, p. 88, and Prasanna Râghava p. 80.

P. 285, अभ्यर्णः=Near, approached, अथर्वत्ता=wealth, property. विनिमय=exchange scil of the wealth for Chandanadåsa's life-a ransom. पितृन्, &c. (p. 286). As to the earlier lines Cf. Mohamud- gara, अर्थमनर्थ भावय नित्यमू, &c. As to तद्यो the explanation in the commentary seems the only possible, and is a good one. व्यसन =misfortune, or evil. (You are ready to cast off that as an evil which is dear to all, and for which sons kill fathers, &c. &c.). कृतार्थोऽयं सोर्थः=that property of yours has accomplished its end-in being offered for a purpose of benevolence. सति व्णिक्त्वे though you are a trader; a trader, of course, might be expected to be most swayed by selfish motives. The metre of the stanza is S'ikharini. प्रतिपन्न=replied. Cf. Mâlavikâgnimitra, p. 7. S'âkuntala, p. 135, Jânaki Parinaya, p. 188. बहुशो ज्ञातम् (P. 287 )=I have frequently heard. प्राणहरोऽस्य दण्ड:=the punishment for him is death (lit. that which takes away life). गृहजनं याचते (p. 288). See Siddh. Kaum. II., 273. , &c. See p. 102 supra. The metre of the stanza is Anushțub. व्यवसयसुहृद् (p. 289)=friend in any great effort. सजल &c -- धाराजल is a common expression. See inter alia Prasanna Raghava, pp. 74, 75, 84. The sword, according to the commentator's explanation, is dark-blue like a cloud, and clean like the sky, and has a sharp edge. But see Kathâsaritsagara (व्योमश्यामलनिस्त्रिंश) and Cf. Sâhitya Darpana, p. 240. There is, however, no other good way of interpreting the text as we have it: The commentator's remarks should be noticed as affording a ground in favour of that in preference to the other reading.युद्धश्रद्धा-. In the Chandikâs'ataka of Bâna we have the phrase कलयसि कलहश्रद्धया किं त्रिशुलम्। See Indian Antiquary I., 112. In the Prasanna Raghava, p. 75, we read अपि नाम भवदुपाध्याययजमानस्य निवृत्ता हरचापारोपणश्रद्धा. The passages (with which compare Murâri, p. 143) seem to show that श्र्द्धा means, in this con- text, something like hope. The Medini gives it as meaning काङ्क्षा. सत्त्वोत्कर्षात्, &c=that sword the power of which, in consequence of its great virtue, has been seen by my enemies, in the test of battle--now moves to some work of daring, me who am unable to govern myself in consequence of affection for my friend. As to विवश Cf. अवश at p. 283 supra, and Gîtà VIII., 19. Kathasaritsagara Taranga XXIII., st. 13, Mrichchhakatika, p. 340. The metre of the stanza is Mandâkrântâ. पिशुनित (p. 290) =indicated, suggested. Cf. Meghadŵta, st. 49. प्रतिपत्तुम्'स्थूलाक्षरैः युक्तः भागः'=to understand, know. Cf. Bhartrihari (Vairâgya), st. 99, and note.

P. 291.यथार्थो राक्षसः: See p. 234 supra. ही हिमाणहे. See p. 219 supra. (The order of speeches according to B. N. H. is to be preferred]. अमात्यपादा: is a respectful mode of speaking of अमात्य. Similar expressions are गुरुपादाः:, आचार्यपादाः &c., and Cf तातपादाः at Uttararâmacharita. p. 168-9. निर्वापितः=extinguished अपूर्वं पुरुषम् (p. 292)=unfamiliar person. C£. Kathâsaritsagara Taranga XVIII., st. 364, Taranga XIX., st. 83. आत्मनो जीवितं रक्षन्तो ayat-for saving their own lives, lest on the rescue of the person ordered to be hanged they should themselves be treated as the hangmen of S'akatadása were. त्वरायित:=hastened, expedited. शत्रोर्मतेन-with the assent of the enemy,viz. Chanakya. वधाधिकृते:=the hangmen, the men appointed to the work of killing. अथ=But if. See p. 178 supra. I prefer to take the antecedent clause in the third line as अथ न , simply, equivalent to, but if not--that is to say, "if he was not brought to me with the assent of the enemy." The commentator's construction is rather forced, I think. Then कृतकं तादृग्लखम् will mean a fabricated writing of that sort, or कृतकं तादृक्कष्टम्, as our text has it, would mean such a sinful fabrication; as to कष्ट meaning evil or sinful. Cf. Siddh. Kaum. II., 229, and note there. तर्कारूढा embarking on guesses. The metre of the stanza is Hariņi. प्रथमम्-on the former occasion. नीति:=schemes of policy. कालान्तरेण= after some interval of time. See p. 152 मत्कृतां व्यापत्तिम्= calamity caused by myself, viz. by entrusting my people to his charge. As to व्यापत्ति Cf. Bhartrihari (Vairâgya), sti. 105, and note thereon. ज्ञातम्= I know it, or I have it. निष्क्रय =exchange ransom. Cf. Raghu II., कल्यामि see परिकल्पित at p. 242 supra, and pote thereon, and see, too, Raghu V., 28, XI 51, 93. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâa


Act VII

.

P. 294, विपम. See p. 278 supra. राजापथ्यम्. See p. 100 supra. परिहरत सुदूरेण=keep as far from it as possible. The metre of this and the next stanza is Åryâ. [The verse as read in the text is not metrically correct. Notice H.]. वध्यवेश. See p. 139 supra, कुडुम्बिनी is, of course, wife, as at Raghu VIII., 86. Professor Wilson (Works XII., 154), seems to have had some doubts on this point. - चारित्रभङ्गभीरूणाम् (p. 297)=afraid of any deviation from a right course of conduct. Cf. Raghu XIV., 73, Das'akumâra, pp. 90, 96, 157 Calc. ed). उदासीन=those who are indifferent, i.e., do not meddle in the affairs of the नृशंस people referred to. अंसुपाद, &c.=who have, as it were, made their offerings of water (to their dying friend) by means of the tears they let fall.बाष्पगुर्व्या दृष्ट्वा=with eyes dull and heavy, owing to their weeping. व्यवसित (p. 299) must be taken to mean determined or resolved, not undertaken here, so that the next speech of Ch.'s wife may he properly cons- trued. अश्रुत, &c. (p. 300). See p. 209 supra,पश्चिम् , Cf. inter alia, Raghu XVII., 8, Mâlatîmâdhava, p. 332, Kâdambarî p. 144, Venisamhâra, p. 181. समुद्वहमान: (p. 302)=carrying out, complet- ing. शुलायतना: (p. 303)=hangmen. परिभवक्षेत्रीकृत=made the object of ignominy, Cf. Kâdambarî, p. 135.मृत्युलोकपदवी t=road to the realms of death. The metre of the stanza is S'ardûlavikridita.

P. 304 त्वदीय , &c.=This is a mere imitation of one part of your noble career. स्वार्थ एव &c=I have only attended to my own interests; as, after the dismissal from Malayaketu's court, Ráksha- sa's life would have been a burden to him especially after Chanda- nadâsa's death. असज्जनरुचौ-which does not satisfy good persons-- the Kali age is not an age with which good people can be satisfied, औशीनरीयं यशः=the glory of S'ibi. See p. 102 supra. वृद्धानाम् , &c. =he who being pure in soul, has by his noble conduct eclipsed the achievements even of the Buddhas. Cf. Mâlatîmâdhava, p. 362. and Mâgha XV., 58, and Nâgânanda, p. 164. पूजार्हो, &c. Here am I, the man for whose sake this person, worthy of veneration, has become your enemy. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûla- vikridita.

P. 306. एतद्, &c. Even this I am now bound to hear, अर्थनीति, &c=the operation of whose intellect is baffled by the state-craft of Châņakya. उत्त्गङ्ग &c.=red by the mass of its mighty flames. As to the figure in the second line Cf. Das'akumara, p. 75. अनेकप &c.=whose mane still smells of the rutwater of the elephants (killed by him). नैक, &c.-in which there are many alligators and crocodiles. See p. 69 supra. As to दैव referred to here, see p. 182, where, under other circumstances, Chânakya ridicules the idea. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita. आकारः &c.,--the sea is called रत्नाकर, literally a mine of jewels. The metre of this stanza and the text is Anushțub. [The speech of Râkshasa is here inappropriate as Chanakya is veiled by the जवनिका and therefore is not recognizable for Râkshsa. So it comes naturally after आमात्य...विशेषणं on p. 308]. कल्पनाक्लेशै:=the trouble of constant mental work for achieving success; for the other sense, the trouble of preparations, Cf. p. 313 infra. अमात्य, &c. (p. 308).-He had ceased to be Malayaketu's अमात्य and had failed to carry out his resolve to wreak vengeance on Chandra- gupta for his treatment of the Nandas, whose अमात्य he had been. Hence the name अमात्य is now लज्जकार्, as reminding him of what he was and of his ill-success. कपटलेखं is the णमुल्, but the grammar here is doubtful. It is not quite easy to explain the इति at the end of Chanakya's speech. If the reading is correct, I think it must be taken as syntactically going with the next speech of Chânakya, which is really only a continuation of this, and not a separate one. विपल्प_Cf. p. 227 supra. इत्यर्धोक्ते, &c. (p. 309.) See p. 210 supra. संयोग=alliance. नय=device. Cf. नीति and नीत at pp. 96-238 supra. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavikridita.. विनभवतश्च is a very common expression meaning around. Cf. Mâlavikâgnimitra, pp. 22, 95.

P. 310. The double sense of फल, is stated by the commentator --fruit and the sharp edge. विपक्ष likewise means, gone over to the enemy or merely possessed of bird's feathers, not having been used for their proper purpose of wounding the enemy. As to the bird's feathers going with arrows Cf, Raghu II, 31. They are अधोमुख, because they are put into the quiver with their sharp part-which is, as it were, their face-inside.निज, &c.=the regulation of having to remain lying in the quiver does not please the arrows. Cf. for a somewhat similar, idea Kirâta XVII., 47. The metre of this stanza and of the next is Vaitâlâya. विगुणीकृत &C.--the commentary notes the double meaning of विगुणीकृत. As to तन्त्र Cf, the note on p. 108 supra. One is certain to vanquish those whom one has got to vanquish, when one's preceptors are wide awake ( as to which Cf. Raghu XIV 85), in attending to all affairs, even when one is oneself sleeping. संपन्नाः:=they have been accomplished. योजित: &c.—the connexion is indicated in the word अमात्यमुख्यम् . B. E. N. G. seem to be right in omitting the next Speech, चाणक्यःराजानमुपत्यसृ, &cc., as राजा, has already approached चाण्क्य, and as the speech itself contains nothing more than is already in the previous speech. . क्रमेण See p. 116 supra. The metre of this and the next stanza is Anushtub. षाड्गुण्य. See p. 271 supra. षाड्गुण्य=षड्गुण. See Siddh. Kaum. I., 654, and Ganaratnamahodadhi, p. 218, and Cf. Gîtâ, IV., 13. भृत्यभावेन=as a dependant. This seems to result from Chandragupta's calling Râkshasa आर्य and गुरु in the stanza foregoing.

P. 312. द्रव्य=a suitable subject. The reference in the com- mentary is to Siddh. Kaum. I., 713, Cf. Mâlavikâgnimitra, p. 16, and note thereon, and Ganaratnamahodadhi, p. 234. जिगीषु aspiring, ambitious. Cf. विजिगीषु p. 195 supra, and Kâdambari p. 7. नेता is taken by the commentator to mean अमात्य; rightly, as it means the man who manages all affairs. Cf. Kirâta XVI., 42 and see p. 317 below. As to प्रतिष्टा see pp. 113, 116 suprae 90s, &c.= in the manner of a tree on a river-bank. The metre of the stanza is Vasantatilaka. H अगृहीत, &c.-you are showing favour to Chandra- gupta without accepting the weapon, i e. accepting office under him. Your favour in coming here is a mere empty thing until you agree to become Chandragupta's minister. महात्म्यात् (P. 313) in our text must go with पौरुषस्य, and must mean simply great- ness.परिकल्पना =preparation. See pp. 293-307 supra, and Cf., also Das'akumâra, p. 43 and commentary. व्यतिकर=संपर्क 99 in Málatî- madhava, p. 344, or Uttararâmacharita, p. 101; and hence प्रसङ्ग as the commentator here takes it, or प्रकार् as the commentator on Das'akumâra does. See, inter alia, pp. 45, 54, 69, 84, 87, and see also Kâdambarî, pp. 88, 146, 183, 214. Or व्यतिकर may mean व्यसन, misfortune or trouble, according to the Medinî. The whole stanza means that owing to Rakshasa the whole of Chandragupta's horses and elephants have had to be kept in a state of constant readiness. The metre of the stanza is S'ârdûlavi kridita. As to

अन्तरेण see Siddh. Kaum. I, 262. नन्दस्त्रेहगुणाः: &c. (p. 314), the kindnesses of the Nandas touch my heart,i e come back to my recollection (taking गुणा to mean quality; the meaning of string will not suit here, as the verb is स्पृशन्ति, not आकर्षन्ति or any other verb of similar import). भृत्योऽस्मि=I am a servant-meaning, I am immediately about to become a servant. See Siddh. Kaum. II., 284. व्यापरणियम्= must be yielded, or used. कार्याणाम्, &c.-the course of events for a long time defies the control even of fate; or, perhaps, of Brahman. Cf. Bhartřihari (Nîti), st. 94. The metre of the stanza is Sârdûlavikriậita. नम: &c. I bow to that affec- tion for a friend which causes one to undertake anything.

P. 315. मलयकेतौ, &c.-I was living in dependence on Malaya- ketu ; for the locative Cf, Manu II. 67. प्रतिमानयितव्य: see p. 118. सर्वनगरश्रेष्टिपद=the position of principal merchant in all cities of the world. The general release ordered (p. 317) is the traditional" mode of signalizing an occasion of rejoicing which is still observed in the courts of Indian princes, and was observed partially by the British Government on the occasion of the proclamation of Queen Victoria as Empress of India. Cf. Raghu III., 20, XVII., 19, Mâlavikâgnimitra, pp. 85-108.अथवा &c=but now with the mini- ster Rakshasa as manager (of all affairs), what work is there for me? Let the bonds of all, except those of horses and elephants, be united. I only, having made good my declaration, will tie up my lock of hair. The metre of the stanza is Anushțub. वाराहीम्, &c. (p. 318). The earth is supposed to have been held on the jaws of the boar--the third incarnation of Vishnu--when he raised it out of the waters of the deluge. Cf. Kumâra VI., 8. For the expres- sion तनुमास्थितस्य Cf. Kumâra V., 84. As to भुजयुगमाश्रिता Cf. Raghu II., 74.राजमूर्तेः--this word is meant to indicate that Chandragupta is another incarnation of Vishnu, like the great Boar. There are many representations of the great Boar in the Archäological Remains described in General Cunningham's Reports. See inter alia Vol. VI., 137, 146, VII., 89, 90; X., 48, XI., 25, XII., 45, 54, XV., 11. Some of these are of a very considerable age. The first two references will furnish some rationalistic speculations on the subject. See also as to the Boar Incarnation, Max Muller's India: What it can teach us, p. 137, and note 11. p. 367. The allusion in the commentary is to Kuvalayânanda, p. 281. The metre of the stanza is Sragdharâ.


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