पृष्ठम्:A Sanskrit primer (1901).djvu/२६

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एतत् पृष्ठम् अपरिष्कृतम् अस्ति

10 Introduction. 34. 5. Labials: p, ph, b, bh, m. These are exactly the equi- valents of the English p, b, m. 35. B. Semivowels: y, r, l, v. 1. The palatal semivowel y stands in the closest relationship with the vowel i (short or long): the two exchange with one another in cases innumerable. Very probably the Sanskrit y had everywhere more of an i-character than our y. 36. 2. The r is clearly a lingual sound. It thus resembles the English smooth r, and like this seems to have been untrilled. 37. 3. The l is a sound of dental position, quite as in Euglish. 38. 4. The labial v is pronounced as English or French v by the modern Hindus - except when preceded by a consonant (except r) in the same syllable, when it sounds like English w; and European scholars follow the same practice (with or without the same exception). But strictly tbe v stands related to an u- vowel precisely as y to an i-vowel: that is, it is a w-sound in the English sense, or perhaps more like the ou in French oui. The rules of Sanskrit euphony affecting this sound, and the name “semi- vowel”, have no application except to such a w-sound: a v-sound (German w) is no semivowel, but a spirant, like the English th- sounds and f. The four senii volvers are always conint fcorr.' 39. C. Sibilants: $, ș, s. 1. The s is of plain character: a dental, and exactly like the English s (as in lesson — never as in ease). 40. 2. The ș is the sibilant pronounced in the lingual position. It is, therefore, a kind of sh-sound, and by Europeaus is pronounced as ordinary English sh, no attempt being made to give it its proper lingual quality. 41. 3. The ç is by all native authorities described as palatal. It is the usual sh-sound of English, though the Hindus are said VOW Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ®