mentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyāsa which itself is a commen- tary on Jayāditya's Kāśikā.
उप् a technical term in the jainendra Grammar for the terms लुप् and लुक्; cf. अन्तरङ्गानपि विधीन् बहिरङ्ग उप् बाधते. Jain. Pari. 85, प्रकृतिग्रहणे यङुबन्तस्यापि ग्रहणम् Jain Pari. 20.
उपकादि a class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children etc. ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; cf. उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लाम- कायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
उपगीत a fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoin- ing such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; cf. प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Pradīpa on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.
उपग्रह a term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmane- pada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मने- पदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahā- bhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेश- व्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-
पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादी- न्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in an- cient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
उपचार (l) taking a secondary sense; implication; lit. moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; cf. आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । M. Bh. I.1.1. Vārt. 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : cf. प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārt. 7.
उपजन lit.origin; one that originates, augment, उपजायते असौ उपजन: । The