attached; cf. also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetori- cians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or conven- tion which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; cf. 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
अर्थगति comprehension of sense; cf. अर्थगत्यर्थः शब्दप्रयोगः अर्थे संप्रत्याययिष्या- मीति शब्दः प्रयुज्यते M. Bh. on P. I. 1.44, III.1.7 etc.
अर्थग्रहण use of the word 'अर्थ'; cf. अर्थग्रहणं करोति तज्ज्ञापयत्याचार्यः M. Bh. on I.1.11.
अर्थनिर्देश mention or specification of sense. cf. अवश्यमुत्तरार्थमर्थनिर्देशः कर्तव्यः M. Bh. IV.1.92.
अर्थवद्ग्रहणपरिभाषा a well known maxim or Paribha of gramma- rians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थ- कस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'
अर्थाभिधान conveyance or expression of sense, cf. अर्थाभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् P. I.2.64 Vārt. 38. It is only a nature of words that they convey their sense.
अर्धक a fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. अर्धह्रस्वम् ex- plained as ह्रस्वस्यार्धम्-half the utter- ance of the short vowel; cf. तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P. I.2.32. cf. also तस्यादिरुच्चैस्तरामुदात्तादनन्तरं यावदर्द्धे ह्रस्वस्य Tai. Pr. I.44.
अर्धजरतीय a queer combination of half the character of one and half of another, which is looked upon as a fault; cf. न चेदानीमर्धजरतीयं लभ्यं वृद्धिर्मे भविष्यति स्वरो नेति । तद्यथा । अर्धं जरत्याः कामयते अर्धं नेति; M.Bh. on IV. 1.78; cf. also अर्ध जरत्याः पाकाय अर्धं च प्रसवाय ।
अर्धमात्रा half of a mātra or 'mora'., cf. अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utter- ance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.
अर्धमात्रिक taking for its utterance the time measured by the utterance of half a mātrā or mora; a conso- nant, as it requires for its utte- rance that time which is measured by half a mātrā (mātrā being the time required for the utterance of short अ); cf. R. Pr. I.16, T. Pr.I.37, V. Pr. I.59.
अर्धर्चादि a group of words given in P.II.4.31 which are declined in both the masculine and the neu- ter genders; c.g. अर्धर्चः,अर्धर्चमू, यूथः, यूथम्; गृहः गृहम्, etc.; cf अर्धर्चाः पुंसिं च P.II.4.31.
अर्धविसर्ग a term used for the Jihvā- mūliya and Upadhmāniya into which a visarga is changed when followed by the letters क्, ख, and the letters प्, फ् respectively.