INTRODUCTION xxiii The Asmaka country (or Asmaka Janapada) is mentioned in both Hindu and Buddhist literatures, where it means either (i) a country in the north-west of India, or (ii) a country lying between the rivers Narmada and Godavar*. The Asmaka of Bhaskara I was evidently the latter one. As regards the personal history of Bhaskara I, it appears from his works that he was a Brahmana, a worshipper of God &va. He seems to have been a teacher by profession, in which capacity he earned a great name and fame. Later writers have shown their respect to him by addressing him by the epithet guru. Thus Sahkaranarayana, in the beginning of his commentary on the Laghu-Bftiiskariya, says : "Having paid homage by lowering my head to Acarya Aryabhata, Varahamihira, hnmadguru Bhaskara, Govinda, and Haridatta, one after the other, I give out ... ***■ So also says Udayadivakara : "Having bowed to Muiari, the Lord of the entire world, and also having paid respectful homage to Acarya Aryar bhata, I write an extensive exposition of the smaller work on astronomy composed by guru Bhaskara." 2 The professional ability of Bhaskara I is clearly evinced by his works which were studied in India up to the end of the fifteenth century A. D. (or even after) and on which a number of commentaries were written. His commentary on the Arya- bhailya, in particular, has been recognized as a work of great scholarship, and he has been called sarvajna bKisyakHra ("all- knowing commentator*' ) .
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