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54 Therefore, Therefore But, from i. 16, In the triangle ABC, we have where 8 is the Sun's declination, and ; the 1atitude of the place. AC = Rsin ० , Therefore and ZACB = 90°, AB = Rsin{Sun's agra), Rsin (Sun's agra) = Rcos where x is the Sun's tropical longitude. [See rule 21 above.1 SA = Rsim a , AB Now in the triangle SAB, right-arngled at A, we have and 4८ SBA = 90"-4. Rऽin 8 C0S Rsin x R x -, using (1), (1) (2), where ८ is the Sun's altitude. This formula can also be derived directly by considering th८ triangle SAC. The formula for the shadow of the grommon easily follows from the shadow triangle. The condition that “the Rsine of the Sun's northern declimation should the R७ine of the latitude" is necessary for the of be less than existence