DIRECTION, PLACE AND TIME FROM SHADOW Determination of the directions with the help of the shadow of a 1. The north and south directions should be determined by means of the fish-figure constructed with the two points where the end of the shadow of the gnommon, situated at the centre of an arbitrary circle (drawn on the ground) meets that circle (in the foremoon and in the aftermoon). Let ENWS (See Fig.3) be the circle drawn on the ground, and CO) its centre where the grnommon is situated. Let W be the point where the shadow of the grnommon enters into the circle in the foremoon arid B the point where the shadow passes out of the circle in the aftermoon. Then W and B are Fig. 3 the points where the end of the shadow of the grnommon meets the circle in the foremoon and aftermoon respectively. Join EW . The line EW, is directed cast to west. With B, as centre and with a radius greater than E,W, draw an arc of a circle, and with W1 as centre and with the same radius draw another arc cutting the former at the points N, and S. Join N, and S. The line NS, is directed north to south. Let the line N,S. meet the circle in the points N and S and the line through O drawn paralle to E.W, in B and W. Then B, W, N and S are respectively the east, west, morth and south directions with respect to the point (O.