x11 The Vedanta says that the world is a mere dream, implying thereby that it has no real and permmanent existence. 'The very same truth has been established, though by a different method, in modern times. Kant has proved that the whole world is contained within these three forms of thought, viz, time, space, and causality A thing must exist in time and space, and must be the cause or effect of some other thing. These are, therefore, the three ulti mlate categories to which all the phenomena of the world could be reduced. Now, time, space, and causality had been considered by all philosophers before Kant to have an objective existence. But Kant detected the fallacy of this position, and proved that time, space, and causality are merely the subjective forms of the intellect (बुद्धिनिर्माण, that is, they exist only in the mind. And he came to the curious conclusion that we can never know things as they really are in themselves, because of our own intellects which build up mask after mask, veil after veil, between us and the objects, if such there be which we are trying to behold in the white light of truth. So that, to know anything as it is, the thing-in-itself as Kant called it, -we must take it out of time, out of space and away from theidea of causality; and what is left, if any . thing is left, is the thing-in-itself. Kant supposed that the thing left after this triple unveiling would be what we call Force; though what Force is, is one of those things nobody knows. So argued Kant. Hebelieved to have thereby overthrown Metaphysics for ever, Then comes the vital contribution of Schopenhauer to Ger man philosophy. We can not conceive Force or the 'Thing-in• itself; but that does not matter, for we are that Force, that Thing• in-itself. The will in us is the Thing-in-itself, the Reality, the Force behind phenomena, and it is the passage of the will through the triple prison of the intellect, with its three sides—tinune, space, and causality-that gives rise to the many coloured world Dr. Deussen writes :No sculptor's chisel, no poet's hymn can worthily celebrate him "(Schopenhauer) for it.'” (P. 97). Mr.
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