पृष्ठम्:A Sanskrit primer (1901).djvu/३३

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Introduction. 17 Verbal Adjectives and Substantives. 66. Participles. The participles belongiug to the tense-systems have been already indicated in the table at $64. There is, besides, a participle formed directly from the root of the verb, which is prevailingly of past and passive (sometimes neuter) meaning. Moreover, future passive participles, or gerundives, of several different formations, are made, but without connection with the future-stemis. 67. Infinitive. The classical Sanskrit has a single infinitive. It is really an accusative case of a verbal noun, having nothing whatever to do with the tense-systems. 68. Geruud. A so-called gerund, or absolutive, is especially frequent, and is, like the infinitive, a stereotyped case-form (in- strumental) of a derivative verbal noun. Its value is that of au indeclinable active participle, with indeterminate, but oftenest past, temporal force. LCO S 2 Secondary Conjugations. 69. The secondary conjugations are as follows: 1. Passive; 2. Intensive; 3. Desiderative; 4. Causative. In these, not the simple root, but a conjugation-stem, underlies the whole system of inflections. Yet in them all is plainly visible the character of a present-system, expanded into a more or less complete conjuga- tion; the passive is palpably a present-system. Compare § 58–59. 70. Under the same general head belong: 5. Denominative conjugation, which results from the conversion of noun-stews, both substantive and adjective, into conjugation-stems; 6. Compound con- jugation, resulting from the prefixion of prepositions to roots, or from the addition of auxiliary verbs to noun-stems; and 7. Periphrastic conjugation, from the looser combination of auxiliaries with verbal nouns and adjectives. Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 2 Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ®