पृष्ठम्:A Sanskrit primer (1901).djvu/२०

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एतत् पृष्ठम् अपरिष्कृतम् अस्ति

Introduction. the whole of it; tbe hooks were only later prolonged, so as to reach all the way down beside the consonant. Observe that the i-books and the u-hooks, respectively above and below the line, are analogous in turning to the left for the short vowel and to the right for the long. 4. u and ū: gi ku. gcu. a bu. — ar kū. T cũ. bhū. Owing to the necessities of combination, consonant and vowel-sign are sometimes disguised; thus, & du, 5 dû; Tru, rū; or hu, Ę hū. 5. ? and ?: 5 kr. pr. – a kř. tř. With the h-sign, the vowel - book is usually attached to the middle; thus, hr. 6. !: okļ. 7. Diphthongs. e: a ke, û pe. ê ye. ãi: â kāi. û dhāi. |_0: को ko. भो bho. du: कौ kanu. रौ rau. In some printed texts the signs for o and āu are separated, the = or A being placed over the consonant-sign, and not over the perpendicular stroke; thus, ant ko, at kāu. 8. A consonant-sign may be made to signify the sound of that consonant alone, without an added vowel, by writing beneath it a stroke called the virāma (“ rest', 'stop'); thus, a k, ah, ad. Strictly, the cirāma should be used only at the end of a sentence; but it is often used by scribes, or in print, in the middle of a word or sentence, to avoid awkward or difficult combinations; thus, fecrat: liabhiḥ. forzą lițsu. 9. Under B. The combinations of consonants are in general not difficult. The perpendicular and horizontal lines are common to almost all; and if two or more are to be combined, the following method is pursued. The characteristic part of a consonant-sign that is to be added to another is taken (to the exclusion of the perpendicular or of the horizontal framing - line, or of both), and they are put together according to convenience, either side by side, OL Y SO Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ®