धिकरणे P.II.2.1 and the following P.II.2.2 and 3; c.g पूर्वकायः, अपरकायः, अर्धपिप्पली etc.
अंशुगण, also अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tat- puruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. cf. P. VI.2.193.
अः ( : ) visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha. cf. अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चार- णार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
अ (ೱ) क् (ೱ) जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha who remarks वज्रा- कृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvā- mūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
अ ೱ प् (ೱ) Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an ele- phants stated by Durgasiṁha who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It
is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nom. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् T. Pr. I. 23.
अक् ( 1 ) condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar cf. P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remn- ant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.
अक (1) affix अक substituted for the afiix वु given in Pāṇini's Grammar as ण्वुच् as in अाशिका,शायिका (P.III. 3.111); ण्वुल् as in कारकः, भोजको व्रजति, विचर्चिका (P.III.1.133, III.3. 10,108); वुच् as in उपकः (P.V.3.80); वुञ् as in निन्दकः, राजकम्, भालवकः (P. III.2.146, IV.2.39, 53 etc.); वुन् as in प्रवकः, सरकः; क्रमकः, पदकः. III.1.149, IV.2.6l etc.
अकङ् substitute ( अादेश ) for the last letter of the word मुधातृ prescribed along with the tad. affix इञ् by P. IV.1.97. e.g. सौघातकिः
अकच् affix prescribed before the last syllable of pronouns and indeclin- ables without any specific sense for it (P.V.3.71) e. g. सर्वकः, उच्चकैः etc.
अकथित not mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-