A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
अ (1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived langua- ges, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an aug- ment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perf. sec.pl.and first and third pers.sing.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed espe- cially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा etc.cf. अ प्रत्ययात् etc. (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 e.g. अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. e.g. भवति, तुदति etc.; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; e.g. द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the im- perf. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् cf. P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, etc. in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī; (9) tad. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ etc. in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम
before case-affixes beginning with the ins. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonantn (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
अं (ं) nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot above the vowel preceding it. cf. स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. cf. T. Pr. V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or re- tained as n (न्). cf. P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as des- cribed in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also R. Pr.1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classicalSanskrit.
अंशिसमास the same as एकदेशिसमास or अवयवसमास or अवयवषष्ठीतत्पुरुष prescribedby the rule पूर्वापराधरोत्तरोमकदेशिनैका-